The Texas Almanac, for 1860, with Statistics, Historical and Biographical Sketches, &c., Relating to Texas. Page: 93
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GEOLOGICAL SKETCH OF TEXAS. V
sist chiefly of red feldspathic granite, constituting a narrow ridge of hills, of
moderate elevation, ranging N.N.E. and S.S.W. The southern portion of the
range is situated about thirty miles from Fredericksburg, in a northerly direc-
tion. The principal eminence is the celebrated Enchanted Rock, a dome-shaped
mass of red granite, about three hundred feet high, and four or five hundred
feet in diameter at the base. It appears as if it had been upheaved by igneous
agency, and subsequently smoothed and rounded by currents of water. The
secondary strata near it are horizontal It is a curious monument of some past
convulsion of the globe. " Previous to the settlement of this section, many fanci-
ful tales were circulated respecting this singular rock. It was said that its sum-
mit glittered in the sunlight like a vast dome of silver, or "a polished mirror."
The story probably originated from some on6 who had seen it only in the win-
ter, when covered with a sheet of ice; its summit then. glittering in the sun-
light, might have resembled a gilded dome, There is nothing in its appearance
to attract attention, except that its summit is smooth and destitute of vegetation.
The Comanches, it is said, reverenced it as the residence of the Great Spirit.
Other hills of primary rocks are found at various points beyond it, in the direc-
tion of the Wichita Mountains. It is a singular fact that a similar-dome-shaped
granite hill is situated in the same direction, in Missouri, and similar rocks oc-
cur on the Des Moines, in Iowa. This primary ridge may have given direction
to the marine currents of the carboniferous sea, and caused them to deposit the
main coal measures far to the eastward.
The PALEOzoIc series apparently rests directly on the red granite, and occupies
the central and northern portions of the State. The strata are largely deve-
loped in the region designated on the maps as the Upper Cross-timbers, and ex-
tend south as far as San Saba. The series consists chiefly of strata of limestone
and sandstone, containing large quantities of crinoidal columns, corals, and
marine shells, belonging chiefly to the genera Productus, Spirifer, Terebratula,
Chonetes, and Fusulina. The little foraminiferous shells of the Fusulina cylin-
drica occur in abundance in the siliceous limestones of the upper members of the
series-fragments of crinoids occur also in profusion. There is a hill about ten
miles from Fort Belknap, in a north-easterly direction, styled by the settlers the
Button mountain; its surface is literally covered with small fragments of encri-
nites, from half an inch to a few lines in diameter, resembling buttons; large
quantities of hexagonal plates, and other portions of encrinites, occur; with
spines, similar to those of echbini, but terminated at one extremity with an-ap-
pendage of a pentagonal form. They probably belong to some undescribed
species of Doryerinus. Among the fossils in these strata are found spirifer
cameratus, productus semireticulatus, a terebratula similar to T. subtilita and fusu-
lina cylindrica-characteristic fossils of the carboniferous strata of Missouri and
Iowa. These fossils indicate that the paleozoie rocks of Missouri are extended
into Texas. The little foraminiferous fossil above mentioned, is the key to the
whole paleozoic series of Texas. The fusulina cylindrica designates an horizon
in the carboniferous series, as well defined as that designated by Nummulites in
the Eocene. In Russia the fusuline are found in the upper portion of the car-
boniferous series. They are not confined -to a single member of the series, but
occur in strata below the " true coal measures." -In Missouri, they are found in
several strata of the carboniferous rocks; but these are probably all below the
coal measures of the Ohio coal-field.- The productive coal-seams of Russia are
below the coal measures of*Western Europe, and it is to be hoped that future
researches will develop coal-seams below the fusulina limestone of Texas. The
carboniferous series appears to be less developed here than in Missouri, some
members of the Missouri series appear to be entirely wanting here, and strata
which are very thick there, are thin in Texas, indicating that they are on the
margin of the Missouri coal fields. Beneath the fusulina limestone, a dark, en-
crinital limestone is found, separated from the former by thin strata, containing
products semireticulatus, terebratulce, spirifer cameratus, syringopora, etc. This
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The Galveston News. The Texas Almanac, for 1860, with Statistics, Historical and Biographical Sketches, &c., Relating to Texas., book, 1860~; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth123766/m1/95/: accessed May 26, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.