Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 77
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TEXAS IN SECOND WORLD WAR.
proximately 530.000 Texans in all branches
of the nation's armed services As of that
date, there were in the Army and Air Forces a
total of 372,000 Texas men and 4.306 Texas
women. There had been total accessions of
402,700 men and 6,439 women, and total sep-
arations from these services had been 75,694
men and 2,171 women.
As of October, 1944, there were 174,000
Texans in the United States Navy, Including
women. This total included 7,000 in the
Coast Guard and 22,000 in the Marines. There
were 13,000 officers.
Believed to be a record for a single state,
a compilation late in 1944 disclosed a list of
155 United States Army Generals who were
either born or have resided for a considerable
period in Texas. The list included ranking
men in every theater of actiorl. Foremost is
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, native of Den-
ison, supreme Allied commander in Europe.
Then there were Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger,
commanding ground forces in the Philippines,
whose legal residence is San Antonio: Lt.
Gen. William Hood Simpson, commanding
the Ninth Army in France, native of Weath-
erford and a resident of Aledo, Lt. Gen. L.
K. Truscott, commanding Sixth Army Corps
in France, native of Chatfield; Major Gen.
Claire L. Chennault of the famed Flying
Tigers, native of Commerce; Lt. Gen. Ira
Eaker, commander in chief of the Mediterra-
nean Allied Air Forces, native of Llano
County; Major Gen. George Fleming Moore,
native of Austin and Texas A. & M. alumnus,
taken prisoner at Corregidor, Major Gen.
Benjamin F. Giles, commander of the Army
Air Forces in the Middle East, and his twin
brother, Lt. Gen. Barney, McK. Giles, chief
of the air staff in Washington, both of Dal-
las and natives of Mineola, Brig. Gen. Hay-
wood S. Hansell, chief of staff of the 20th
Bomber Command, which flies Superfor-
tresses, whose parents live in San Antonio.
In the United States Navy, twelve Ad-
mirals are from Texas- Admiral Chester W.
Nimitz, Fredericksburg, commander in chief
of the Pacific fleet; Vice-Admiral Samuel M.
Robinson, Eulogy; Vice-Admiral Adolphus
Andrews, Dallas; Rear Admiral Alexander
Lichenstein, Corpus Christi, Rear Admiral
Spencer Steen Lewis, Calvert; Rear Admiral
James Otto Richardson, Paris, Rear Admiral
Charles E. Rosendahl, Cleburne, Rear Ad-
miral David F. Sellers Austin, Rear Admiral
William R. Munroe, Waco; Rear Admiral Au-
gustin Toutant Beauregard, San Antonio;
Rear Admiral Albert M. Penn, Laredo, and
Rear Admiral William Theodore Tarrant,
born in Mississippi but appointed from
EIGHTH SERVICE COMMAND
Infantry and armored divisions, tank de-
stroyer and railway operating battalions,
anti-aircraft artillery outfits and field hos-
pitals are among the hundreds of organiza-
tions that have trained and are training in
Texas. Servicing and supplying these fight-
ing men and service troops with everything
from arms and clothing to medical care and
opportunity for religious worship is a gigan-
tic task which has fallen to the Army Serv-
Headquarters of the ASF in the Southwest
is located in Dallas. The Eighth Service
Command is the operating agency In Texas,
Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and New
The Eighth Service Command entered the
year 1945 with fourteen big camps, five gen-
eral hospitals and scores of other installa-
tions in Texas alone.
Three old border posts had been placed in
a surplus category in 1944-Fort Brown at
Brownsville, Fort Clark at Brackettville and
Fort Ringgold at Rio Grande City. But
Camps Howze and Maxey had advanced in-
fantry replacement training centers estab-
lished late in 1944. Camp Hood had added
infantry training to its tank destroyer cen-
ter, Fort Bliss had become the anti-aircraft
artillery training center of the country, Fort
Sam Houston had added the Adjutant Gen-
eral's school and the Provost Marshal Gen-
eral's school, and Camp Barkeley's huge
Army Service Forces training center, where
the medical department trains its men, was
active early in 1945.
Other activities of the Eighth Service Com-
mand were becoming increasingly pressing at
the start of 1945. The general hospitals were
receiving more of the wounded from over-
seas, giving them specialized medical and
surgical care and fitting them either for re-
turn to duty or to a useful place in civil life.
More than a score of prisoner of war camps
were in operation, supplying labor in agricul-
ture and industry where labor shortages pre-
Two large personnel centers had plans
ready to handle the flow of personnel from
the Army in the deployment period, as well
as future inductions.
Problems of supply, transportation, hous-
ing and management of military personnel
will remain throughout the demobilization
period, when that arrives. Quartermaster,
ordnance, chemical warfare, engineers, sig-
nal corps, medical corps and transportation
corps will have tasks remaining after the
last shot is fired
These tasks occupy the technical services
and the staff divisions of the Eighth Service
Command, and their field agencies at the
posts and camps. Barracks and roads and
firing ranges must be maintained, station
hospitals and post exchanges and motor pools
operated, food secured and distributed, and
replacements trained for the men returning
to this country after months of service in the
Service Command headquarters moved to
Dallas on Dec. 1, 1942. from Fort Sam Hous-
ton in San Antonio. Under command of Ma.
jor Gen. Richard Donovan, its multiple mili-
tary agencies operate the Army's camps so
that field forces may be left free to train.
They operate utilities, maintain buildings.
guard and police camps. They procure, store
and issue clothing, food, arms, ammunition,
equipment and supplies of all kinds.
Protection of war plants against sabotage
and espionage is another function of the
command. Other services are as follows:
It operates the Army side of selective serv-
ice, processing all recruits through the re-
ception centers: it is in the law business,
judge advocates advising commanding offi-
cers on legal matters, it runs the Army
Exchange Service, which provides retail
stores where military personnel may buy
toothbrushes, insignia, ice cream and socks,
it provides service clubs and recreational fa-
cilities, including movies; it provides chapels
and chaplains; it repairs and reissues every-
thing from automobiles and trucks to tents
and clothing, and it administers military po-
lice activities in cities and on trains.
To the. five general hospitals in Texas and
the five in the other four states of the com-
mand's territory come wounded and ill sol-
diers from Europe and the Pacific. After
all that medicine and surgery can do has
been done, and even while they are receiving
treatment, these men enter upon a recondi-
tioning program designed to restore both
minds and bodies to healthy activity.
War Department Personnel Centers have
been set up at Fort Sam Houston and Fort
Bilss to process men and women both in and
out of the Army. They consist of induction
stations and reception centers long located
at those posts, reception stations which re-
ceive men returning from overseas and sep-
aration centers which return them to civil
life. Fort Sam Houston has an Army Ground
and Services Forces Redistribution Station.
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/79/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.