The Southern Mercury, Texas Farmers' Alliance Advocate. (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 9, No. 10, Ed. 1 Thursday, March 6, 1890 Page: 1 of 8
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IIZE, EDUCATE AND CO-OPERATE'
\OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FARMERS STATE ALLIANCE OF TEXAS.]
YOL. IX. JV0. 10.
DALLAS, TEXAS, THURSDAY, MARCH6,1890.
"LIBERTY. JUSTICE AND EQUALITY*
WHOLE NO. i-10
B. D. RAINEY. JB.
h. a wall. l. o hamilton. ¡ The Fublio School Bystem-As It
WCP ..I« and Aa It Ought to Be.
THE IMBODB1Í-HAMILTON MORTGAGE CO.
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TORHN0EuVT0NIR8T8ANI)l FORT WORTH, TEXAS. 100 HoAuRJ¿"R8mND
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Send 15c. In postage stamps for 3 Sample
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Make mora batter, better butter,
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Ha Ha PALMER A CO.
lyo Locust at., ftockford, 111
BY OSCAR H. COOPER.
(Btato Superintendent of Public Instruction.)
LOCAL TAXATION FOR SCHOOLS.
In my last article I called attention
to the constitutional mandate requiring
legislative provision for a state availa-
. . i... ble school fund sufficient to maintain
was reveaieu. into this cavity, en-
larged by the force of a glycerine ex- "the public schools of the state for a
SISPeriod of not ,ess than six months in
The Feathered "Cop."
The description given by The Lon-
don Globe of thi cariamos or soriemas,
located in the eastern aviary of the
Zoological gardens will amuse every-
body, while it should not surprise any
one. That there should be among
birds a species which is iitted to per-
form among its kind the duties un-
dertaken among men by policemen is
* fact for which all ought to be pre-
pared. Why should not each variety
of created tilings have in its midst the
«une sort of functions and function-
aries, modiüed according to circum-
stances and habits? More than on*
ictorial artist—as, for instance, C. H.
ennett in this country—have shown
us what remarkable resemblances
. birds and animals can be made to bear
and actually do bear to man, and if
humanity hnds it necessary to have
' policemen, why should not the "feath-
. .«red tribe" be similarly impelled.
* í Tb<ve$u:;;nw¡ sífilis particiüarly well
íáiiSJ Ifc.íiil" P"*t of pubiiv guardrail.
perambtiiates his cage with all the
regularity of his human prototype on j
his "beat," and if at intervals he emits
piercing shrieks which seemed un-
called tor, he only the more faithfully
•arries out the analogy. This, no
doubt, is his way of blowing the whis-
tle, and when h« does it in his cage it is
probably from instinct or from imme-
morial custom. He has already been
acclimatized in the poultry yard, where
he faithfully performs his duty as the
preserver of order. If two young
oocks assault or batter euch other he
■tops in between them and stops the
eombat "by a series of pecks divided
Impartially at the heads of both."
.Impartiality, of course, is an excel-
lent quality in a policeman, whether
he be bird or man j would there wero
more of it. The origin of the cariama
k. it Beems, lost in obscurity; but it is
admittedly ancient and possibly he
be a lineal descendent of the
bird of ornithological untiquity.
Haw the llottora of an Oil Well Looks.
There are thousands of people who
have desired to see what the bottom of
•noil well looked like after a hun-
dred i luart glycerine torpedo had been
exploded in it. But no ordinary mor-
tal could crawl down a six inch hole
to the depth of 2,000 feet if he wanted
to, and no sane one would waut to if
he could. Bo the curious oil seeker
has heretofore been compelled to guess
aa to the effect of the shot.
An oil country photographer has
furniched the desired picture. The
Successful experiment was made at
Warren. The instrument was letdown
to'the bottom of a 1,700 foot well,
which had been subjected to a torpedo
explosion. When the camera touched
am a bright ilasli lit up the cavity,
ipressing a perfect picture on the
negative. A cavity fourteen feet broad
and seven feet deep below the oil sand
drill hole, the oil trickled aud accumn
luted, ready to be pumped to the sur-
Has nature any more secrets she
would like to bide from inquisitive
man? If so they will need to be buried
beyond the reach of the oil driller's
steel auger. Into the deepest recesses
the drill can penetrate the modern
Ehotogrupher stands ready to turn the
road light of
A Cow Id New York.
A cow has become a stock sensation
in one part of town. Every night at
10 o'clock u real one, alone and con-
tentedly chewing her cud, is driven
into Fourth avenue from East Twelth
street. She unibles along up the ave-
nue in homely country fashion. Most
of the boys and girls of the neighbor-
hood wait up for the event. They take
solid comfort und bubble over with
childish autics in watching every
move of the cow, und slie returns the
attention by mild looks from her big
and peaceful eyes and a switching of
her tail, just as in fly time.
"She's goiu' to do her act," said a
car driver, nodding
toward the cow a few evenings since.
He meant that the cow waa an at-
Ottú*au in a Leigh boring theatre. In
the play there is a country scene, and
the cow—so strange to New Yorkers,
so commonplace to most other per-
sons—is making an unbounded "nU.''
—EL G. R. in Chatter.
Baboons' Fondness for Gnat Milk.
The baboons, always troublesome to
the crops, have of late developed a
new propensity. Mr. H. A. Bryden,
author of "Kloof aud Karroo" (Long-
man's), says: "Some years back some
one baboon having come across the dead
body of a milch goat, discovered and
extracted the milch bag, and, like Eve,
'saw that it was good.' His discovery
must have been quickly imparted to
his fellows, for the Karroo fanners be-
fan to iind their milch goats ripped up
y these brutes solely for the sweet
and luscious milk. The baboons, too,
becoming accustomed to butchering,
presently turned their attention to the
flesh, and will now destroy kids—and,
if they can manage it, goats—for their
flesh aloue." As the author remarks,
this modern development of a carniv-
orous habit coincident with the in-
crease of flocks is analogous to that ob-
served in the sheep killing parrot of
New Zealand. —Public Opinion.
"All farmers admit," says Bro. J. H.
Porter, Harwood, Tex., "that they have
been greatly benefitted by the Alliance
organization. But yet they seem to
be satisfied with what has already been
accomplished. But we will have to
keep up the gght or the enemy will
Renew your subscription at one.
Renew your subscription.
each year," and showed that such leg-
islative provision had not been made,
although it might have been dono with-
out exhausting the legislative power of
advalorem taxation. If the advalorem
state school tax had been 17 y2 cents
on the $100 instead oí 12 cents, the
the funds provided would have sufficed
to maintain the schools for six months
without reduction in the average sala-
ries of teachers. The salaries paid to
teachers were already as low as they
could be made without serious danger
to the efficiency of the schools.
The Constitution also authorizes lo-
cal taxation for school purposes, in the
"The legislature may also provide lor the
formation of school districts within sll or
any of the counties ot this state by general
or special lsws without the locsl notice re-
quired tn other esses or special legislation,
snd may authorise an sddltlon.alsnnusl ad*
valorem tsxtobe levied and collsetedwltbln
such school districts for the further main-
tenance of public free schools and tbe erec-
tion of school buildings therein: Provided
That two-thirds of the qualified property
tax paying voters of tbe district, voting at
an election to be held lor that purpose,
shall vote such tax, not to exceed in any
one year twenty cents on the one hundred
dollars valuation of the property subject
to taxation In sicb district."—Art. VII,
Sec 3, Amended Constitution.
The context shows that the funds to
)e derived from district school taxes
were not intended to be a portion of
the provision for the six months school,
for the authorization of local taxation
was left to the discretion of the legisla
ture while provision for a six months
school term is mandatory.
Apart from the intention of the
Constitution, I am clearly of the opin
ion that it would be better in many
ways that the necessary increase in
available funds should come from local
taxation rather than from an increase
of the state advalorem tax. This con
elusion has been forced on me from
study of the school systems of other
states and observation of the schools
of our own state.
1. The most thoroughly organized
and effective school systems in the
United States are supported mainly by
local taxation. The following table
from the Report of U. S. Commission
er of Education for 1887-8 illustrates
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OCCIDENTAL RHEUMATIC CORRECTIVE.
The entire "materia módica" has been ransaokod for remedies to overcome tbe rheumatic
Prevention lN <he only rational courso of treatment. Stop tho formation of laolio and
butyric acid In the primary and secondary process of digestion, by raising tbo standard of
the nervous system. Hut the renewal or life In tho brain Is slow, tardy and must bo assisted
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Occidental Kidney and
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From State !
s? 1 >
on $100 i
1 3,515,807 10,460,817
If the reader will take the trouble to
count up the figures from the states
mentioned above, leaving out Texas,
he will find that the 'amount of schoo
fund derived from state lax is only one
sixth, while that derived from loca
taxes is five-sixths of the fund, and
that the average amount derived from
taxation for the schools is about $8.70
lor each child. If, then, he will count
up for Texas, he will find that a little
more than three-fourths of the fund
derived from taxes came from the
state fund and a little less than one-
fourth from local taxes, and that the
whole amount derived from state and
local school taxes combined gave
only about $3.60 for each child. We
prabably get better public schools in
Texas for less money derived from
taxation than any other country in the
civilized world, but this is due to the
fact that we get larger returns from
our endowment funds than any other
country. Our state and county en-
dowment funds give us an average of
about $2.50 for each child of school
age, and if this amount be added to
that derived from taxation it gives us
only an average of $5.10 per child
from all sources, or $3.60 less than
the average derived from taxation
alone in the seven states used as illus-
trations above. Of course the states
mentioned above have longer school
terms, better schoolhouses, etc., than
we have. Thus, Massachusetts has
an average school term of 8^ months,
New York of 9 months, Ohio of 7*^
Illinois of 7$ months, and Michigan,
Iowa and California about the same,
while our average term is barely 5
months. The great advantage which
these states have over us—apart from
the fact that their public school sys-
tems are much older than ours and
that they are richer—results from the
fact that in these states the levy of lo-
cal school taxes is universal, while
with us it is exceptional. Our state
school tax is as high as the state school
tax levied in any of these states, but
our local school tax averages only one
twentyfourth of their local school tax,
and this average comes from less than
one-teath of our school districts.
If the reader will revert now to the
table given above and look at the last
column, he will see that the average
ra'es of taxation in the seven states
given besides Texas are respectively
30 cents on the $100 for Massachu
setts, 4j cents for New York, 54 cents
The Swine Breedera Association.
for Ohio, $1.18 for Illinois, 37 cents
lor Michigan, $1.07 for Iowa, and 43
cents for California, while for Texas it
is only 19 cents. The average rate of
school taxes in the whole United
States for the year 1885-6 (See Report
of Commissioner of Education for
1885-6, p. i9)was 49 cents on the
$100, or about two and a half times
the average rate of school tax in our
own state. If every district in Texas
were to levy the maximum school tax
authorized by the Constitution our
school tax would still be less than the
average of the whole country and less
than one-third the rate levied in Illi-
nois and several other states. Many
cities, towns and villages are already
levying sufficient local taxes to give
them, in addition to the state and
county funds, good schools for eight,
nine and ten months in the year. Be-
sides these, several hundred districts
have levied the local tax this year or
before. In these places the schools
are generally excellent, and superior,
as a rule, to any city or country
schools we have ever had in this slate.,
It is desirable that local taxation should
become the rule instead of the excep-
tion in Texas, as it has already become
the rule in other states which have
made the best progress in establishing
and developing efficient systems oi
[TO BE CONTINUED.]
Evkky County secretary Is requested to
present the claims ol Th« Mercury to
bis Alllanoe and urge the members to sub
•oribe and to renew their subscriptions si
The Alliance uf Collinsville have
perfected arrangements to put up a
cotton gin with two Cosan gins, 40-
horse power engine, together with a
roller corn mill, power corn-sheller and
a grainery. Stock has already been
subscribed and matters will be pushed
so as to be ready for the next season.
Bro. C D. Gary Moody says; The
Alliance here is not as strong in num-
bers as formerly, but stronger in de
termination and good work.
Tuesday, Feb. 25, the State
Swine Breeders Association assembled
at the A. and M College* at „ College
Station, Texas, to consider matters 4of
vital interest to the organization.
Though there were only a few of the
members present, they made up in
enthusiasm and interesting argument,
what they lacked in numbers. The
meeting was called to order by Secre-
taiy Holland, and Hon. J. O. Terrell
was called to the chair, and after a
pleasing and appropriate address of
welcome by Prof. L. L. Mclnnis, chair-
man of the faculty, the meeting pro-
ceeded to business.
An interesting discussion arose be-
tween nearly all the members of the
association and Profs. Curtis and
Gulley of the faculty, as to th* jreed
of hogs best adapted to the Texas cli-
mate. The discussion ended some-
what in favor of the association, the
members all maintaining that pure
bred'hogs attain a much larger size in
a shorter period of time than the com-
mon* dreed. After an interesting
morning session, the meeting adjourned
until 7 o'clock in the evening in order
to allow all present to make a tour of
inspection of the cOllcio building and
After a bountiful dinner specially
prepared for the occasion, the guests
under the kindly guidance of Profs.
Mclnnis, Gulley, Curtis and others,
were shown through the buildings and
about the grounds, and all were delight-
ed with the perfect order and decorum
observed by the bright faced boys in
At the night session an interesting
paper on the feeding of swine was read
by W. A. Clark of Temple, also argu-
ments entered into and theories ad-
vanced by the entire body.
F. P. Holland of the Farm and
Ranch, suggested the appointment of a
committee of three to confer with the
State Fair management regarding the
revision of certain rules and regulations
governing the swine department, at
which the breeders have been greatly
disappointed. The committee was
It was the universal opinion of the
breeders that the establishment of the
pork packery at Dallas, with strong
probabilitiy of one at Fort Worth,
would have great weight in stimulating
hog raising, thus giving great encour-
agement to the breeder, who will be
called upon to furnish a breed that get
their growth as quickly and cheaply as
possible. All through the meeting was
a good one, and a degree of determin-
ation characterized its every effort that
warrants the Drediction that though
now in its incipiency, it will soon at-
tain proportions that will make it as
profitable as the cotton interests of
the state. And this should be the
case, as it is one of the most impor-
tant moves ever inaugurated in Texas.
After a hearty vote of thanks to the
entire faculty for their hospitable treat-
ment, the meeting adjourned to meet
again on the grounds of the Texas
Sute Fair, next October.
Among the well known persons in
attendance were. T. M. Bradley,
Ennis; F. P. Holland, Farm and
Ranch, Dallas; S. L. Oliver, W. A.
Clark, Temple; Win. Dunn, Bremond
H. E. Singleton, H. Coats, Lebanon^
Collin county: Dr. W. H. Morrow,
Calvert; Maj. J. K. Rose, Salado; Hon,
J. O. Terrell, Terrell; Col. Herbert
Post, a well known seedsman and cg«
riculturist of Selma, Ala., a represent-
ative of Thb Southern Mercury,
and many others. ^
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Dixon, Sam H. The Southern Mercury, Texas Farmers' Alliance Advocate. (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 9, No. 10, Ed. 1 Thursday, March 6, 1890, newspaper, March 6, 1890; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth186128/m1/1/: accessed July 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; .