The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 44, July 1940 - April, 1941 Page: 149
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foreign element and to attempt to evaluate its services. She has
dug up an amazing amount of information in her search through
practically all available sources, such as published memoirs,
reminiscences, regimental histories, muster rolls, and other pri-
vate and official records. She has classified these men accord-
ing to types and services-army officers of all grades up to
major-generals, non-commissioned officers and privates, knights-
errant and military adventurers, civilian officials, officers and
workers in the supply services, blockade runners and the like.
One may question whether blockade runners, interested pri-
marily in profits, should be regarded as Confederates. Two in-
teresting chapters deal with the reciprocal attitudes of foreign-
ers and the Confederate Government, especially those foreign-
born who claimed alien citizenship in order to avoid military
service. Dr. Lonn finds that the Irish were the readiest to
fight, and that the German element, though contributing many
soldiers, had the largest proportion of draft evaders. This was
more especially true of the Germans of western Texas, many
of whom were strongly Unionist in sympathy. One chapter is
given to the persecution of the Texas Germans.
Although she recognizes a distinction between naturalized
foreigners and those merely domiciled, Dr. Lonn includes them
all, even C. G. Memminger, the Secretary of the Treasury,
who had been brought to Charleston as an infant and probably
never thought of himself as a foreigner. Her most conspicuous
soldier was Major-General Pat Cleburne who had served in the
British army in his youth but had been a resident for eight
years before 1861. She makes no attempt to show that the
number of foreigners actually in service was proportionately
greater than their percentage of the white population. Although
she lists a number of knights-errant, mostly officers like Prince
Polignac and Colonel Heros von Borcke, who came into the
Confederacy after the war began, she does not claim that com-
mon soldiers were recruited directly from foreign countries. The
Confederate cruisers, however, were largely manned by foreign
sailors. Nor does she compare the numbers or proportions of
foreigners in the Confederate forces with those in the Union
armies. Such a comparison would have been both interesting
In a work involving so many troublesome details some errors
of fact or of interpretation are bound to creep in, but none of
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 44, July 1940 - April, 1941, periodical, 1941; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146052/m1/157/: accessed June 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.