Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 81
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TEXAS IN SECOND WORLD WAR.
the Naval Air Training Bases, with graduates
receiving designations as naval aviators and
are commissioned ensigns in the United
States Naval Reserve or second lieutenants
in the United States Marine Corps Reserve.
The Naval Air Station near Dallas, cover-
ing about 106 acres and with facilities valued
at $6,730,086, was commissioned a United
States Naval Reserve Air Base on May 15,
1941. On Jan. 1, 1943, it was designated a
Naval Air Station. It was a school for pri-
mary flight training until Oct. 19, 1944,
when it was converted into an Indoctrination
Refresher School for naval aviators. During
the period that the station taught primary
flight syllabus there was an average student
load of 800 trainees and 150 flight instructors.
A total of 6,824 students were graduated and
assigned to further flight training at ad-
vanced schools. These graduates included
280 Marines, seventy-seven members of the
Coast Guard and twenty-eight assigned to
the French Navy The French organization
was formed in June, 1944, at the station and
detached as a unit in September of that
At Eagle Mountain Lake, north of Fort
Worth, is the Marine Air Station, which is
a landing point for amphibious craft en
route across the country. In Fort Worth
is the United States Health and Service Hos-
fital, a rehabilitation Navy hospital primari-
y for psychiatric cases. Other Navy hospi-
tals have been authorized for Houston and
Marlin, with construction due in 1945. At
Camp Wallace, Texas, is the United States
Naval Training and Distribution Center.
Other installations over the state are for ad-
ministrative purposes, for procuring war
materiel, inspection of ordnance and Navy
supplies and refueling. Dallas and Houston
are main centers for recruiting and procure-
ment of officers.
Prominent among Navy activities have
been the V-12 units at colleges and universi-
ties. These units have been located at
Southern Methodist University, Dallas; Tex-
as Christian University, Fort Worth, Univer-
sity of Texas, Austin, North Texas Agricul-
tural College, Arlington; Rice Institute,
Houston, and Southwestern University
Georgetown. Their purpose is to train fu-
ture officers and to give students Navy
training along with regular college work as
far as practicable. Some units had Marine
Headquarters of the Coast Guard are in
Galveston at the United States Coast Guard
Operating Base. Installations are located
along the coast from Brownsville up to Gal-
Not the least of the Navy's duties in Tex-
as is the inspection and supervisory activities
in connection with the great shipbuilding in-
dustry along the Gulf Coast. Shipbuilding
activities are located at Houston, Browns-
ville, Orange, Corpus Christi, Galveston, Port
Arthur, Beaumont, Rockport and Seabrook.
TEXAS STATE GUARD.
Mission of the Texas State Guard is secur-
ity of the community in which each unit is
located. A new problem was created in late
summer of 1940 when Congress authorized
the President to order into active service
the National Guards of the various states.
On Nov. 21, 1940, authority was granted for
a State Guard amendment to the National
Defense Act, under which states could or-
ganize substitute bodies for the National
uard while it was in service.
Formal legislation creating the Texas De-
fense Guard, later Texas State Guard, was
assed by the Forty-Seventh Legislature in
ebruary of 1941. Late in 1944, Texas had
about 300 units organized. Equipment came
from the Federal Government to some ex-
tent, supplemented by purchases from the
states and contributions from county and
municipal governments and other organiza-
Texas has fifty-one battalions in its State
Guard of from four to eight rifle companies.
headquarters detachments and attached med-
ical, special troop, band and other units.
Each unit holds from one to two training
eriods each week-an average of 52,000 man-
ours a week spent in tactical and technical
training. An estimated 75,000 men had re-
ceived training in the Texas State Guard
late in 1944. An initial appropriation of
$65,000 was made by the Legislature in 1941
and again in 1943. Following is a list of
Texas State Guard battalions as of Novem-
2d .......... Houston
3d ........... Alpine
4th.......... El Paso
9th...... Port Arthur
11th....... San Angelo
19th ......... Dallas
20th ........ Uvalde
23d ........ Henderson
24th .... Brownsville
25th Wichita Falls
26th ....... Mercedes
27th....... Fort Worth
28th ... Corpus Christ
31st ......... McAllen
32d ........ Longview
33d ......... Marshall
35th ....... Dallas
36th...... San Antonio
37th ....... Corsicana
38th .......... Alice
39th ......... Lubbock
40th ........ Sherman
41st ........ Childress
42d ....... Commerce
43d ..... Port Arthur
44th ..... Nacogdoches
47th ......... Wharton
48th ........ Houston
49th ....... Galveston
50th ....... Texarkana
TEXAS WOMEN IN SERVICE
Khaki-clad Texas women were serving at
the end of 1944 in all war theaters over the
world as members of the Women's Army
Corps. They were in Iceland, New Guinea.
Egypt. France--wherever American men
A Texan, Col. Oveta Culp Hobby, director
of the corps, was the first woman ever to
wear an Army uniform as a member of the
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps. She left
her job as executive vice-president of the
Houston Post to take the oath of office in
the WAAC on May 18, 1942, and remained as
commanding officer when the WAAC became
the Women's Army Corps, a part of the
Army, in September, 1943.
Many Texans were included in the first
class of 440 officer candidates inducted July
20, 1942, and commissioned in August at
Fort Des Moines. Iowa.
From the start of the WAAC organization
through its change over from auxiliary to
an Army corps through 1944, more than
8.000 women had stepped into WAAC (and
later WAC) recruiting offices in Texas to vol-
unteer to serve their country.
During 1943 Texas became the site of
I STINATONAL BANK
MEMBER F. D. I. C...
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/83/: accessed November 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.