Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 71
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HISTORY OF TEXAS.
to protect the border along the Rio
Grande which was menaced by revolu-
tion and lack of stable government in
Mexico, and by passage of legislation of
permanent effect, including the first
eight-hour labor law, the first law regu-
lating number of hours of women labor-
ers, a child labor law, workmen's com-
pensation act, home rule act for cities of
more than 5,000, and certain judicial re-
The administration of James E. Fer-
guson (Jan. 19, 1915, to Aug. 25, 1917)
caused for Texas more political turbu-
lence than any administration since the
Civil War, and brought to Texas the is-
sue of "Fergusonism," which was before
the people almost continuously from 1915
until Mrs. Ferguson's retirement from
her second term as Governor in January,
1935. In his first primary campaign, in
1914, Ferguson defeated Thomas H. Ball,
237,062 to 191,558. Prohibition was the
leading issue, and the campaign was one
of the most spectacular in the history of
the state. Aside from his opposition to
prohibition, Ferguson carried in his
platform demands for greater protection
of farm tenants against landlords, a state
warehouse system and certain other farm
measures. This platform, which was
largely enacted into law during his first
administration, though partly nullified
by the courts later, was the basis of Fer-
guson's continuing popularity among the
tenant farmers, who constituted through
almost twenty years of political ac-
tivity the nucleus of his widely recog-
nized "vest pocket" vote. Ferguson was
nominated for his second term over
Charles H. Morris by a vote of 240,561
to 174,611, and elected. Shortly after the
beginning of his second term, however,
stiff opposition arose to Ferguson poli-
cies and impeachment charges were
preferred against him in a special ses-
sion, called by Governor Ferguson him-
self, in August, 1917. There were twen-
ty-one charges alleging misconduct.
Tried before the Senate in September,
the Governor was found guilty on ten
charges and removed from office.
When Ferguson was removed from of-
fice, Lieut. Gov. William P. Hobby took
the chair. Hobby's administration (Aug.
25, 1917, to Jan. 18, 1921) continued
through the remainder of that term and
the following term to which Hobby was
elected. Although barred from holding
office, Ferguson ran against Hobby in
the primary of 1918, but was defeated,
461,479 to 217,012.
Political agitation over the Ferguson
issue, however, was overshadowed by
war activities. Almost from the begin-
ning of p-rticipation of the United
States in tne world conflict, in April,
1917, Texas played a leading role in
training men for military service as well
as in civil affairs.
Texans in First World War.
A strong and consistent Democratic
state, Texas and Texans came into the
limelight during the memorable Wilson
administration. Col. E. M. House became
known as the trusted adviser of the
President. Two other Texans, Albert S.
Burleson and Thomas W. Gregory, held
the Cabinet positions of Postmaster Gen-
eral and Attorney General, respectively.
Another man, a former Texan and for-
mer president of the University of Texas,
David F. Houston, went from Missouri to
serve, first as Secretary of Agriculture
and later as Secretary of the Treasury.
More than 200,000 Texans saw service
during the World War. The mild winters
and dry climate of Texas brought to its
borders some of the principal training
camps of the nation, including Camp
Travis at San Antonio, Camp Bowie at
Fort Worth, Camp McArthur at Waco,
and Camp Logan at Houston. Texas was
also a center of training for army avia-
tion, with Kelly Field at San Antonio,
Love Field at Dallas, Ellington Field at
Houston, and several other smaller
fields. The Thirty-Sixth and Ninetieth,
Texas divisions, saw service at the
front and there were several Texas com-
anies in the Forty-Second. Fort Sam
Houston at San Antonio and Fort Bliss
at El Paso were centers of military ac-
Under Governor Hobby's administra-
tion the compulsory school law was
strengthened, free textbooks for public
schools were provided, aid for rural
schools was increased and the general
scholastic apportionment was raised
from $7.50 to $14.50. The apportionment
had never been above $7.50 prior to
Hobby's administration and the allot-
ment of $14.50 set a new standard for
measurement of state support of schools.
Middle West Texas suffered the most
severe drouth in its history during 1918
and Governor Hobby was instrumental
in obtaining loans for the farmers of
this region, so that they might prepare
crops for the following year. The laws
establishing the State Board of Control,
the so-called "open port law," aimed at
violence in the longshoremen's strike in
port cities of the state, and the law
establishing a quarantine against pink
bollworm infested areas and providing
funds to pay farmers who were dam-
aged, were among the measures passed
during the Hobby administration. The
state tax rate for general revenue pur-
poses was reduced from 35c to 23c.
Prohibition Amendment Adopted.
The war fervor and the need of pro-
tecting the many military camps in Tex-
as from liquor influences aided the
cause of prohibition. The amendment to
the State Constitution, Sec. 20, Art. 16,
was submitted by the Thirty-Sixth Leg-
islature and adopted at an election May
24, 1919, in which the vote was 158,982
for, and 130,907 against. In the mean-
time, however, the national prohibition
amendment had been submitted, and it
had been ratified by the Legislature of
this state, Feb. 28, 1918.
Despite war activity, Texas' industrial
development continued. Population in-
creased from 3,896,542 in 1910 to 4,663,-
228 in 1920; manufacturing during the
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/73/: accessed January 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.