Bell County Democrat (Belton, Tex.), Vol. 12, No. 46, Ed. 1 Tuesday, May 26, 1908 Page: 1 of 4
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a'(U id State Library
Publishes All the Newt
All the Time
50 CENTS THE YEAR.
PXJB3LISHED TWICE .A. WEEK,
It NMIsM to tflM Mid
Deasely Pepalstei Secttea
ef the Great State efTexfe
BELTON, TEXAS, TUESDAY. MAY 26, 1908
BELL COUNTY NEWS NOTES.
Cedar Creek Items.
Crops in this vicinity are not
Wilson Berry has been looking
sad the past two weeks. Cheer
up old boy, she wont stay long.
J. E. Graves and family of
Dunn's Canon, spent the week
with their parents, Mr. and Mrs.
W. It. Pinch.
Miss Minnie Brasher says
she is partial to Berrys above all
It is suspicioned that wedding
bells will soon be ringing as Will
Berry is having a new residence
Mrs. J. D. Taylor and cnildren
visited her parents, Mr. and
Mrs. Seaman Sunday.
Will Stovall and wife of near
Three Porks visited Mr. and Mrs.
Walter McCrary Saturday night.
Wilson says the Daisy is the
prettiest of tiowers while Haston
defends the beauty of the Myrtle.
We are sorry to loose the "Old
Maids," we suspect they have
taken advantage of the leap year.
Mrs. Minnie Vannoy of Berea,
called at Mr. Finch's Friday
Mrs. Will Vannatta visited her
parents, Mr. and Mrs. Palmer
Quite a number of our young
people attended the ice cream
supper at Mr. Joel Homesley's
Saturday night and report a nice
time. Your At'nt Suk.
Sulphur Springs News.
Health in this community is
good with the exceptions of Mr.
and Mrs. Pestus Utley who are
sick at tliis writing.
Crops are doing right well but
the cut worms seem to be enjoy-
Grass and cockles burr are
looking fresh after the recent
Horse back riding seemed to
be the order of the day Sunday.
Among those enjoying this ideal
form of exercise were Trena
Carsten, Lizzie and Lena Rolls,
Julius Kolls. Willie Carsten and
Mrs. Ida Ferguson and cousin,
>■ Miss Pitzpatrick, and children
* visited Mrs. Kolls Tuesday even-
Shack Phillips and Miss Clara
Carsten visited Leonard Utley
Sunday also Mr. and Mrs. Pestus
Utley and little daughter, Louise.
John Cheshire and family visit-
ed at Mrs. Melvin's Sunday after-
Miss Florence Melvin seems
to be "awful" joyous over a lot of
letters she received last week but
says the right one has not arm-
as yet. f
Ruff Fisher and wife visited at
Mrs. Roll's Saturday afternoon.
Charley Altum is much tlated
over the arrival of a son.
Mrs. Nancy Altum has return-
ed from Tennessee after a year's
Well as I am a little know-notli-
#"j iner will blow out the light and
Miss Emma Mooney called on
Misses Ira and Pruda Powell
Miss Ira Powell called on Mrs.
Ethel Humphrey Saturday.
Mr8. I. G. Roberts is visiting
her daughter, Mrs. Lillie Hud-
nel at Hay Branch.
Miss Esther Milen of Prairie
Dell was at the party Saturday
Van Bates was seen in Sparta
Edgar Boren and Will Bates
left Tuesday for Belton, where
they will remain for a while.
Best wishes to the Democrat.
Rose And Pansy.
was a party
There was a party at
Crawford's Saturday night.
Misses Fruda Powell, Emma
Mooney and Lizzie Hall called on
Ethel Warren Sunday.
Miss Marticia Hall spent the
day with Mrs. Ethel Humphreys
Miss Maud White of Belton
has returned home after spend-
ing a few days with, relatives in
Mr. Hall and family spent the
day with J. B. Davis Sunday.
Misses Maud White and Ira
Powell called on the Misses
Warren one day last week.
Will Bates was teeen in Sparta
Miss Olga called at the home
of Mrs. Cranors Sunday evening.
D. R. Walton and mother, Mrs.
Black . spent Sunday evening
with Mrs, Boyd.
Miss Ethel Gregg sure is all
smiles this week. Wonder why?
Harrison Davis, an old Sparta
boy who has been working in
Killeen, returned one day last
week. We are glad to see him
Miss Artie Collier epent the
night with her sister, Mrs. Lie-
zie Ring, Sunday night.
Benton Crawford spent the
day at Mr. Warrens' Sunday.
As I am proud that I am still
in the land of the living this
morning (but hardly see how it
happened) will do homage by
writing the Democrat.
Between the frost, floods, hail
and winds it has just about made
a clean shucking of this country
as enough water has fallen in the
past week to have furnished
plentv of moisture for Ave weeks
to come, if we could have ordered
when in need. As to the wind
well, we have had enough to keep
a fellow cool t:ie rest of his nat-
ural existence, if he could have
had it a little more evenly divided.
And as I said above, I am glad
we are living and enjoying good
health this morning, and feel like
we aught to give thanks to the
weather clerk for pulling us
through with body and soul in-
tact. But as the old adage runs,
it is an ill wind that blows no-
body good, for you can look out
this morning in most any direc-
tion and see the small boy (and
some of the larger ones) with his
fishing rod hieing away to some
quiet waters, to cast his line, and
yank for the big red sun perch.
The farmersare repairing their
reapers so as to be ready to scrap
up what little grain there is left;
as soon as the ground will do to
It is generally conceded that
W. A. Grimes was the heaviest
looser in this country as he lost
about 272 acres of as fine wheat
and oats as has ever been seen in
these parts, while others' losses
were not so great; they were not
any more able to stand their
losses than Mr. Grimes.
The river is out of banks now
but the peoples' think it wont get
as high as it-did some two weeks
ago, as a tojfivhone message ad-
vises thai-It is now falling at Leon
Joe,4eems to be very restless
as hj,'thinks the mail can't cross
tomorrow and we think he is
louring for a letter.
/ George went to Temple yester-
"/ day a"nd liked to have stayed in
L town too long as lie had to come
in during the storm. However
we will overlook this as it is the
first time George has been to
town in some time it would nat-
urally be supposed that he would
have some business to attend to.
Doc Brozzie says he is so proud
that the destruction of crops
don't bother nim in the least—it
is a boy.
As the creeks have been so
high I liven't any visitors to re-
As this is my first I will quit,
wishing long life to the Democrat.
Little River News.
Prank Wofford and baby spent
Monday night with his father
Mack Ferguson returned home
yesterday from Marlin Wells.
Miss Annie Alsup was the
guest of Mr. Allison's family this
Miss Catherine Freeman has
returned tyome from Oklahoma.
Marshall Helms sure looked
lonesome Saturday night. His
girl was not at preaching.
The crops in this community
are looking fine.
Miss Pearl Rawlings spent
Monday evening at Little River,
Mrs. Ada Williams and little
daughter, Daplina, are spending
a few days this week with Mrs.
Housewright at Three Forks.
Come again, Ugly Widow, we
think we know you.
Miss Grace Nichols and little
sister were the guests of Misses
Florence and Kern MoFarland
We will ring off with best
wishes to the Democrat.
Salado Ronte 1.
As I have not seen any news
from this place recently I
thought I would write.
The farmers are all very busy
in this community.
Miss Lula Kuykendall is on the
sick list this week.
Mrs. Sam Kuykendall is up
after a spell of sickness.
Mr. and.Mrs. Lander spent
Tuesday night with friends in
Bob Hall and sister, Nevada,
were at Salado Wednesday.
Miss Sallie Hall and Mrs. Pearl
Hall called on Miss Lula Kuyken-
We have been having plenty of
rain in this community lately.
Well as this is my first at-
temjjt, will close.
Mrs. Spivy visited her mother,
Mrs. Malear Sunday.
Mr. Hollowell, wife and little
son made a trip to Belton Friday.
Mr. Hall and wife of Keys
Valley passed through this place
Little Edith Halbert spent a
few days with her sister, Mrs.
Hall Ray last week.
Mrs. Henry anddaughter, Miss
Bessie went to Belton one day
Luther Johns of Temple was
out on the Ridge one day this
Little Gladys Halbert is on the
sick list this week.
Best wishes to the Democrat
and its many readers.
Chalk Ridge Dots.
Miss Daisy Wesson, is visiting
relatives below Barlett.
Mrs Hutchinson of Prairie
Dell visited Mrs. Cain one day
Miss Sallie and Mittie Brown,
and Emily Wesson made a plea
santcall at Mr. Raymers one day
Mrs Maynard visited Mrs-
Brown one day last week.
Mrs. Cain visited Mrs Miller
one day recently.
Miss Bettie and ;Goldie May-
nard visited Miss Emily Wesson
Mrs. Brown and daughters,
Sallie and Mittie visited Mrs.
Gardner of near Prairie Dell one
day this week.
Mrs. Standifers mother and
sister from Elgin visited her last
week but have gone home.
Miss]Ada Ragsdale visited the
Misses Morgan one day last
Mrs Wesson and daughter,
Emily visited Mrs.Maynard one
Two of Mr.Standifers brothers
are visiting him this week.
Mr. Thompson Brown has pur
chased him a new rubber tire
buggy lookout girls wonder who
will be the first one to use it
with him. Blue Bird.
The Grove is going to have its
news in the paper if it takes all
the young people to write and it
seems that they have all written ex-
cept me so I think it is my time
The rain Sunday was appreciated
by the farmers but not so much by
the young people as quite a num-
ber was caught out in it.
We are glad to have Wiley Owens
among us again, it seems like old
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Sawyer of
Maxdale have been visiting home
folks the past week.
Miss Lillie Tray lor of Belton
spent Saturday night and Sunday
with Myrtle Prater.
Two couples from this place
went to see Miss Irene Barrett Fri-
day night and report a nice time.
The Farmers' Union will have a
lecture here Friday night. Every-
body invited. •
Mack Sherrod went to Belton
Miss Leona Kernes left last week
on account of the illness of her
Marvin Sherrod went to Belle
Plains Sunday morning. Go on
"Taters," we can't stop you.
Miss Ruby Harville was on the
sick list the past week.
Hugh Hannon was in our midst
Sunday. Think he has decided
that there is no place like the Grove
Jim Sherrod has been quite sick
but we are glad to report that he is
up and able to be with us again.
Mrs. Etnel Jones of Belton is
visiting her parents, Mr. and Mrs.
J. C. Harville.
From Shallow Ford.
The farmers will be very busy
after this« fine rain killing grass
The Leon river has been up
but not as high as it was before.
I hope Mr. Sewell will have
good luck with his new mower.
Mr. Archie Powell was seen
driving alone Sunday evening.
What's the matter old boy?
Mr. Jim Rosser is visiting his
brother, Warren Rosser.
Ask Mrs. Powell and Alma if
they get excited when the river
Mr. J. P. Powell is having his
oats cut and says they are fine. >
Success to the dear old Demo-
crat and its manv readers.
Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Kennerson
of Port Worth are spending a
few days here with Mr. and Mrs.
W. H. Hamilton.
Sharpies' Famous "Tubular"
Cream Separators at Smith &
Peyton Hardware Co., Belton.
Buy one now on liberal terms.
Will Stockton of Smith & Pey-
ton Hardware Co. visited friends
in Temple recently.
Miss Bert Carter of Sparks
was here last week visiting rela-
Max Ferguson, who has been
in a low state of health so long is
now at the home of'his brother,
Will, in Three Forks and is re-
ported to be no better.
Visitors of Granger, Mrs. Polk
Atkinson and neice came in one
day last week and were the
guests of J. G. McKay and family
of the city.
B. R. Guess, deptuty assessor
of precinct No. 4 was in the city
E. A. McParland and wife of
Little River came up one day last
week and were the guests ofCam
Bangle and family of the city.
Mr. McParland informed us that
'liis oat and corn crops on the
river were totally destroyed by
the high water.
J. T. King of Bell Plains was
Belton visitor last Friday.
Prof. Alsup and Mack Elliott
of Holland visited the county
site one day last week.
Miss Effie McGinnisof Bartlett
after a visit to Mr. Mckay
and family of this city returned
to home last Tuesday night.
Elbert Potts made a business
trip to Bartlett one day last
Misses Elizabeth and Sallie
Ghent returned from Rockdale
Miss Julia Tarver returned
last Thursday from Hereford
where she had been teaching
Rev. A. P. Cunningham will
preach at Bean's union every
Saturday night before the third
Sunday in each month.
W. R. Berry of Salado was
Belton visitor last Saturday.
I. W.Donaho of Holland was in
the City last Friday on business.
In speaking of the times in gen
eral he said land should be clean
this year as it has been throughly
washed twice this season by the
overflow in Little river.
Charlton. W. Hall of Temple
was in the City last Friday mix
ing with the boys.
Roy Davis formerly a Beltonite
but now of San Angelo returnee
last Friday for a few days visit
with friends in the City.
W. P. Forrest of Holland hac
business in this City on Tuesday
last and while here enrolled his
name on the subscription list 01'
The public school having closec
lastFriday, Prof.'J.H.Marrs prin
cipal of the south side schoo
left for Waco in the after noon.
Miss Ethel West left over
the Katy for Austan last Friday
J.B.Markham a prominent far
mer of the Holland country hat
business in the city last week.
J.R.Holland one of summers,
mill prominent citizens was
town last Friday.
A. L. (Dock) Hannon of For.
Worth came In one day this
week having been called to the
bedside of his mother who was
so badly hurt last Monday.
A Serious Accident.
On Monday last while Mrs.
Hannon who lives on the Lam-
pasas near Hendricks crossing,
was out at the lot, the horses be-
gan fighting and one of them ran
over her throwing her to the
ground. In the fall her hip joint
was dislocated. Mrs. Hannon is
ninety years old and by her ex-
treme age her physicians think
!t hardly possible that she will
ever have the use of that part of
the body again. Drs. Hudson
and McElhannon were called and
ireated the case as best they
could under the circumstances.
Uuder some unavoidable cir-
cumstance Thursday evening at
ler home in the City. Mrs. R.
Franklin took posion medicine,
the effects of which soon became
very alarming,convulsion setting
up at once. A physician was
called and soon relieved the spas-
modic conditons and it is thought
the old lady will recover.
The Katy extra gang of work-
men came in last week and be-
gan work on the bridge on Leon
river for the purpose of streng-
thening so as to enable their
largest engines to pass over with
nerfect safety;the preasantstruc
ture was built only for the light
engines. The bridge crew will re-
main here some time before the
work is completed.
Will Take Post Graduate Course.
Dr. McElhannon left last Fri-
day night to be absent somej
thing like a month. His first
stop will be at Nashville where
le will stay for a few days, and
will then go to Rochester. Minn.,
to take a post graduate course in
surgery. He will attend the
American Medical association at
Chicago the latter part of June,
after which he will visit New
York city and return home.
Mrs. T. W. Cochran Shocked.
During the rain storm early
last Sunday morning, Mrs. T.
W. Cochran of the city *
turning out the electric lights
received a shock sufficiently
strong to knock her down. How
long it was before she recovered
she doesn't know, but it was
some time before she could
up. She felt very feeble all
Sunday from the shock but
considerably better Monday.
William Perkins, an old resi--
dent of Bell county many years
but now of near Uvalda, was in
the city one day la^r week in
company with a realty man. Mr.
Goodwin of Temple.
Roy Scales of Bartlet was a
visitor in Belton one day last week
Jim Wilkerson, a Temple citi-
zen. was a visitor to this city the
latter part of last week.
Tom Prater came in town Sat-
urday bringing help from home
to move his big separator from
some point on the brick yard
road east of the city where they
broke down last Thursday even-
ing. The break was not a seri-
ous one, however, and when the
time comes Mr. Prater will be on
hand to separate the golden grain
from the chaff.
Deputy Sheriff Wiley Pisher
can do other things beside
wrestle with bears. Sunday
evening while fording the branch
in the Leon Bottom his horse fell
with him and he was forced to
display his swimming proclivities.
Its a mighty funny place that
Wiley can't get out of.
Miss Flora Huber, of Eddy, is
visiting the family of August
Senator Piatt Exonorated.
New York—Mae C. Wood,
whose suit for an absolute divorce
from United States Senator Tho-
mas C. Piatt of New York has
been on trial in the Supreme
Court here for several days.was
committed to the tombs prison
late today, after Justice O' Gor-
man had dismissed the complaint
in her action, and ordered her
held in $5-0(X) bail on a charge of
perjury. The decision in Senator
Piatt's favor and the sudden and
sensational end of the suit came
after a day which the defense
occupied largely with the introdu
ction of expert and other testi-
mony attacking the authenticity
of the documents by which the
plainstiff was seeking to estab
lisli her alleged marrige to Sen-
tor Piatt. Miss Wood was recalled
1 the stand in rebuttal. She was
• t d if, hearing the testimony
"lie marrige certificate, she
citerated that the defendant
gave her the certificate as she
and pointedly questioned her; she
repeated her assertion that the
marrige occurred as she had ad-
mitted; that Senator Piatt never
supported her, and when the
Court asked her if she did not con
sider it the duty of a husband
to support his wife she replied
"I do but as long as he was not
enough of a gentleman to do so
never asked him to.
Senator Piatt's counsel then
moved for a dismissal of the com
plaint. It was forthwith gran-
ted by Justice O'Gorman, who
in rendering his decision said;
"I can not credit the plainstiffs
evidence as to the alleged mar-
riage and thejtestimony, as it im-
presses the Court that this is a
most wicked design to support a
false and fictitious claim by for-
gery and perjury."
On last Sunday a reporter for
the Democrat while enroute to
Temple over the interurban, fell
in company with a gentleman
from Illinois who was returning
from San Angelo where he had
been to buy land. In conversa-
tion with the gentleman he stated
that he and a land agent from
his town in Illinois lefta few days
ago for the west, and arrived at
Temple last Thursday evening.
They had to wait there a few
hours for the train going west,
and while waiting at the SantaFe
depot, the land agent went to a
nearby restaurant to get a lunch.
Remaining longer than was
thought necessary, the gentle-
man in the depot went to look for
his friend. He began to look and
inquire but could not locate his
man. Finally the train was
ready to depart and he boarded
it for San Angelo feeling very
much disturbed at the strange
disappearance of his companion.
Reaching San Angelo he pur-
chased the land contemplated but
without the assistance of the
land agent who was with him
when they reached Temple on
Thursday before. The gentle-
man returned to Temple last
Sunday still knowing nothing of
His intention was to take the M.
K. & T. north for his home in the
evening and upon arriving should
he not find that his friend had re-
turned also, his perplexities will
be greatly increased at the
was notified of the affair but up
until Monday had heard nothing
of the missing man.
Mad Dogs Rampant.
Sunday afternoon the usually
quiet town of Belton was thrown
into a state of excitement vhen
the rapid firing of guns were
heard in the fashionable part of
the residence district of the
town. Sheriff Burkes and other
men on horseback were seen
coming down Main street toward
the business section on horseback
in a run, and everybody on that
street ran out of their houses to
see what the trouble was. Again
the firing commenced near the
central high school building on
Main street and it was seen that
they were trying to kill a bunch
of dogs, which were supposed to
be mad. The dogs ran into the
business part of town, and here
the sheriff was reinforced by
Deputies Graves and Fisher, and
from the noise made one out of
sight of the trouble would have
thought that Schley had renewed
activities in the harbor of Santi-
ago. Two dogs were left on the
gory field very dead. Sunday
morning a dog was killed in the
western part of town, which was
supposed to have,' been afflicted
with hydrophobic, and the two
killed Sunday afternoon, makes
a pretty good record for one day.
Real Estate Transfers.
W H Caldwell et ux to W J
P Russell 160 acres out of the
survey, Bell county, $50.
THE LOCAL MARKET.
Wednesday, May 20,1908.
Eggs, 8 1-2 to 0 cts per doz.
Hens $3.00 to $3.25 per doz.
Fryers 2.40 to 3.00 per doz.
Turkeys 5 to 6 cts per lb.
Butter 9 to 20 cts per lb.
Butter fat 20 cts per lb.
Country sausage 10c per lb.
Wheat 1.15 per bu.
Cora 55 to 65 ots per bu.
Oats 50 to 55 cts per bu.
Hay 7.00 to 9.00 per ton.
Pecans 3 to 3 1-2 cts per lb.
Hogs 4 l-2c to 5 per lb.
Cattle on foot 2 to 2 l-2c per lb.
Sweet potatoes 75 cts per bu.
Wood 3.00 per cord.
Wood, cedar 3.00 to 4.00 per cord.
Green Hides 2 1-2 to 3c per lb.
Local Spots, basis 10 1,-4
PROGRAM FIFTH SUNDAY MEETING
Of Salado Association, At Nolanville,
May 28 31,1908.
ate it," sni
'I still reitr
R F Smith et ux to M O Robin-
son lot 7 blk 2, Duncan & Co.,
add to Temple, $1650.
J B Carson et ux to Jas. E
Binkley 54J4 acres out of the M
Hunt suruey, Bell county, $2250.
Stella Grusendorf et vir to
Brown 17 1-2 acres out of the
Peter Conrad survey, Bell Co.,
E T Brown et ux to R H Ewing
17 1-2 acres out of Peter Conrad
survey, Bell county, $1750.
W J Cahhey et ux to A M Mon-
teith, a parcel of land out of the
Mitchell Young survey, $1342.
V W Price to G G Guthery
17 1-2 acres out of the Peter Con-
rad survey, $5635.
D W Littleton et ux to D A
McAlezander, lot 2 blk 5, A F
Bentley'a add to Temple, $1500.
T F Garner to Liszie Smith 27
acres out of the Wm. Potter sur
vey, Bell county,
8:30—Preaching by R. C. Mc-
9.—Devotional, H. C. Bass.
9:30—The Country Churches.
1. Pastorless, Bro. Mobly; 2,
How t« Develop Them, Bro. Rob-
10—The Place of Prkyer in a
Revival Meeting, Dr. J. T. Grif-
10:30—The Place of The Sun-
day School in-a Revival Meeting,
Bro. Parak, Salado.
11—Sermon, B. B. Blaylock.
2—The Work of The Laity in
a Revival Meeting, Bro. Shope,
2.20—How to Present the Or-
dinances of the Church, Dr. Mc-
3—The Kind of Pastoral Work
That Counts.-—H. F. Aulick.
3:30—'The Needs of Our Asso-
ciation, E. G. Townsend. ,
4—Pastor's Duty to the Asso-
ciation, A. L. Aulick. General
8:15 --Who is a Christian, W.
A. Hamlett, Temple.
9—Devotional, Bro. Robbins,
9:30—Relation of Education to
the Church, Dr. W. A. Wilson,
11:30—-Sermon, H. C. Bass.
2—The Work of the Ladies
Aid, Mrs Eli Moore Townsend.
2:30—The Value of the Mis-
sion Program, Mrs. Davis
3—How the Aid May Help the
Pastor, Miss Maggie Griffin.
8:30—How to Conduct a Suc-
cessful Revival, led by B. B.
Blaylock, followed by general
discussion. Let Everyone have
something to say upon this im-
8:15 —Sermon, Dr. McGarity.
9:30—The Sunday School, Bro,
Geo. M. Parker, Bartlett.
^ 3 —Sunbeam Address to Chil-
dren by Bro. R. C. MeCullough.
8:15—Address, Dr. S. P.
Let all churches send money
for associational missions.
Says Book Company is Trnst.
The American Book Company
is a trust and has no legal right
to do business in Texas, accord-
ing to a report which was made
Tuesday to Gov. Campell by
Assistant Attorney-General J. P.
Lightfoot, who spent several
weeks in New York recently in-
vestigating the affairs of that
concern as well as other text
book publishing companies who
have contracts to supply books
for the public schools of Texas.
Mr. Lightfoot says in his re-
port that- the American Book
Company has acquired the pub-
lishing right of many of its com-
petitors and that a number of
concerns to which text book con-
tracts were recently awarded
are affiliated with that company.
The attorney-general will im-
mediately file suit to oust the
American Book Company and its
affiliated concerns from Texas,
and to recover heavy penalties
for alleged violations of anti-trust
laws of the state.
The American Book Company
had been awarded the contract
for supplying the three geogra-
phies to the schools for the next
five years. The other publish-
ing houses affected are D. Apple-
ton & Co. two physiologies;
Houghton,} Wifflin & Co.,
llsh composition; McMillan
Co., mental arithmatic, hygeinic
physiology and elementary ag-
riculture; and Newaon & <Ja
with language lessons and Eng-
' ' > "
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Bell County Democrat (Belton, Tex.), Vol. 12, No. 46, Ed. 1 Tuesday, May 26, 1908, newspaper, May 26, 1908; Belton, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth232319/m1/1/: accessed December 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.