Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 44
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Outline of the History of Texas
As the year 1945 closes and the follow- the afternoon of April 21, 1836, the
ing New Year begins, Texas will cele- boundary line of Anglo-America was
brate her Centennial of Statehood. It swept westward and southward to the
was on Dec. 29, 1845, that the United Rio Grande, and by consequent events
States Congress adopted a resolution of the next decade this boundary was
accepting the new State Constitution of moved on across the Rockies to the
Texas. This has been declared by the waters of the Pacific. Insofar as the
United States Supreme Court the date of boundaries of the United States are con-
annexation, for legal purposes. But it cerned, San Jacinto was as decisive as
was not until Feb. 19, 1846, that Presi- was Gettysburg.
dent Anson Jones of the Republic of This metamorphosis of Latin into An-
Texas retired in favor of Gov. J. Pinck- glo-American Texas furnishes a thread
ney Henderson, and the Stars and Stripes of continuity in the plot of early Texas
replaced the Lone Star Flag at the Capi- history; and its Influence is found today
tol in Austin. This was generally ac- indelibly impressed upon Texas culture.
cepted by Texans of that day as the date Under Six Flags.
of annexation. The Centennial of State- It has not been a simple plot that has
hood celebration has been planned to unfolded to produce the Texas of today,
extend through the period of the move- but an intricate one with far-reaching
ment for annexation which began offi- causes and effects. It has been one of
cially with a favorable vote by the much vicissitude and tragedy, especially
Texas Congress, followed by the adop- in the early and middle periods-one that
tion of the new proposed State Constitu- brought a succession of *six flags while
tion July 4, 1845, and its ratification by sovereignty over Texas changed eight
the people Oct. 13. - times.
Because of the dark shadow of the The sequence of the six flags of Texas
world's greatest conflict and the urgent has been as follows: Spain, 1519-1685;
necessity of conservation of all human France, 1685-1690; Spain, 1690-1821;
and material resources, the Texas Cen- Mexico, 1821-1836; Republic of Texas,
tennial of Statehood will be celebrated 1836-1845; United States, 1845-1861; the
in sober manner. It is planned to be an Southern Confederacy, 1861-1865; United
observance rather than a celebration in States, 1865 to present. The sequence
peole th UntedStaes etted own 7.Te Repbli tof Trexas. 1836-1845.c
the popular sense of these two words. above gives, with respect to the early his-
Such an observance is not without its tory of Texas, eras during which nations
appropriateness even if peacetime condi- of flags indicated actually had the firm-
tions prevailed throughout the world. est hold on Texas soil. For this reason
The Texas of today was wrought from the French period is limited to 1685-
a series of crises that called for sober 1690, though the French claim extended
thought and work. The people of no from 1685 to 1763. The Spanish claim
other American commonwealth have the to Texas extended from 1519 to 1821.
heritage of such a distinctive chronicle Thus there were seventy-nine years of
of tragedy and victory. And the chronicle overlapping Spanish and French claims.
of Texas begins long before statehood. Eras of Development.
BEGINNINGS OF TEXAS However, a logical breaking of the
The two great Americas are divided, history of Texas into eras of political
geographically, at the Isthmus of Pan- and economic development does not re-
ama. Politically and racially, the dividing veal chapters coinciding with the suc-
ama. Politicallyiandraciallyxtheldividing cession of the flags. The history of Tex-
line is at the Rio Grande. Texas lies to- as falls rather naturally into twelve pe-
day on the southern border of Anglo- riods:
America; in its beginning it lay on the 1. Era of the aborigine, as revealed in
northern border of Latin America. archaeological research and the chroni-
At the beginning of the Nineteenth aces of the early explorers-the prehis-
Century Texas was at the vortex of
Spanish, French and Anglo-American 2tory of Texas.
contnih, Fenh N Anl-merica Th 2. The early explorations, beginning
contention in North America. The with Pineda's visit In 1519 and extend-
French effort passed in 1803 with the ing to the beginning of missionary effort
Louisiana Purchase, which extended the in 1690.
boundary line of the United States to 3 Founding of the missions and estab-
theFowesternf hwatershed of esthe
the western watershed of the Mississippi- lishment of Spanish dominion, extending
Missouri basin from 1690 until the secularization of the
Had not Moses Austin and his son, missions in 1793.
Stephen, caught the vision of an Anglo- 4. Decline of Spanish dominion, an
American colony in Texas, and had not era of filibustering expeditions, 1793-
Houston overcome the forces of Santa 1821.
Anna at San Jacinto, Texas and the 5. Establishment of Anglo-American
Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast states colonies, beginning with that of Stephen
probably would have remained perma- F. Austin, 1821-1835.
nently a art of Latin America while the 6. The Texas Revolution, 1835-36.
people of the United States settled down 7. The Republic of Texas, 1836-1845.
to subsistence on the resources of the
Mississippi Valley and the Atlantic Sea- *Some authorities say seven flags, including the
boad. iththeswit carg ofthe Green Flag of the Magee-Gutierrez Expedition,
board. With the swift charge of the which had control of Texas for five months in
Texans across San Jacinto Battlefield on 1813.
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/46/: accessed April 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.