The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 47, July 1943 - April, 1944 Page: 31
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Life of General Don Manuel de Mier y Terdn
adopt defensive measures to safeguard her frontier. Both sides
exhibited old maps and cited historical authorities to support
their contentions. Following a royal order, Iturrigaray, the
viceroy of New Spain, in January, 1807, named Fray Melchor
de Talamantes chief of a historical commission to ascertain
from pertinent documents whatever was available with refer-
ence to the true boundaries of the provinces of Texas and Louisi-
ana before the latter was ceded to Spain in 1762. The arrest
and deposition of Iturrigaray and the subsequent arrest of
Talamantes for his separatist views by the audiencia of Mexico
in September, 1808, interrupted the work of this commission.
The following month, the viceroy ad interim, Pedro de Garibay,
appointed Jos6 Antonio Pichardo to determine the historic
limits of Louisiana and Texas. The results of his findings con-
stitute a monumental work of prime importance to the Texas-
The matter of the southwestern boundary was settled for the
time being by the treaty between the United States and Spain
of February 22, 1819. Negotiations were carried on between
John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State under President Monroe,
and the Marquis de Onis, the Spanish minister at Washington.
This treaty, which was not ratified until 1821, placed the south-
western boundary at the Sabine River. The United States ob-
tained Florida and gave up any claims she might have had to
territory west of the Sabine-Red River line.2
After the Gutierrez-Magee expedition, there was a continual,
but thin, migration of Anglo-Americans into Texas; the eastern
part of the province was particularly attractive to them. In
1819 came the organized invasion under Dr. James Long. This
expedition of about three hundred men was, in part, a protest
1C. W. Hackett, ed. and tr., Pichardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisi-
ana and Texas, I, xiii-xix.
2"The Boundary Line between the two Countries, West of the Mississippi,
shall begin on the Gulph of Mexico, at the mouth of the River Sabine in
the Sea, continuing North, along the Western Bank of that River, to the
32d. degree of Latitude; thence by a line due North to the degree of
Latitude, where it strikes the Rio Roxo of Natchitoches, or Red-River,
then following the course of the Rio-Roxo Westward to the degree of
Longitude, 100 West from London and 23 from Washington, then crossing
the said Red-River, and running thence by a Line due North to the River
Arkansas, thence, following the Course of the Southern bank of the
Arkansas to its source in Latitude 42. North, and thence by that parallel
of Latitude to the South Sea." From Article III of "Treaty of Amity,
Settlement, and Limits of 1819," in W. H. Malloy, comp., Treaties, Con-.
ventions, International Acts, Protocols and Agreements between the United
States and Other Powers, II, 1652-1653.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 47, July 1943 - April, 1944, periodical, 1944; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146054/m1/35/: accessed July 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.