Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 80
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80 TEXAS ALMANAC -1945-1946.
The primary purpose of the Fourth Army,
headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, is the
training of troops for combat duty overseas.
In nine states-Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma,
Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Wis-
consin and Mississippi-the Fourth Army is
supervising the preparation of men and units
for their supreme test which will come when
they go Into action against the enemy.
So far as Texas is included, the Fourth
Army has troops at the following posts:
Fort Sam Houston and Camps Barkeley,
Bowie, Hood, Howze, Maxey and Swift.
Fourth Army trained troops at the end of
1944 were in action throughout the world,
and the former Fourth Army headquarters,
redesignated the Ninth Army and shipped
from Fort Sam Houston in the spring of
1944, was conducting operations against Ger-
many. The Fourth Army produces men and
units trained, completely equipped and fully
confident for battle. This training starts
with the individual and progresses until that
individual is an integral part of a highly
complicated military machine. Fourth Army
training is devised to prepare staff officers
as well as combat troops for their ultimate
use against the enemy.
The latest tricks of the fighting trade are
taught to Fourth Army troops. Many of
the Army's staff officers and instructors are
men who have already seen extensive com-
bat in Europe and the Pacific.
A second mission of the Army-and one
that became increasingly secondary as the
Japanese and Germans were forced from the
offensive to the defensive-was to act in
event of an enemy attack either along the
Gulf of Mexico or the Mexican border. De-
fense of Texas would have been one of the
Fourth Army's duties should the need have
SOUTHERN DEFENSE COMMAND
The Southern Defense Command, activated
July 7, 1941, to handle all matters concerning
defense of Gulf Coast, Mexican border areas
in event of enemy attack, was absorbed by
Eastern Defense Command, Jan 1, 1945. Lt.
Gen. George Grunert, commanding Eastern
Defense Command, headquarters New York
City, established southwestern sector with
headquarters at Fort Sam Houston under com-
mand of Brig. Gen. Raymond H. McQuillan.
States absorbed in consolidated command
included Texas, Alabama, Tennessee, Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New
Mexico and part of Florida.
It would be difficult to detail what be-
came of all units in the historic Third Army,
which trained in Texas during the early
ears of the war and which Texans came to
now so well. The Third Army which
formed in France in the middle of 1944 was
not the Third which Texans had come to
know more than a decade. It was formed
from units in various parts of the country
The Third which Texans knew from 1932 un-
til 1944 was a training organization for
troops in this and other states from Ari-
zona across the southern part of the United
States to Florida, with headquarters at Fort
Men trained under the Third were fighting
on virtually every battlefront at the close of
1944. Some were with Lt. Gen. Walter C.
Krueger's Sixth Army in the Philippines
General Krueger headed the Third in the
early days of the war, was succeeded in
February, 1943, by Lt. Gen. Courtney H
Hodges, commanding the First Army in
France. The Third Army in France is com-
manded by Lt. Gen. George S. Patton Jr.,
and has some old Third Army troops in it.
These include the famed 90th Division which
trained at Camp Barkeley. near Abilene, and
cut the Germa, Seventh Army to shreds
after closing the Falals Gap in the summer
of 1944. The 4th Armored Division, which
trained at Camp Bowie, was with Patton
at Metz and in the St. Lo campaign.
The old Third Army sent its divisions and
units out to the theaters of operations in
1942 and 1943 and maneuvered with new
troops in Louisiana late in 1943. Its head-
quarters left Fort Sam Houston, destination
unannounced, Feb. 15, 1944, and was next
heard from after the invasion of France
when the new Third came into being. The
Fourth Army succeeded it as the training
organization in the Southwest.
UNITED STATES NAVY IN TEXAS
Some of the United States Navy's vital
installations are located in Texas, though
security restrictions will not permit publica-
tion of the complete list. From the V-12
students in colleges and universities to the
training of pilots and construction of ships
on the Gulf Coast, Texas Is playing an im-
portant role in the development of the
world's greatest naval force.
World's Largest Activity.
What is reported to be the world's largest
naval air training activity is located at Cor-
Dus Christi-the Naval Air Training Bases,
nown as the "University of the Air." With
an investment of more than $100,000,000, the
activity covers 20,000 acres, with locations in
three counties, has 997 hangars, shops, bar-
racks, warehouses and other buildings. Here
aviation cadets receive intermediate train-
ing, final stage of Navy flight instruction
preceding graduation and award of wings.
Main station is the United States Naval
Air Station located at Flour Bluff Point, ten
miles south of Corpus Christi. Supplying
specialized instruction are six naval auxili-
ary stations-Rodd NAAS, Cuddihy NAAS,
Cabaniss NAAS, Wadron NAAS, all located
within a few miles of.the main station and
Kingsville NAAS at Klngsville and dhase
NAAS at Beeville. All except Kingsvllle
were named in honor of men who gave their
lives for naval aviation.
An important activity is the huge assem-
bly and repair department responsible for
overhaul, repair, test and manufacturing op-
erations on aircraft, engines and accessories.
Its physical properties at the main station
and auxiliaries cover some twenty-four acres.
Hangars are so immense that traffic lanes
are given street names. Adjacent to the
Naval Air Training Bases but under sep-
arate commands are the United States Naval
Hospital, equipped to serve the Eighth Naval
District as well as the Naval Air Training
Bases, and the Naval Air Technical Training
Center at Ward Island for instruction in elec-
tronics. Headquarters of the Naval Air In-
termediate Training Command are also lo-
cated at the main station of the Naval Air
Five years ago the site of this huge invest-
ment was a barren coast land. Ground for
the first building was broken in June, 1940;
Main Station was commissioned March 12,
1941, first group of aviation cadets arrived
a week later. Good flying weather, flat
reaches and bays make the locale ideal. In-
struction seeks to develop each cadet Into
an expert flier, navigator, serologist, gun-
ner and radio operator-all required of every
naval aviator. Students are trained for
flight in carrier-based planes, seaplanes or
land-based planes for service in combat or
at naval air stations at home and abroad.
Schooling includes instruction leading to
mastery of all types of planes in naval avi-
ation-fighters, dive bombers, scout and ob-
servation, multi-engined bombers, patrol
planes and air transports.
Training comprises two kinds-ground
school and flight instruction. A strict ath-
letic program keeps the cadets in shape
physically. Graduations are held weekly at
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/82/: accessed July 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.