The Texas Standard, Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 1949 Page: 3
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GUIDANCE PRACTICES IN TWENTY-TWO LARGE
NEGRO HIGH SCHOOLS IN TEXAS
During the summer of 1947, a question-
naire was drawn up and later mailed to
forty-one principals of large accredited
Negro high schools in Texas. The pur-
pose of the investigation consequently
was to discover the guidance facilities and
practices in the schools, compare their
merits with observations from represent-
ative authorities in the field, and present
the handicaps which keep the guidance
program from functioning adequately.
Twenty-two of the principals responded.
The questionnaires were then separated
according to type of school into two
classes: Junior-Senior high, and Senior
high school. Data were then arranged in
frequency tables which appear in the
Of the twenty-two schools studied, nine
of them or 49 percent operated on the
twelve-year plan, indicating that they are
not reorganized schools. The remaining
51 percent of the schools do have some
semblance of reorganization, but steps in
this direction have been few, mainly be-
cause of economy.
Schools investigated were located in the
following cities: Austin, Beaumont, Bryan,
Dallas (2 schools), Ft. Worth, Galveston,
Houston (2 schools), Longview, Lubbock,
Lufkin, Marshall, Mexia, Paris, San An-
tonio, Texarkana, Tyler, Waco, and Wich-
The average Negro high school prin-
cipal is between forty and forty-five
years of age and has a master's degree.
One of the principals has a doctor of
philosophy degree. A large proportion of
the Negro principals who responded have
the technical training to administer a
guidance program in that 77 percent of
them have taken from one to fifteen
courses in guidance.
By Floyd F. Wilkerson
Booker T. Washington High School
Guidance Courses Twenty-two Principals
of Negro High Schools in Texas
Number of Courses Number Per
Frequency of Mention
No Courses 5 22.6
I - 2 8 36.3
3-4 4 18.1
5-6 2 9.2
7-10 2 9.2
II - 15 1 4.6
All of the twenty-two taught before
they became principals. These twenty-two
principals presided over 14,680 of the 32,-
743 pupils enrolled in grades nine through
twelve of the Negro High Schools of Tex-
As a group, 97.8 present of the 548 teach-
ers represented here hold bachelor's de-
grees, taught an average of 5 and one-half
classes daily, consisting of 31.4 pupils per
45-minute period for nine months. Only
27.5 percent of the teachers had taken
courses in guidance which largely accounts
for the inadequacy of guidance programs
in school in general. Ninety-one percent
of the pricipals would recommend guidance
courses for all teachers so that the whole
school could become guidance conscious.
A prescribed guidance program operated
in fewer than one-half of the twenty-two
schools, or in 45.4 percent of them.
The heads of all schools investigated
reported that their schools operated in
the homeroom plan whereby the home-
rooms met from one to five times daily
and enrolled from sixteen to forty pupils.
Students changed homeroom advisers one
or more times in 92.1 percent of the
About one-half of the schools are pro-
vided with specialists in guidance such
as directors, counselors, deans of boys,
deans of girls, school physicians, phychol-
ogists, coordinators, placement officers,
dentists, health supervisors, visiting teach-
ers, and nurses. Found most frequently
in schools were deans of boys, 54 percent;
nureses, 50 percent; schools physician and
dentists, 36 percent respectively; and coun-
selors, 32 percent. All these consultant
workers are with the school system on the
part-time system, either as a part of the
system as was the case of the dean of girls,
nurses, counselors, and physician or as
outside specialists as was the case of den-
tists, psychologists and psychiatrists.
Counselors in the schools devote practi-
cally all of their time to the educational
phase of guidance which is usually limit-;
ed to the routine of enrolling late pupils,
checking subject sequences and the like.
They have neither time nor space for
counseling. The data shows that only 32
percent of the schools have counselors,
and since these workers are usually taken
from the ranks of teachers, it is assumed
that very few of them had had any train-
ing in counseling techniques.
Programs of testing in the Negro high
high schools studied were inadequate be-
cause of cost, lack of trained persons to
administer tests, lack of trained teachers
to interpret tests, and the lack of files
and filing space in which to keep test
data. Intelligence and achievement tests
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Peace, Hazel Harvey. The Texas Standard, Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 1949, periodical, May 1949; Fort Worth, Texas. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth193754/m1/3/: accessed May 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Prairie View A&M University.