Heritage, 2009, Volume 2 Page: 13
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The majority of Mexican musket balls from excavated sites along the trail were .68 to .70 caliber. The two balls shown above are made of copper, but most
of the Mexican balls were lead.
General Antonio L6pez de Santa Anna and his Mexi-
can army entered Texas in the early part of 1836. Santa
Anna was determined to put the upstart American col-
onists in their place and preserve this remote province
for the Mexican nation. His force numbered slightly
more than 6,000 men, and due to its size, the army nev-
er did march as a single force.
The arms of the Mexican army were as varied as their
troops. Much of the weaponry of Santa Anna's force was likely
acquired from British arms dealers as part of a $16 million
loan from Barclay and Company of England. A large part of
this loan was received in military supplies, such as armaments,
ships, and clothing.
In 1996, I was able to locate and excavate, along with the
Houston Archeological Society, the trail of the Mexican army
as they retreated after the Battle of San Jacinto. This force con-
sisted of approximately 2,500 Mexican troops who did not
participate at San Jacinto. These excavations are ongoing and
continue to add a great deal of information as to exactly what
types of weapons the Mexican troops had at their disposal.2
The primary weapon of the Mexican soldado was the Brown
Bess musket. There are several different types of Brown Bess
muskets, but the most common in the Texas campaign was
the India Pattern. Parts of New Land Series muskets have been
found, but these have been rare.
There is documentation that the cazadores, or light infantry
troops of the Mexican army, were equipped with Baker rifles.
As of this writing, no Baker rifle pieces have been excavated at
any Mexican army retreat sites or at the ongoing excavations
HERITAGE Volume 2 2009
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Texas Historical Foundation. Heritage, 2009, Volume 2, periodical, 2009; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth254213/m1/13/: accessed April 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas Historical Foundation.