Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 82
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Tower in the Quadrangle at Fort Sam Houston,
Army administration schools at Stephen F.
Austin State Teachers College, Nacogdoches;
Texas State College for Women, Denton;
East Texas State Teachers College, Com-
merce, and Sul Ross State Teachers College,
These schools were all deactivated before
the close of 1944.
Late in 1944 WACs were stationed at for-
ty-nine posts, camps and Army airfields in
Texas, including units at large installations,
such as Fort Sam Houston (which has four
\VAC detachments), Camp Barkeley, Fort
Bliss, Camps Bowie. Hood. Maxey, Swift
and Wolters, and at Headquarters Eighth
Service Command. Dallas.
They fill Army jobs as accountants, elec-
tricians, mechanics, armorers, cooks, bomb-
sight repairmen, clerks, camera technicians,
messengers, musicians, parachute riggers.
radio and telegraphic operators, stenogra-
phers, truck and tractor drivers, weather ob-
servers and welders.
In the Navy.
The Women's Reserve of the Navy was
organized July 30, 1942. It was called Women
Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service,
or WAVES. Since the Navy began recruiting
women approximately 4,200 women from
Texas have volunteered for service in the
Women's Reserve. They are performing nec-
essary duties at United States naval activi-
ties, including such jobs as radiomen, con-
trol tower operators, parachute riggers.
Link Trainer operators, mail clerks, aviation
instrument mechanics, gunnery instructors.
hospital corpsmen, supply officers, barracks
officers, education services, yeomen, store-
keepers and photographers.
On the day President Roosevelt signed a
bill creating the reserve Kathryn Luna of
Dallas was commissioned a lieutenant and
assigned to head recruiting for women in the
Eighth Naval District, headquarters in New
Misses Marguerite Stuart of Houston and
Antonette Bracher of Fredericksburg were
members of the first class of 120 women
throughout the nation who were commis-
sioned from civilian life.
Two offices of Naval Officer Procurement
in Texas-located at Dallas and Houston-
handled WAVES recruiting, beginning their
programs In October of 1942. On Sept. 27,
1944, Congress passed a bill allowing over-
seas duty for WAVES, the duties being re-
stricted to the Western Hemisphere.
The Coast Guard established its Women's
Reserve, known as the SPARS, early in
1943. Beginning in February, 1943, the Ma.
rine Corps recruited many Texas women.
The Texas Rangers
Note.-This article is mainly a brief summary
of "THE TEXAS RANGERS," by Professor
Walter Prescott Webb of the University of Texas,
published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston,
For more than a century, the Texas Rang-
ers engaged in taming the southwestern fron-
tier. They ut an end to scalping raids.
pacified the Rio Grande border and brought
to justice a large assortment of cattle thieves.
fence cutters, train robbers and murderers.
"They combined the fighting qualities of
three races: they could ride like Mexicans,
trail like Indians, shoot like Tennesseeans
and fight like the devil."
Stephen F. Austin employed a small body
of Rangers as early as 1823 to protect the
frontier colonies against bloodthirsty Karan-
kawas and other tribes. On Oct. 17, 1835, on
the eve of the Texas War of Independence,
the council of the revolutionists formally au-
thorized the employment of a corps of Rang-
ers to guard the frontiers. The *Rangers
protected the settlements against the incur-
sions of Indians while Sam Houston and his
ragged army defeated the troops of Santa
In the period of the Republic, the Ranger
organization was enlarged and was used to
patrol the frontier and to punish Indian raid-
ers. Depredations by freebooters on the Rio
Grande and threats of invasion by Mexican
troops also kept them busy on the border.
Each Ranger provided himself with a good
horse, a rifle and a brace of pistols.
When Texas was annexed by the United
States, the Federal Government assumed re-
sponsibility for protecting the frontier and the
Ranger organization virtually was dropped.
However, the federal troops, largely infantry,
were so unaccustomed to border and Indian
warfare that the Rangers were reorganized.
In the Mexican War, which followed soon
after annexation, Texas Rangers served as
scouts for the invading American armies and
took important parts in the fighting. They
"were not only the eyes and ears of General
Taylor's army, but its right and left arms as
well." In Mexico City they were called Los
Diablos Tejanos-the Texas Devils.
The period between fhe Mexican War and
the Civil War was marked by a number of
bloody conflicts with Indians which ended
with the removal of most of the red men to
federal reservations outside Texas. Rangers
were required also to end the depredations
of cattle thieves and other outlaws along the
Rio Grande. The moss formidable band of
raiders was that led by Juan N. Cortinas,
Many South Texas ranchers suffered from
the depredations of Cortinas and his men In
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/84/: accessed June 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.