The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 47, July 1943 - April, 1944 Page: 30
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
particularly adventurous individual, Philip Nolan, while on an
expedition ostensibly to capture wild horses, was killed in Texas
in March, 1801. His men were captured and after years of
imprisonment, during which one of them was executed by royal
decree, all except one disappeared from history; he was
Peter Ellis Bean, who, after seeing service under Morelos
during the revolution, became an officer in the army of inde-
The United States acquired Louisiana and took formal pos-
session in 1803. Trouble arose almost immediately with Spain
over the fixation of boundaries. The American ministers had
been unable to secure a statement from the French officials as
to just what constituted Louisiana, but there were many who
believed that it extended to the Rio Grande. In 1806, a military
agreement was entered into between General James Wilkinson
of the United States army and General Sim6n Herrera of the
Spanish forces, making the country between the Arroyo Hondo
and the Sabine River temporarily a neutral ground, over which
neither the United States nor Spain should exercise political
jurisdiction. This agreement was generally observed by both
countries; the United States took possession of territory as far
west as Natchitoches, while Spain maintained a small garrison
at its eastern outpost, Nacogdoches.
The Mexican independence movement reached Texas in 1811.
Juan Bautista Casas, a captain of the militia at B6xar, arrested
the governor, Manuel de Salcedo, and the military commander,
General Herrera, and proclaimed in favor of Hidalgo. This
revolt was of short duration and was put down by the local
priest, Juan Manuel Zambrano. Salcedo was reinstalled and
royalist authority again established over Texas. Trouble de-
veloped at Nacogdoches the next year; the Gutierrez-Magee
expedition captured Nacogdoches, Goliad, and Bexar, but in
1813 was defeated by General Arredondo, the military com-
mandant at Monterrey.
President Jefferson was convinced as early as 1804 that the
territory included in the Louisiana Purchase extended to the
Rio Grande. His insistence upon this and his efforts to promote
the exploration of the western territory (to some of which
Spain claimed unquestionable right), and the border dispute
in the Sabine-Red River region, temporarily settled by the
Herrera-Wilkinson agreement, brought the United States and
Spain near to hostilities; and thus Spain was stimulated to
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 47, July 1943 - April, 1944, periodical, 1944; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146054/m1/34/: accessed January 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.