Texas Almanac, 1943-1944 Page: 43
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TEXAS CHRONOLOGY 43
Ico City for trial Later released through
intercession of United States.
Sam Houston's second term as President
began Dec. 13 More amicable policy toward
Indians and Mexico pursued.
Mexican army crossed Rio Grande in March.
seized San Antonio, Victoria, Goliad and
Refugio, but retired after few days' occupa-
tion. Followed to Rio Grande by a force
under Gen. Alexander Somervell who turned
back, except force of 300 who crossed border
and attacked town of Mier. During Mexican
occupation of San Antonio, a Texas company
from La Grange, under Capt. Nicholas M.
Dawson, had been surrounded and practically
Col. William S. Fisher and Texans surren-
dered at Mier. While being marched to Mex-
ico City as prisoners they escaped at Salado
and were recaptured and every tenth man
was executed as result of the famous drawing
of the black beans. Capt. Ewen Cameron also
executed for heading break for liberty. The
others were taken to Mexico City and held in
the Castle of Perote. Thirty-five of them
were later released.
"Archive War" brought about by removal
of seat of government from Austin to Hous-
ton, in December. As a result, the seat of
government was moved to Washington-on-the-
Brazos but was returned to Austin in 1844.
Gen. Adrian Woll invaded Texas, Septem-
ber, retreating after engagements at San
Snively Expedition into New Mexico to cap-
ture wagon train on Santa Fe Trail. Broken
up by United States soldiers after crossing
into United States territory.
Members of Mier Expedition released, Sept.
16, after 17 cut of 159 executed earlier In
Anson Jones becomes President of Repub-
lic, Dec. 9.
Armistice signed with Mexico, but it was
repealed by Mexico in 1845 when Treaty of
Annexation was signed.
Annexation bill passed by United States
Congress in February.
Following favorable vote on annexation by
special session of Texas Congress, a conven-
tion at Austin, called by President Jones,
ratified annexation and wrote State Constitu-
tion, July 4, which the people approved
New State Constitution of Texas accepted
by Congress of United States, Dec. 29. (This
has been declared by the Supreme Court of
the United States as the actual date of annex-
ation.) Texas entered the Union as the twen-
ty-eighth state. 1846
Jones retired as President, Feb. 16; suc-
ceeded by J. Pinckney Henderson as first
Governor after annexation.
Sam Houston and Thomas J. Rusk first
United States Senators from Texas.
Following annexation of Texas. Mexico
broke off diplomatic relations with the United
Gen. Zachary Taylor's forces repulsed Mex-
ican troops at Palo Alto near Brownsville,
Battle of Resaca de la Palma, May 9, near
Brownsville. Thereafter the Mexicans with-
drew across the Rio Grande. United States
forces under Gen. Zachary Taylor and Win-
field Scott invaded Mexico.
War declared on Mexico by United States,
May 12. 1847
Mexico City captured by United States
forces, Sept. 14.
George T. Wood succeeded Henderson as
Governor of Texas, Dec. 21, 1847. His admin-
istration devoted primarily to organization of
civil government in Texas.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed, Feb.
2, concluding Mexican War. Mexico relin-
quished all claims to Texas, and also her
especial claim to the area between the Nueces
and Rio Grande. Mexico ceded to the United
States lands between Texas and the Louisiana
Purchase on the east and the Pacific coast
on the west, the United States paying $15,-
P. Hansborough Bell became Governor Dec.
21, succeeding Governor Wood.
Texas sold to United States its claims to
lands in present New Mexico, Oklahoma,
Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming for $10,000,-
000 as one of provisions of the Compromise
Company organized for building of first
railroad in Texas. Promoted primarily by
Gen. Sidney Sherman.
Construction begun on Texas' first railroad.
the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos & Colorado Rail-
Bell resigned as Governor to become Con-
gressman, Nov. 23 and was succeeded by
Lieut. Gov. J. W. Henderson until Dec. 21,
Elisha M. Pease became Governor, Dec. 21.
Public school system of Texas begun under
administration of Gov. E. M. Pease; $2,000.000
of the $10,000,000 received by Texas from
United States placed in school fund, large
grants made from public domain. Permanent
school fund established.
Sam Houston influential in having 1.280
acres given to Alabama and Coushatta Indians
in the Big Thicket in eastern part of Polk
Cart War between Texas and Mexican
teamsters on freight route between San An-
tonio and Gulf ports.
Know-Nothing Party came into prominence
in Texas. It opposed immigration and had as
its slogan: "America for the Americans."
Hardin R. Runnels became Governor, Dec.
21. Increasing bitterness over the question of
slavery and secession clouded his administra-
Sam Houston defeated Runnels for Gov-
ernor; took office Dec. 21.
Convention met in Austin at call of number
of citizens on Jan. 28 and on Feb. 1 passed
Ordinance of Secession, withdrawing from
United States and joining Confederacy. This
was ratified by the people, Feb. 23.
Juan Cortinas, Mexican freebooter, captured
Brownsville and other points, but was driven
back by Texas Rangers.
Edward Clarke, Lieutenant Governor, sworn
in to take Houston's place as Governor,
March 16, Houston's tenure having been de-
clared ended because he refused to take the
oath of office to the Confederacy. Houston
had opposed secession.
Frank R. Lubbock succeeded Clarke as Gov-
ernor Nov. 7.
Expedition under Gen. H. H. Sibley, early
in year, captured Santa Fe. N.M., but effort
thwarted by arrival of superior United States
Galveston taken by United States forces,
Galveston retaken by Confederate soldiers
under General Magruder, Dec. 31 and Jan. 1.
Federal forces repulsed at Sabine Pass by
Lieut. Dick Dowling. September.
Pendleton Murrah succeeded Lubbock as
Governor, Nov 5.
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Texas Almanac, 1943-1944, book, 1943; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117165/m1/45/: accessed October 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.