Texas Almanac, 1943-1944 Page: 47
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in Texas including Camp Travis at San An-
tonio, Camp Bowie at Fort Worth, Camp
McArthur at Waco, and Camp Logan at
Houston. Principal flying fields were Kelly
Field at San Antonio. Love Field at Dallas
and Ellington Field at Houston. Fort Sam
Houston at San Antonio was center of mili-
tary activities in the area. The Thirty-Sixth
and Ninetieth Texas divisions served at the
fighting front in France, also several Texas
companies in the Forty-Second.
Under Hobby's administration free text-
books for schools were provided and the state
per capita apportionment for public schools
was jumped from $7.50 to $14 50. marking the
beginning of liberal state support of schools.
State Board of Control was established during
One of most severe drouths in Texas his-
tory caused almost complete loss of crops,
especially in West Texas.
Prohibition amendment to Federal Consti-
tution ratified by Texas Legislature, Feb. 28.
Prohibition amendment to State Constitu-
tion submitted by Thirty-Sixth Legislature
and adopted at an election, May 24, by vote
of 158,982 to 130,907.
Pat M. Neff defeated former United States
Senator Joseph Weldon Bailey and others in
a stirring race, the first after the amendment
of the election law to require a run-off pri-
mary in event no candidate obtained a ma-
jority in the first primary. In the run-off
contest Neff defeated Bailey 264,075 to 184,-
Gov. Pat M. Neff succeeded Governor Hob-
by, Jan. 18; served two terms, until Jan. 20,
State Parks Board established; first defi-
nite step toward establishment of State Parks
Mrs. Miriam A. Ferguson defeated Felix D.
Robertson, leading opponent, and seven oth-
ers in primaries. Principal issue was the
Ku Klux Klan which had attained political
prominence in Texas, and supported Robert-
son. In the first hotly contested Governor's
race for support in the general election Mrs.
Ferguson defeated George C. Butte, Repub-
lican nominee but supported largely by bolt-
Mrs. Miriam A. Ferguson became first
woman Governor of Texas, Jan. 20.
Dan Moody became Governor, Jan. 17, after
having defeated Mrs. Ferguson, standing for
re-election, in a hotly contested campaign.
Moody served two terms, until Jan. 20, 1931.
Reorganization of the Highway Commission
and the beginning of effective program of
highway construction was an outstanding
accomplishment of the Moody administration.
Ross S. Sterling succeeded Governor Moody.
Jan. 20 He had served as chairman of the
State Highway Commission under Governor
Moody and continued Moody's policy of non-
political appointments to the commission.
The economic depression which had begun
In north and east late in 1929 became severe
in Texas where affects had hitherto been re-
sisted to a degree.
Mrs. Miriam A. Ferguson again became
Governor, Jan. 17, after having defeated Gov-
ernor Sterling In the primaries of the pre-
Constitutional amendment adopted issuing
bread bonds for relief for sufferers from
economic depression This was first increase
in the state debt since adoption of the Con-
stitution of 1876.
First of amendments to State Constitution
annulling prohibition adopted by the people,
Aug. 26, permitting sale of 3.2 per cent wines
Prohibition repealed by amendment sub-
mitted by the Forty-Fourth Legislature and
adopted by the people Aug. 24.
James V. AlIred became Governor, Jan. 15,
served two terms, until Jan. 17. 1939.
During his terms several constitutional
amendments adopted including those provid-
ing old-age pensions, teachers retirement
fund and increase of salaries of Governor
and number of other state administrative
officers from the low levels that had been
set by the Constitution o 1876.
Texas Centennial, celebrating winning of
independence from Mexico in 1836, celebrated.
Central Centennial Exposition at Dallas with
other expositions at Fort Worth, and other
W. Lee O'Daniel won governorship in first
and second primaries and general election
over such well-known political figures as
Attorney General William McCraw, Railroad
Commissioner Ernest O Thompson and Tom
F. Hunter. O'Daniel had hitherto been un-
known politically but campaigned on a plat-
form consisting of the Golden Rule and with
the slogan of throwing out the professional
politicians, accompanied by his "Hillbilly
band." He also promised increased old-age
pensions and his first term was character-
ized by futile strife in the Legislature over
an omnibus tax bill, known as Senate Joint
Resolution 12, which eventually failed of
passage. Governor O'Daniel was re-elected in
1940, but resigned in midterm after winning
the race for the place of Senator Morris Shep-
pard who had died. Lt. Gov. Coke R. Steven-
son succeeded to the unexpired term, and was
elected to a full term in 1942, at which time
Senator O'Daniel was re-elected to the United
States Senate in a stirring contest with two
former Governors, Dan Moody and James V.
Allred, running off the second race with the
Pearl Harbor bombed by Japanese. Dec. 7,
1941, beginning of participation of the United
States in World War II. By January, 1943.
Texas had more than 300.000 men in armed
services and led the nation in per capita
enlistments. Probably larger number of men
in training in Texas camps than in any other
state: many large war industries erected
vitally changing Texas economy. (See chap-
ters on war activities and industry on other
FORMER NAMES OF TEXAS.
In the preceding "Chronology of Texas." it
Is related that Texas acquired its name from
the Teas Indians. and that the name was
first applied in 1690 by members of the ex-
pedition of Alonso de Leon. (See page 40.)
Prior to this time several different names
had been applied in a vague way to the land
that is Texas today, or parts of Texas. There
are some early references that extend Florida
as far westward as the Rio de las Palmas
(Rio Grande) which would include Texas.
Pineda (1519) called the land between Florida
and Mexico Amichel. The early Spanish
Province of Panuco was considered as extend-
ing over a large part of South Texas at one
time, and later maps show much of Southern
Texas, together with much of Northern Mex-
ico marked New Philippines. Upland Texas
was vaguely designated Cibola and Quivira at
times. Although the same Tejas was applied
in 1690. the present Great Plains and Trans-
Pecos regions and the Edwards Plateau as
far east as San Angelo were considered parts
of the Province of Santa Fe.
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Texas Almanac, 1943-1944, book, 1943; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117165/m1/49/: accessed November 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.