Texas Almanac, 1943-1944 Page: 94
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Pliocene, Miocene, and
Gulf series '
Comanche series of the
Jurassic and Triassic
Ordovician, Cambrian, and
/ < Yr Pre-Cambrian
Cenozoic, Cretaceous, and
' undifferentiated igneous
Texas is a region of complex earth structures as indicated by the outcropping rocks of
different geologic ages. Map shows the areas in which the principal outcroppings occur. It is
a reduction of the Geologic Map of Texas, by E. H. Sellards, W. S. Adkins and F. B. Plummer
of the Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas.
syncline (See right-hand part of chart. p.
95) and its subordinate East Texas Embay-
ment and Rio Grande embayment; third, the
mountains of the Rocky Mountain system,
framing the west edge of the Permian Basin
(west edge of the chart on p. 95) and of
the Coastal plains of northern Mexico; fourth.,
the Amarillo-Wichita-Muenster Mountains;
and fifth, the broad complicated zone which
lies between the Permian Basin on the north-
west and the Gulf Coastal Plain on the south-
east. This zone comprises the Marathon and
associated mountains, the Bend Arch, the
Central Mineral Region, and in part the
Ouachita (Pennsylvanian) geosyncline and the
folded roots of the Llanorian Mountains in it.
(See center section of chart, p. 95.)
Reservoirs of Wealth.
The geologic activity of the ages has had
an important bearing on the economic life of
Texas of today because of the soils produced
by the weathering of the stone and because
of the deposits of minerals that today make
Texas the leading state in mineral produc-
tion. The abundant fuel resources of Texas-
oil, gas, coal and lignite- came from the ma-
rine life and the dense plant growth that
flourished alternately as ancient Texas exist-
ed beneath the surface of the sea and as dry
land. The folding, bending and faulting of
strata caused the oil to collect in pools and
stand until man's inventive genius sent drill-
ing tools down to release it for use. The salt
domes of the coast country-great pillars that
rise from unknown depths almost to the sur-
face-have formed oil pools and also brought
near the surface deposits of sulphur that
make Texas one of the greatest sulphur-pro-
ducing areas of the world.
A varied and highly valuable quantity of
igneous and sedimentary stone has been be-
queathed by the long succession of geologic
ages that have seen molten matter flow
through fissures in the earth's crust, and
stratum after stratum of sedimentary matter
deposited as the land emerged from the sea,
sank and rose again, and mountains were
thrust upward to be eroded to level plains.
Sand and porous stone strata sealed by clays
and hard stone are the reservoirs of Texas'
great underground water supply.
Geology, once a highly academic and theo-
retical science, is today one of great practical
significance. At the same time, geology has
progressed from a status of guesswork and
assumption based on surface indications to
one of relatively definite information, due
largely to the drilling of deep wells for pe-
troleum. Because of the widespread drilling
in Texas, there is much concrete information
about the intricate layers and folds of earth
structure that lie deep beneath the surface.
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Texas Almanac, 1943-1944, book, 1943; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117165/m1/96/: accessed January 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.