Texas Almanac, 1859 Page: 73
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visit the great cotton growing region of South-western Georgia. What was
my surprise, you may imagine, to see the hurry and bustle of man and beast, to
clean the cotton of grass which was only from ankle to half-knee high, and when,
a month earlier, I left the same plant in Texas, near as high as my head. Yet
these lands in Georgia are eagerly sought, and at high prices, by very intelligent
and accomplished planters, who become wealthy and prosperous by their cultiva-
tion, and are doing a vast deal in the way of beautifying and increasing the already
great facilities of the great State in which they live. The durability of our soil is
yet another decided and overwhelming advantage we command. That its general
depth is by far, greater than can be found in any other cotton State, (I mean our
table, or uplands,) can not be denied. They have a greater uniformity and more
level surface, hence can never wash like abrupt and hilly lands; for all who have
ever cultivated cotton, must know the importance of having the surface clean of
every thing, save the cotton, if they expect a fair yield; and when this is done,
the extremely hard rains which are common in our southern climate, nearly take
off, not only the surface soil, but also, in solution, a large part of the active chem-
icals required in the growth and development of plants. Hence, we must con-
clude, ere many years shall pass away, the millions of acres which are now only
furnishing food for the deer and their roaming companions, will bless the world by a
more useful product, and our beauty l prairies, now uncultivated, will furnish
happy homes for countless thousands.
CULTIVATION OF COTTON ON OUR WESTERN UPLANDS.
BY DR. I. R. R.
The mode of cultivation for cotton usually pursued in the western part of the
State is as follows: The land is first thrown up in good beds with a two-horse
Casey plough, which is used upon the black stiff land, but the diamond-wing plough
is used on the more sandy soiL This is done in December, January, or February.
It is thus permitted to lie till about the 10th of March, by which time the ground
usually becomes well pulverized and in good condition for planting, which should
now be commenced. A common bull-tongue plough will answer to open the fur-
row for the seed. If the beds previously thrown up are covered with weeds or
grass, at the time of planting, be sure and cover with the same plough; and after
six or eight days, run a board or block over the bed. So soon as the cotton has
formed the fourth leaf, run round each, row with a turning-plough, one or two
furrows on each side with the bar of the plough next to the cotton, turning the
earth away from it. If the middle ground between the rows is covered with
grass and weeds, which are not ploughed up or covered by these furrows, then
run additional furrows for that purpose, your hands following, at the same time,
with hoes, and thinning the cotton nearly to a stand. This being done, the only
work remaining will be the finishing ploughing, which should be done according
to the season, and always in time to prevent the grass and weeds from getting a
start. This last ploughing may be done with the solid sweep, if the ground is dry,
but if wet, then with the turning-plough, while your hands, with trim hoes, make
a finish, or lay the crop by. The average yield of cotton, west of the Brazos, I
think, may be put down safely at about 1200 pounds of seed cotton per acre,
'though for some years in succession, 2000 pounds have been made.
GREAT FACILITY OF RAISING CORN IN TEXAS.
BY DR. Z R. R.
A thorough preparation of the soil is as important in Texas, and pays as well as
elsewhere. Even though the farmer should be delayed by extremes of seasons or
other causes, from preparing his ground till past the usual time for planting, still
he should not be deterred from thoroughly ploughing and preparing it be-
fore putting in his seed. Should his neighbors say to him that they have com-
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Texas Almanac, 1859, book, 1859~; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth123765/m1/74/: accessed August 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.