Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 45
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HISTORY OF TEXAS.
8. Statehood prior to the Civil War,
9. Texas in the Confederacy, 1861-1865.
10. Period of Reconstruction, 1865-
11. Period of early economic develop-
ment, 1874 to end of Nineteenth Cen-
12. Beginning of industrialization and
urbanization of Texas, from beginning of
Twentieth Century to the present.
Entering New Era?
Some observers think that Texas today
stands on the threshold of still another
era. As yet events are too close kt. hand
to permit careful judgment, but prob-
ably the light of future history will re-
veal this prediction as having come true.
Due to the great economic depression,
followed by the Second World War,
Texas today faces the necessity of read-
justments in its regional economy which
will bring it to maturity as an industrial-
ized and urbanized state.
INDIAN TRIBES AT COMING
OF WHITE MAN
Usually the written history of Texas
begins with the coming of the early ex-
plorers padres and conquistadores. Ac-
tually it should begin with the aborig-
inal Texans, the Indians. Written his-
tory has usually given this chapter
scant space because there has been
scant information. In recent years,
through the gradual accumulation of
information dug from the archives of the
early explorers and the evidence dug
from the earth by the archaeologists, no-
tably through the work of the late
Prof. J. E. Pearce of the University of
Texas, an appreciable amount of de-
p endable information has been estab-
ished dating back far beyond the ear-
liest visit of the white man.
Recent discoveries have greatly in-
creased the estimates of the length of
time that man has inhabited Texas.
At the time of the coming of the white
man, the Texas region probably was one
of the more thickly populated areas of
North America, exclusive of Central
Climate and indigenous flora and
fauna resources of Texas made it a more
than ordinarily habitable region. The
great herds of buffalo, deer and other
wild animals, the fish of the coast and
inland streams, and the native fruits, the
berries and pecans made maintenance of
life relatively easy. Not only was the
population relatively large, but, even in
that day Texas was characterized by an
outstanding characteristic of today-di-
versity. This diversity of prehistoric cul-
tures grew out of the diversity of soils
and physiographic conditions that have
contributed largely to diversity since the
advent of white men. In prehistoric Tex-
as were represented the cultures of the
Mississippi Valley, the wooded and open
plains and the Rocky Mountains.
Three Indian Eras.
Chronologically, the story of Indians
in Texas falls into three parts:
First, those who passed from the scene
before the coming of the first white man,
leaving to the archaeologist the only evi-
dence of existence; secondly, the Indian
tribes living within the present bounds
of Texas when white men came; thirdly,
the migration into Texas from the east
by groups of aborigines, driven westward
by the impact of white man's advance
from the Atlantic Seaboard, and the de-
cline and passing of all aboriginal peo-
ples, both those who lived in Texas at
the time of the coming of the white man
and those who later moved across the
Research of recent years has brought
to light evidence to prove that Texas is
one of the most fertile fields in North
America for archaeological research.
The importance of Texas in American
archaeology, wrote Prof. J. E. Pearce,
lies in "(1) the fact that the state is in
the heart of a great North American tri-
angle, the apices of which are the cul-
ture centers of the Maya-Aztec area, the
Pueblo area and the Mound-Builder
area; (2) the evidence which it affords
of the relationship between the cultures
of the pronounced natural environments
such as the forested areas, the coasts, the
prairies and the high plains, and (3) the
inherent value of the early Texas cul-
tures in themselves."
The most productive archaeological
sources probably have been the Indian
mounds found in many points in North-
east and East Texas, and on the lower
Coastal Plains. From these have been
taken evidences of varied and, in places,
relatively advanced cultures. Much of
the life habits and migration of prehis-
toric man has been ascertained. From
the kitchen middens of a wide area in
the central portion of the state, and from
the rock shelters in Southwest Texas,
have been taken similar evidences, indi-
cating the prehistoric cultures of this
wide area. Along the Canadian River
and in the breaks of the escarpment on
the east side of the Great Plains is found
evidence of the Pueblo culture of New
In the caves of the Big Bend region in
the Guadalupe, Davis, Hueco, Chisos and
other mountain ranges are evidences of
a culture related to the Basket-Maker or
Pueblo culture of New Mexico. As in the
instance of the Panhandle culture, ar-
chaeologists are disagreed as to whether
it is an extension of Pueblo and Basket-
Maker culture, or whether it is a differ-
ent culture showing the influence of the
New Mexico tribes.
The Great Caddo Family.
The largest group of Indians living in
Texas during the dates, 1690 to 1730, was
that of the Caddo tribes who dwelt in a
crescent-shaped area extending from the
southern extremity of the pine belt in
East Texas, northward up the Trinity
Neches and Sabine Valleys to the Red
River and thence westward along the
Red River to the present Texas Pan-
handle. This great Indian family of
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/47/: accessed August 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.