The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 44, July 1940 - April, 1941 Page: 162
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
sympathy somewhere near the proportionate populations of the
two sections of the nation. They had received thousands of
hardy miners and frontiersmen from both the northern and
southern states, most of them bringing preconceived notions
as to the merits of slavery and disunion. Confederate sympathy
was the strongest in Arizona and southern California, where
Southerners composed a large part of the population.' New
Mexico and the Mormons of Utah could also be expected to
favor the secession movement. Southern army officers and
territorial officials had long controlled the political sentiments
of the native New Mexicans, while the commercial relations
of the territory had been mainly with slave states, with Texas
adjoining, and especially with Missouri by the Santa Fe Trail.'
In the years immediately preceding secession, Federal authority
had been exerted over the Mormons only by military force and
much of the misfortune which had accompanied their migra-
tions to Utah was laid to the inhabitants of the Northern com-
With the present state of Arizona included within its bounda-
ries, New Mexico extended to the eastern border westward to Cal-
ifornia, thus stretching for almost 600 miles along the Mexican
frontier. Because of its location between the southern states and
the Pacific Coast, the possession of this region was essential to
the realization of Confederate ambitions. A large number of
the military officers stationed in New Mexico sympathized with
the Confederate cause and there is evidence that many of them
in the early months of the war sought to turn the troops and
Federal supplies in the territory over to the Confederacy, a
movement paralleling the surrender in Texas of almost 2,500
United States troops and nineteen military posts to Texas
In the spring of 1861 an expedition to march against the
Apaches had been formed in southern New Mexico under the
command of Colonel George B. Crittenden. Colonel B. S. Roberts,
the second ranking officer, was approached by Crittenden during
the campaign with a plan to turn the infantry troops in New
Mexico over to the Confederacy by marching them into Texas.
'Raphael Pumpelly, Across America and Asia (New York, 1870), 29, 66.
"H. H. Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico (Works, XVII, San Francisco,
1889), 680; Ed. R. S. Canby, report, June 11, 1861, Oficial Records, War
of the Rebellion, Series 1, I, 606. "Official Records, Series" hereafter
cited as "O. R., S."
"James H. Carleton, "The Mormons as a People," Ibid., 1 L, pt. 1, 549-551.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 44, July 1940 - April, 1941, periodical, 1941; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146052/m1/182/: accessed April 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.