Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide for 1911 with Map Page: 17

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THE TEXAS ALMANAC. 17

was his purpose to plant a colony on
the banks of the Mississippi River, and
when, through an error in reckoning,
he landed on the west shore of Mata-
gorda Bay, he thought he had found
one of the mouths of the "Father of
Waters." On the banks of the Lavac
River he established the first European
colony in Texas. erecting a fort known
as St. Louis. Primarily because of the
error mentioned in the foregoing, the
colony being separated by thousands of
miles of unexplored wilderness from
the nearest settlement and base of sup-
plies, but largely through the treachery
of his own men, LaSalle's colony quick-
ly perished, after he had been assas-
sinated.
The Spanish Government having
claimed all the territory tributary to
the Gulf of Mexico, Philip II, issued
an order prohibiting foreigners from
entering the Gulf or any part of the
territories surrounding It under pain
of extermination. Upon learning that
LaSalle had landed in Texas, a military
force was sent under Capt. DeLeon to
enforce the order. This force did not
reach Texas until LaSalle's colony had
perished, but upon the recommendation
of Capt. DeLeon a Spanish mission was
founded in the State in 1690. This and
other missions planted about the same
time were abandoned in 1694 because
of the hostility of the Indians, and it
was not until 1715 that Spain, having
been alarmed by the activities of An-
drew Crozat, to whom the French King
had granted the entire Louisiana ter-
ritory, became active in the coloniza-
tion of Texas. From that time on and
for a little more than a century Spanish
sovereignty over the territory was se-
cure.
After the consummation of the
Louisiana purchase, many adventurous
Americans, emboldened by the claim
that Texas was Included in the trans-
action, led filibustering parties into the
province, going so far as to proclaim
its independence, but all of these failed.
In 1819 Spain's right to the province
was recognized by the conclusion of
the treaty fixing the Sabine River as
the southwestern boundary between the
United States and Spain's possessions.
It was about that time that the way
was paved for Anglo-Saxon dolonfzation
in the province. Moses Austin, a -aaw
tive of Vermont, who had lived in
Virginia and Missouri, began negotia-
tions with the Government of Mexico,
then a Spanish possession, for a coloni-
zation contract. He died in 1821, be-
fore the arrangement could be perfected.
The work was taken up by his son,
Stephen F. Austin, who secured the
desired grant, and under that and sub-
sequent grants brought many families
to Texas.
In 1824 Mexico achieved her inde-
pendence from Spain and established a
republican Government.

Rebellion of Texas.
The causes leading up to the rebel-
lion of the Texans from Mexican rule
are too numerous to be mentioned here.
Bustamente, the usurping Governor, in
1830 prohibited further immigration
from the United States. Santa Anna,
with whom the colonists sided, being
successful, overturned the constitution
of 1824 and proclaimed himself dicta-
tor. The Texans continued their efforts
for the observance of the Mexican con-
stitution, and their first armed move-
ment was fought under its banner.
On March 2, 1836, however, they de-
clared their independence. The war
through which they secured that inde-
pendence was as brief as it was re-
mai kable.
With a flag representing loyalty to
the constitution of 1824 floating over
it, the Alamo mission was for eleven
days defended by Col. Travis and 188
men against a force under Santa Anna
outnumbering them sixteen to one. On
March 6 they perished, ignorant of the
fact that their compatriots had de-
clared the independence of Texas.
Flushed with this victory, Santa Anna
predicted a termination of the cam-
paign within three months. This
prophecy proved true, but the result
was not as Santa Anna foresaw it.
General Sam Houston, commander-in-
chief of the Texas army, was en route
to San Antonio to relieve the little
band in the Alamo, when on March 11
he learned at Gonzales that the Alamo
had fallen. He was also apprised that
Santa Anna intended concentrating his
forces in Eastern Texas to attack the
main forces of the Texans. Accord-
ingly, he determined to fall back and
to recruit his army.
While this movement was in progress
the. Mexican forces captured Col. Fan-
nin and 444 men under his command,
and 'on March 27, Palm Sunday, 330
of them were executed by order of
Santa Anna, although they had been
guaranteed return to the United States.
Eighty of the prisoners who had done
no fighting, four physicians and hospi-
tal attendants were spared, and twenty-
seven of the prisoners escaped.
These two acts of cruelty greatly en-
raged the Texas patriots and strength-
ened their determination to gain their
liberty.
The final act in this drama took
place on April 21, when the little army
under Houston attacked double their
number under Santa Anna a short dis-
tance below Harrisburg, and near San
Jacinto Bay. Marching to the music
of a love song, and shouting "Remem-
ber the Alamo!" "Remember Goliad !"
the Texans charged, and within fifteen
minutes had achieved a complete vic-
tory. The aggregate force under Hous-
ton numbered 783, and the Mexicans
had twice that number. The Mexicans
lost 630 killed, 208 wounded and 730
prisoners, including Santa Anna him-
self, besides a large quantity of arms,

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Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide for 1911 with Map, book, January 1911; (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth123781/m1/27/ocr/: accessed April 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.

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