Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 88
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88 TEXAS ALMANAC -1945-1946.
Texas has two state holidays and several
special observance days. The two holidays
are Independence Day, March 2, and San
Jacinto Day, April 21. (See p. 36, under
"Anniversaries and Festivals, 1945 and 1946.'")
Texas' popular designation, or nickname, Is
Lone Star State, which is derived from the
single star on the Texas flag.
Texan or Texian?
The dwellers within the confines of the
State of Texas today are usually referred to
as Texans, but at an early date the designa-
tion, Texian, was preferred. The Texas Al-
manac of 1858 carries an extract from an old
manuscript criticizing Kennedy's "History of
Texas" for referring to the people of Texas
as Texans. "It is indubitable fact," states
this review, "that the inhabitants of Texas,
literate and illiterate, have almost universally
accepted the term, Texian, to define their
political individuality. . . . Texian . . has
more euphony and is better adapted to the
convenience of the poets, who shall hereafter
celebrate our deeds in sonorous strains, than
the harsh, abrupt, ungainly appellation.
Texan, impossible in rhyme to anything but
the merest doggerel."
Whether for reasons cited in this statement
or not, there has been a revival of the use of
"Texian" in recent years, notably since the
Texas Centennial, 1936, though "Texan" is
still the prevailing usage.
MOVEMENTS TO DIVIDE TEXAS
There has been much agitation for division
of Texas. At times there have been peculiar
political reasons, but usually the argument
as arisen, no doubt, from Texas' size---great-
est in the Union, about 260 times as large as
the smallest state, and nearly five times as
large as the average state.
The annexation of Texas was attended by
much effort inm the United States Congress to
divide the state. Senator Benton of Missouri
proposed the admission of a State of Texas
to be no larger than the largest state in the
Union at that time, the remainder of the
Texas territory to be held by the United
States. Senator Hale of New Hampshire
advocated the admission of Texas as two
states, one "free" and one "slave." The an-
nexation resolution, as finally adopted and
ratified by Texas, provided that Texas be
admitted as one state but that new states,
not to exceed four in number, might, with the
consent of the state, be formed in the future.
After annexation Senator Benton continued
his efforts to obtain a "free" state by pro-
posing the division of Texas along a line
running from the mouth of the Colorado to
its intersection with the 100th meridian and
thence north. It was also proposed to divide
the state along the Brazos River. Texas
people were not generally receptive to these
proposals, but they met the approval of cer-
tain of the Unionist element and several
movements were started for division of the
state prior to the Civil War.
During the unstable days of Reconstruction
following the Civil War, a number of efforts
were made to divide the state. A 'tate con-
vention of 1866 resolved in favor of permitting
the Legislature to divide the state, and when
the Legislature convened the Senate voted in
favor of referring the question to the people.
The movement died when the House failed
to concur. During the administration of Gov.
E. J. Davis, several plans for division were
Most generally advocated was the plan for
subdivision into three states by establishment
of the following two lines- 1. A line along
the San Jacinto River to the western limits
of Liberty and Polk Counties, thence north
to the Trinity River, thence along the Trinity
to the mouth of the East Fork, thence to the
Red River by a line to and along the western
limit of Fannin County 2. A second line to
run along the Colorado from its mouth to its
intersection with the 32d parallel, thence
westward to the New Mexico line. The area
lying east of Line No. 1 was to be East
Texas, that lying south and west of Line
No. 2 was to be South Texas, and the terri-
tory between was to constitute Texas. Other
plans were advocated but none ever mate-
After the end of Reconstruction and the
adoption of the present Constitution in 1876.
advocacy of division waned and there is little
sentiment for such at present. For a few
years before and after World War I there
was some sentiment for division among West
Texans because they considered that their
part of the state had been neglected in the
matter of establishment of state educational
institutions and in the matter of reforming
congressional and other political subdivisions
based upon population, following the census
of 1900. There was cause for the complaint
made by the people of West Texas, but agi-
tation for separate statehood waned after
State Senatorial and Representatives' districts
were reformed following the 1920 census and
congressional districts after the 1930 census.
Because of failure of Legislature to reappor-
tion in recent years, there Is again unequal
representation but it is less definitely re-
gional than before and has not brought any
considerable renewal of demand for division
of the state as an alternative to redistricting.
Today, there is little agitation for a divi-
sion of Texas. The salute to the Texas flag,
adopted in 1933, calls for "Texas, one and
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ability, to do our utmost in supplying your requiements.
Higginbotham-B ley Co.
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/90/: accessed August 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.