Texas Almanac, 1992-1993 Page: 22
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22 TEXAS ALMANAC 1992-1993
Edmontosaurus (42 feet long, 15 feet tall)
Pleurocoelus (50 feet long)
occasionally sinking down on its four-toed front feet,
which were armed with spiked thumbs for defense.
Deinonychus, 10 feet long, weighing 175 pounds and
standing on two legs, was a swift and fearsome predator
with a straight, stiff tail. It was armed with impressive
claws, especially the five-inch movable sickle blades car-
ried on the second toe of each hind foot, which were used
for disemboweling prey. One such blade has been found
in early Cretaceous Texas deposits, confirming the pres-
ence of this carnivore, well-known from other western
states. As far as we know, none of its footprints were pre-
The dinosaurs of the tidal flats and adjoining
marshes and uplands of the Texas Gulf Coast of 105 mil-
lion years ago shared their environment with crocodiles,
turtles and flying reptiles. Also present, and indicative of
the future, were the earliest marsupial mammal and the
earliest placental mammal known to science.
The remaining and largest batch of Texas dinosaurs
is found in late-Cretaceous rocks, of between 75 and 65
million years ago, located in the Big Bend region. These
dinosaurs mostly belong to the last flowering of certain
dinosaur families (as the duckbills and horned dino-
saurs) just before the extinction of dinosaurs as a whole.
The Big Bend country of late Cretaceous times lay to the
west of an inland sea that cut across North America from
the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska. The dinosaur bones were
buried in sedimentary deposits laid down by rivers on
their eastward course toward the inland sea. Nine kinds
of dinosaurs have been identified:
Alamosaurus was a 70-foot-long, 30-ton sauropod of
relatively slender build. It was one of the few of its kind
to survive into late Cretaceous times, most sauropods
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Kingston, Mike. Texas Almanac, 1992-1993, book, 1991; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth279642/m1/26/: accessed June 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.