Texas Almanac, 1945-1946 Page: 93
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TEXAS LANDMARKS. 93
plant and residence of Gail Borden, built in
1872, is .5 of a mile northeast of Borden.
Gall Borden, inventor of condensed milk, op-
erated this plant until his death in 1874. It
was torn down in 1885. There is a marker
at Alleyton, oldest permanent settlement in
the county and once the largest town. Estab-
lished by the Alley family, members of Aus-
tin's original 300 colony, Alleyton was the
terminus of Buffalo Bayou, Brazos & Colo-
rado Railroad, 1860-67. At Columbus is monu-
ment on site of projected capitol of Stephen
F. Austin's Colony, 1823, first settlement on
Austin's Map, Montezuma, 1835, and in mem-
ory of pioneer families of that region. At
Columbus is the Columbus Oak, beneath
which was held the first court of the Third
Judicial District of the Republic of Texas in
1837, by Judge Robert M. (Three-Legged
COMAL: On Comal Avenue, in New Braun-
fels, is home of Ferdinand Lindheimer, sol-
dier in Texas Army, father of Texas botany
and editor of Neu Braunfelser Zeitung, 1852-
72. On Mill Street in New Braunfels is site
of John F. Torrey's mill and factory, estab-
lished in 1850 as sawmill. Cotton mill added
In 1863. Eventually destroyed by storm and
flood. At New Braunfels is a monument to
the German founders of the town. Carl,
Prince of Solms-Braunfels, Commissioner
General of the Society for the Protection of
German Immigrants in Texas, and other Ger-
man settlers. The historic old tree under
which the Germans first camped has also
been marked. Here also is located Sophien-
burg, the old home of the Prince.
CONCHO: Near Paint Rock is site of the
most outstanding pictograph contributions of
the nomadic tribes of Texas. Scattered for a
half mile along the bluff are 1,500 paintings
by various tribes.
CORYELL: Near Gatesville is site of Fort
Gates, established in 1849 by Brevet Col.
W. R. Montgomery. Abandoned in 1852.
CROCKETT: Monument of David Crockett
is at Ozona, erected as part of 1936 Centen-
nial program. Thirty-three miles west of
Ozona on U. S. Highway 290 are the ruins of
Fort Lancaster, established in 1855 by the
U. S. Government as a protection to travel
on the overland route from San Diego to San
Antonio. Abandoned in 1861. Reoccupled
for a short time in 1868.
CROSBY: Statue at Crosbyton, in Hank
Smith State Park, of Henry Clay Smith (Un.-
cle Hank) and his wife, early settlers of the
Texas Panhandle. At Estacado is marker
commemorating founding of the town in 1879
by a colony of English Quakers under leader-
ship of Isaac Paris Cox. Town first named
Marietta but renamed Estacado in 1886. Col-
ony disbanded and moved to Galveston
CULBERSON: At Pine Spring on U. S.
Highway 62 are the ruins of "The Pinery" or
Pine Spring Stage Stand, built in 1858 as a
station on the Butterfield Mail Route. Aban-
doned in 1859 when the line was shifted to
the Davis Mountain route.
DALLAS: The Hall of State on the grounds
of the State Fair of Texas in Dallas was
erected in commemoration of Texas heroes as
part of the centennial program of 1936. It is
a beautiful structure of Texas limestone,
erected at a cost of $1.200,000 of state funds.
After housing the historical exhibits at the
Central Centennial Exposition in 1936 and the
Greater Texas and Pan-American Exposition
in 1937, it was leased by the state to the
City of Dallas and now houses the collections
of the Dallas Historical Museum. At the en-
trance are the heroic figures of Sam Houston.,
William Barrett Travis, Stephen Fuller Aus-
tin, James Walker Fannin. Mirabeau Buona-
parte Lamar and Thomas Jefferson Rusk, On
the courthouse lawn is the cabin of John
Neely Bryan, first settler, reconstructed prin-
cipally of original materials a short distance
from the original site 100 years ago. The
Hord home in Marsalis Park is open to the
public. Millermore, home of the late Lt.
Gov. Barry Miller, and the W. W. Caruth
home, historic structures, are still used as
private dwellings. The site of the old French
colony, La Reunion, west of Dallas, has been
marked, also the site of Cedar Springs, which
was established in 1843 and rivaled Dallas in
the selection of a county seat in 1850. Still
other historic sites are the location of the
headquarters of the corps of engineers who
laid out the Central National Highway of the
Republic of Texas in 1840; headquarters of
Peters Colony, 1845, near Farmers Branch,
and the historic community of Grapevine
Springs in the northwest part of the county.
During 1941, Dallas celebrated the centennial
of its founding. Near Carrollton is site of old
frontier town of Trinity Mills which declined
when by-passed by railroad. Site of old
town, Breckenridge, is one mile east of Rich-
ardson. The equestrian statue of Robert E.
Lee and orderly at Turtle Creek Boulevard
and Hall street is a notable work of art.
DENTON: At Denton on the campus of the
Texas State College for Women is the statue
to the Pioneer Woman. Erected in 1936 in
observance of Texas' centennial. Near Justin
is site of New Icara, French Socialist settle-
ment established in 1848.
DeWITT: At Cuero is located monument
commemorating the establishment of DeWitt
County from the Colonial grant in 1825 of
Green DeWitt, and in memory of early set-
tlers of the county. Erected by the State of
Texas, 1936. In this county are many old
homes and other structures of historic inter-
est. Old town of Clinton, former county seat,
located on west side of Guadalupe River
ELLIS: At Waxahachie is the statue of
Richard Ellis, president of the Constitutional
Convention of 1836, erected as part of 1936
EL PASO: Near El Paso on U. S. Highway
80-A is marker for El Paso del Rio del Norte
named May 4, 1598, by Don Juan de Onate.
In Hueco Mountains are the Hueco Tanks,
famous watering place for Indians and trav-
elers, and one of the historic landmarks in
the Trans-Pecos. Situated here was station
on the Southern Overland Mail Line between
St. Louis and San Francisco, 1858-61. Out-
standing is the community of Ysleta, oldest
town in Texas. (See p. 49.) Near-by Socorro
and San Elizario were founded a short time
after Ysleta. Some of the present buildings
are partly of original construction. The pass
through which the Rio Grande flows, El Paso
del Norte, was a gateway for the conquista-
dores. The El Paso Memorial Museum.
erected as part of the Texas centennial pro-
gram in commemoration of the part of this
region in the development of Texas, houses
mineral, archaeological and historical col-
ERATH: At Stephenville is the Erath Me-
morial Arch for George Bernhard Erath, for
whom the county was named. Erected in
1936. He fought at San Jacinto. Small com-
munity of Thurber in north part of county
was once Texas' leading coal mining center
with 7,000 population. Industry declined and
finally was abandoned after discovery of oil
in Texas. Only a few houses remain today.
FALLS: Near Marlin is marker on site of
Fort Milam built at the capital of Robertson's
Colony, Sarahville de Viesca, in 1834.
FANNIN: Old Fort Inglish, built by Bailey
Inglish in 1836 for protection of his family
and neighbors against Indians, was located in
Bonham. Reconstructed as part of centennial
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Texas Almanac, 1945-1946, book, 1945; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117166/m1/95/: accessed February 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.