1927 The Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide Page: 36
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36 THE TEXAS ALMANAC.
On following pages is given a calendar for the year 1927, including days of year,
month, week, moon's phases, and time of sunrise, sunset, moonrise and& moonset. Stand-
ard time is used. (See explanatory note on this page.) These computations are based
on the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac for 1927.
Development of the Calendar.
The recurrence of the moon's phases, the
rotation of the earth on its axis, and the
cycle of the seasons as the earth revolves Am~n lo
around' the sun have been, from earliest -o
history, the three phenomena most used h
in time calculations giving rise to month, +2 .
day and year, respectively. Since these Ablene . -
three movements are incommensurate, dif- .+7
faculty has been experienced in arriving at , . -.... _ F
co-ecdination between day, month and so -4
year, in calendar computations. Early .
Egyptians, Hebrews and Greeks used - - '
lunar months of approximately 29.5 days, " ,
employing supplementary days at the end q/ - ,tp 2.' .
of the year, or intercalary months, to ' - -0
keep the seasons adjusted to the year.
Hence their years were of uneven length.
Ancient astronomers knew nothing more n
than that the year consisted of approxi- -
mately 365 days. The week has no astro-
nomical basis, but comes from Mosaic law.
The Julian Calendar.
-Julius Cesar did away with the intercal-
ary months and the irregular year by hav-
ing adopted the Julian calendar of 365
days with an added day every fourth year
on the assumption that the year was of
365'4 days duration. This assumption
was only 11 minutes 14 seconds in error
(a day in 128 years), and sixteen cen-
turies elapsed before there was a notice-
able recession of the equinox.
The Gregorian Calendar.
By 1582, however, the date of the vernal
equinox had shifted from March 21 to
MVarch 19 Pope Gregory XII, ordered the
suppression of ten days to readjust the
calendar. To prevent future error he or-
dered that 100th years in the future
should be considered common years, ex-
cept multiples of 400. This new style, or
Gregorian, calendar was gradually adopt-
ed throughout Western Europe, and is
used today in all Christian countries of
importance with the exception of Russia
and Gi eece, which still employ the Julian
calendar At present there is a difference
of thirteen days, that is, Jan. 14, Gregorian
calendar, is Jan. 1, Julian.
The mean Gregorian year actually ex-
ceeds the true solar year by twenty-six
seconds, which will put the calendar one
day out of adjustment at the end of 3,323
years from 1582 A. D.
In other words the calculation of civil
time is approximately two and one-half
hours out of adjustment at present, with
respect to the vernal equinox. While cal-
endar authorities are not unduly- exercised
over 'the slow accumulation to this small
error, yet there has been some discussion
of a means of reaching an adjustment, and
it has been suggested that the year 4,000
and all its multiples be common instead of
leap years. This would still leave a very
In calendar on following page., time
of sunrise, sunset, moonrise and moon-
set is given in standard (railroad) tin..,
for lat. 32 N. and long. 98 W. These
lines are employed because of their
central location in Texas. They inter-
sect in the extreme northern part of
Hamilton County, about one mile ENE
of Hico. To determine sunrise, sunset,
moonrise or moonset time at any given
locality in Texas, find the approximate
longitude of locality (from any ordi-
nary map). Subtract four minutes
from time given in tables for each de-
gree east of the 98th. Add four min-
utes for each degree west of 98th. Thus
Waco, which is near the 97th meridian,
would subtract 4 minutes; for Abilene,
which is near the 100th, add S min-.
utes. (See map above for other indi-
cations for chief points.) Of course,
there is also some variation according
to latitude range north or south of the
32d parallel, blut it is small and not
necessary to include it in calculations
for practical purposes. Moon's phases
are given in standard central time and
are the same all over Texas.
slight error, but for all practical pur-
poses it would set the matter at rest for
100.000 years or more.
While the cycle of the seasons is ob-
vious, exact determination of the length
of the year has been a problem of astron-
omy since the dawn of civilization. 'The
Gregorian calendar is more nearly ad-
'justed to the earth's movement than any
other calendar in use at the present time,
some of which still use the intercalary
month, making the calendar year very ir-
regular in length.
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1927 The Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide, book, 1927~; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth123785/m1/40/: accessed August 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.