Memorial and Biographical History of Dallas County, Texas. Page: 137 of 1,110
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I TO D L C N3
receding eastward under the influence of excessive
atmospheric decomposition and denudation.
The group mnay have extended at
one time all the way to the Rio Grande.
Tllis formation abounds in fossils, most of
whicl, however, are but poorly preserved
The economic advantages of the white rock
are various. It affords good locations for the
building of cities and communities, not only
on account of the firm foundation for building
and road-beds and good drainage which
it always affords, but also on account of its
sanitary conditions, produced by the imbibing
capacity of the chalk. When accurate
stlitistics re kept, it will be proved that
dwellers upon tlhe clalky lands have a great
lhgienic advantage over those upon sands
al(l clays. The chalks are also water-bearing,
andl while yielding their moisture slowly
they afford an abundance for domestic purM)iegs,
and play an important part in the
transmnision of the rainfall to deptlis from
wlich it can be abstracted, perllaps, in east
'lexas, by artesian wells. This chalk is also
valuable for tile manufacture of whiting,
rouge, etc. Chalk is most used in England,
however, where scientific agriculture has attlited
its highest development for dressing
lands. Thousands of tons are used annually
oni thle non-calcareous lands of Ellgland, where
it is usually applied at the rate of' twenty tons
per acre, just 1as it will ulltimlately be used
Ul1)n the non.1calcareous lands of east Texas
als stoo1 a1s our tagricultutre advances to a stage
where its neckssitvy will 1b appreciated.
Clhalk takes :t cheap, convenlient land
dressing for non-chalky lands, performing in
a more satisfactory manner the functions of
quick-lime in making available other constituents
of the soil, besides contributing to
it minute but valuable proportions of phosphates,
potash and other plant foods.
The chalk will also prove of great use in
the manufacture of Portland cements. It is
the material used in the manufacture of most
of the imported cements; and when the people
of this State properly appreciate what an
immense industry lies at their doors-a
natural Texas monopoly-this region will
become a great cement center for the United
4. THE EXOGYRA PONDEROSA MARLS.
The name given to these marls is that of a
large fossil oyster, which occurs in immense
quantities in certain beds.
The eastward continuation of the AustinDallas
chalk is covered by what is the most
extensive and valuable, but least appreciated,
geological formation in the United States,
namely, a remarkable deposit of chalky clays,
aggregating some 1,200 feet in thickness,
according to reported well-borings and estimates
of the normal dip. In fact these clays
are so little known that no popular name has
yet been accorded them; and hence they are
called after the immense fossil oyster found
These clays occupy the whole of the main
Black prairie region east of the Austin-Dallas
chalk, and forln the basis of the rich, black,
waxy soil. Notwithstanding their horizontal
extent, good outcrops of the unaltered structure
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Lewis Publishing Company. Memorial and Biographical History of Dallas County, Texas., book, 1892; Chicago, Illinois. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth20932/m1/137/: accessed December 16, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Dallas Public Library.