Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 46
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Location of principal Indian
founding of the Spanish Missions.
subtribes of Texas at time of early explorations and
Caddo stock seemingly was broken into
three major subclassifications: (1) the
Hasinai Confederacy in the lower half of
the Texas Pine Belt and extending across
the Sabine into Louisiana; (2) the Caddo
proper group living in Northeast Texas
and adjacent sections of Arkansas, Louis-
iana and Oklahoma, and (3) the Wichita
group dwelling in the Upper Red River
Valley and on the headwaters of the
The Hasinai Confederacy included the
Nacodoche, Nasoni, Neche, Heinai, Nado-
co and other tribal subclassifications.
They were rather far advanced cultur-
ally, living in permanent homes and cul-
tivating the soil. It was among these
Indians that the first Texas mission in
the east, San Francisco de los Tejas, was
founded, and it was from these Indians
that the word Tejas, apparently meaning
"friendship," and used as a watchword
among the members of this confederacy,
To the north and northeast of the
Hasinai Confederacy was the region of
the tribal groups usually referred to as
the Caddoes proper, including the Grand
Caddoes, Little Caddoes, Nachitoches,
Adaes, Natsoos and other tribes. Like the
related Caddoes to the south they dwelt
in permanent abodes, tilled the soil and
maintained a rather high cultural state.
Early explorers said that there was little
variation among the dialects of the two
The third Caddo group consisted of the
Wichita Confederacy, whose grounds ap-
parently lay along both sides of the Red
River, from the approximate location of
present Grayson County to the east line
of the Panhandle, extending southward
into the upper valley of the Trinity. Sub-
classifications included the Wichitas
proper, Taovayos, Tawakanis (or Tahua-
canas), the Yscanis and others. These
tribes are now accepted as a branch of
the Caddo stock, although their dialects
undoubtedly varied considerably from
those of the lower groups, and their hab-
its were more nomadic.
Gulf Coast Indians.
Along the Gulf Coast, from the Sabine
to the Rio Grande, lay the grounds of
tribes with a sea food economy. Their
cultural status was considerably below
that of the Caddoes. Apparently, they
were seminomadic, although their
ranges were rather limited, and they did
not maintain permanent shelters. Most
of them have left undeniable evidence
of cannibalism in varying degree.
Farthest to the east were the Atta.
capas, dwelling around Sabine Lake and
for a short distance along the channel
of this river to the north. Immediately
to the west lay the Arkokisas and the
Deadoses, dwelling on the coastal
prairies of the Gulf and on the southern
fringes of the Big Thicket. In the Trin-
ity Valley, and immediately north of
Trinity Bay, these three tribal groups,
possibly related, occupied the narrow
area lying between the Gulf Coast on
the south and the Hasinai Confederacy
on the north. To the west were the
Didais. Still farther westward, extend-
ing approximately from Galveston
Island to San Antonio Bay, were the
Karankawas, including the Cujanes, Co-
panes, Coapites, Cocos, Carancaguases
and other tribal subclassifications. From
accounts they were nomadic within their
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/48/: accessed July 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.