Texas Almanac, 1859 Page: 80
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80 TEXAS ALMANAC.
hoe. Shoots coming after this time will not mature, and should, therefore, be pre.
vented from coming, as they encumber the land.
Cane requires a higher cultivation than corn or cotton; in fact, to do it justice,
it should be worked once in ten days, and very thoroughly each time. Ploughing
cane should cease by the 20th of June, as it has, by that time, generally attained a
sufficient size to shade the ground completely, and thus smother the grass, etc. It
should, however, be gone over occasionally, to cut out the tie vine, which is
troublesome on our plantations. Rolling commences about the 15th of October,
and continues until Christmas, generally.
The average yield per acre is about sixteen hundred pounds; ten thousand
pounds of sugar; and eighty gallons of molasses to each thousand pounds, is usually
made to each hand, with fair management.
Should what I have here written meet with your approval, you can make what
use of it you may think proper. What I have said, is based on my own experience
and observation alone, and should not be relied upon too implicitly, but received
with a grain of allowance by the new beginner, and by planters coming from other
States, and commencing for the first time, in Texas.
Very truly yours, etc., J. D. WATERS.
GENERAL HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS TO THE FARMER,
APPLICABLE TO THE SEVERAL MONTHS OF THE YEAR.
BY Wm. J. JONES.
J A N U A R Y.
WITH the close of the old year and the beginning of the new, the planter should
withdraw a portion of his force (the most effective) from the picking of the old
crop, if any cotton be left, to prepare for the pitching of the new.
Upon the timely commencement of this department of the plantation economy
may, in a great degree, depend the success of the forthcoming harvest, The small
and weaker or less skillful force may be left to gather the cotton remaining un-
stripped from the last year's planting.
The first thing to be looked to, even on our most productive soils, should be ths
breaking down and scattering the limbs of the cotton plant, and the corn-stalks to
be ploughed in and restored to the land, as furnishing the best and most convenient
vegetable manure, either to keep up the genial qualities of good lands, or to
improve the productive powers of the lighter soils. Upon the thinner lands
should be scattered all the waste cotton-seed, usually left to rot round the gin-
house, engendering sickness and creating most unsavory odors. It is desirable
also to haul out the stable and cow-manure, usually allowed to remain in the stalls
and pens to prevent disease among stock. The time now consumed in this employ-
ment will be most profitably spent both by the increased fertility of the soil and
in the greater neatness and comfort of the planting establishment. The beast, not
less than the man, will profit by cleanliness and comfort, and will guarantee good
health and a larger measure of usefulness.
All the tools and implements used on the plantation should now be collected in
some suitable place, examined minutely, and put in complete order for use, so that
no time need be lost or work delayed in the thorough preparation of the ground
for the coming crop. These suggestions are hardly necessary for the thoughtful
and diligent, but may not be amiss for those who have other matters to withdraw
their attention, and should not by them be regarded as merely expletive.
The work of cleaning up ought to be carefully looked to and fully completed by
the close of the month. The old crop should be turned off, the ginning rapidly
progressing, if not finished, and every thing intended for the market dispatched to
its destin+tio, when an accurate estimate may be made of the expenses and yield
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Texas Almanac, 1859, book, 1859~; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth123765/m1/81/: accessed April 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.