Texas Almanac, 1992-1993 Page: 79
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in limited numbers in the Trans-Pecos mountains. The been reduced almost to extinction. The red wolf and gray
Gulf Coast hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus leuconotus), wolf are listed on the federal and state rare and endan-
found in the Brownsville area, ranges southward into gered species lists; the few gray wolves which may be
Mexico. The mountain hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus me- encountered in Texas are believed to be occasional indi-
soleucus) is found in sparsely timbered areas of viduals crossing over from Mexico.
Edwards Plateau, Central Texas, Trans-Pecos.
SQUIRREL-The fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) is Reptiles and Arachnids
found throughout East, Central and West Central Texas.
The gray, or cat, squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is found Most of the more than 100 species of snakes found in
generally in the eastern third of the state. The flying Texas are beneficial as also are other reptiles. There are
squirrel (Glaucomys volans) is widely distributed in the 15 poisonous species and subspecies and there are more
Piney Woods and the East Texas Post Oak Belt. cases of snakebite reported in Texas than any other
state. Principal poisonous reptiles include three kinds of
WEASEL-The brindled or long-tailed weasel copperheads (Southern, Broadbanded and Trans-Pecos);
(Mustela frenata), akin to the mink, is found in the Pan- one kind of cottonmouth; 10 kinds of rat-
handle-Plains and South Texas. tlesnakes (western massasauga, desert massasauga,
western pigmy, western diamondback, timber, banded
WOLF-The red wolf (Cans rufus) was once found rock, mottled rock, blacktailed, Moiave and prairie);
over a wide range in Eastern and Central Texas. It is and the Texas coral snake.
now considered extirpated from the wild, with the only
known remnants of the population now in captive propa- Also noteworthy are the horned lizard; the vinegar-
gation. The gray wolf (Canis lupus) once had a wide roon, a type of whip scorpion; tarantulas, a hairy spider;
range over Central, Southern and Western Texas. It has and alligators.
State Wildlife Areas
In addition to national wildlife refuges in the state of
Texas, there are two public lands programs administered
by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. A brief de-
scription of each program is given below. For further
information concerning public use opportunities on state
public lands, write to Texas Parks and Wildlife, 4200
Smith School Rd., Austin 78744, or call 1-800-792-1112.
Type II public lands are lands leased and managed
by the Department to provide public hunting and recre-
ation opportunities. Access to Type II properties is by
one of two types of permits: consumptive use permit
(hunting and fishing allowed) and limited use permit
(may not hunt or fish). Since there are more than 80 of
these Type II lands and most are small, they will not be
described here. A Parks and Wildlife Department map
booklet detailing the areas, rules and regulations is
issued with the purchase of a permit.
Type I public lands are wildlife management areas
(WMAs) where research is conducted concerning the
conservation, management and wise use of wildlife re-
sources and habitats. Hunting is regulated by one of
three permit systems: permission by registration (no
cost), regular permit (nominal daily fee) and special
permit (permit fee assessed for successfully drawn
applicants). A brief description of each Type I area is
Candy Cain Abshier WMA (Chambers County) is a
207-acre tract managed primarily for non-game wildlife.
Located on Smith Point, approximately 25 miles south of
Anahuac, the area is popular with birdwatchers during
the spring and fall. No public facilities are available on
the area but commercial facilities are nearby.
Atkinson Island WMA (Harris County) consists of 151
acres of wading shorebird habitat adjacent to the Hous-
ton Ship Channel. The area is accessible only by boat and
there are no public use facilities on the island.
Brazos Bend State Park (Fort Bend County) consists
of 4,900 acres approximately 20 miles southeast of Rich-
mond, mostly in the Brazos River floodplain. Plantlife in-
cludes oaks, pecan and numerous species of shrubs and
vines. Waterproof footwear recommended.
Walter Buck WMA (Kimble County) includes 2,123
acres on the South Fork of the Llano River approxi-
mately three miles southwest of Junction. The gently
rolling terrain is punctuated by canyons with dense
stands of ashe juniper, elm and live oak. White-tailed
deer are numerous, along with some feral Spanish goats
and free-ranging axis and sika deer. Wild turkey are sea-
sonally abundant. No camping or fires are permitted on
the area, but camping is permitted at South Llano River
State Park nearby; commercial facilities are available in
Chaparral WMA (La Salle and Dimmit counties),
consisting of 15,200 acres eight miles west of Artesia
Wells, is vegetated by plant life representative of South
Texas brush country: thorny brush, or "chaparral," in-
cludes mesquite, pricklypear cactus, granieno, black-
brush and leatherstem. The terrain is flat to gently
rolling. The deer population is moderate; native iavelina
and feral hogs are numerous; quail and mourning doves
are seasonally abundant; Western diamondback rattle-
snakes are common. A primitive campground is avail-
able for hunters; commercial facilities can be found
Colorado Bend State Park (San Saba and Lampasas
counties) consists of 4,592 acres on the Colorado River,
approximately 10 miles above Lake Buchanan. The flat
to gently rolling terrain is cut by Gorman and Spicewood
creeks. Uplands support ashe juniper and live oak, and
there are numerous white-tailed deer. Primitive camp-
ing is permitted; open campfires are prohibited. There
is no electricity available; drinking water and chemical
toilets are provided.
Dam B WMA (Jasper and Tyler counties) is located
on the upper reaches of B. A. Steinhagen Lake. Its 13,445
acres of land and water are generally flat with many
sloughs separated by low ridges. Waterproof footwear,
preferably knee-length, is recommended. Trees include
oaks and hickories, cedar elm, American hornbeam,
black and sweet gums, greenbriers, holly and hawthorn.
Common near water are cypress, tupelo, water elm and
buttonbush. Good populations of white-tailed deer, gray
and fox squirrels, cottontail and swamp rabbits and wa-
terfowl are found on the area. Access is by boat only; air-
boats are prohibited on the Angelina-Neches Scientific
Area of the WMA. Permits are required for camping.
James E. Daughtrey WMA (Live Oak and McMullen
counties) is located between Three Rivers and Tilden.
Approximately 8,000 acres surrounding Choke Canyon
Reservoir are available for public hunting. The rolling
terrain is covered with thorny brush dominated by mes-
quite, blackbrush and cacti. Wildlife on the area includes
a large deer population along with javelina, turkey,
quail, mourning dove, waterfowl and feral hogs. Roads
Elephant Mountain WMA (Brewster County) consists
of 23,000 acres approximately 26 miles south of Alpine.
Vegetation consists of juniper, pinyon, Spanish oak, mes-
quite, sotol, yucca, lechuguilla and cacti. There is a well-
established deer population and a small herd of prong-
horn. Other game includes javelina, quail and doves. De-
sert bighorn sheep were released on the area in 1987 and
are slowly increasing. Primitive camping is allowed;
campfires are permitted, but wood must be brought in.
Water facilities are unreliable; hunters should bring all
Gus Engeling WMA (Anderson County) comprises
10,941 acres northwest of Palestine and 32 miles south-
east of Corsicana. Wildlife research station operated by
Parks and Wildlife for the Post Oak Savannah Ecological
Region of East Texas. The flat to gently rolling post-oak
woodlands, include dense stands of oak-hickory oversto-
ry, along with yaupon, greenbrier, dogwood, hawthorn,
elm and huckleberry. Wildlife includes numerous deer,
feral hogs, squirrels, quail, mourning dove, waterfowl
Granger WMA (Williamson County), located three
miles southeast of Granger, comprises 11,116 acres of
upland grassland with some bottomland hardwoods. The
gently rolling terrain supports wildlife including mourn-
ing dove, quail, fox squirrel, rabbits, pheasant and mi-
grant waterfowl. Only shotguns are allowed on the
area. There is no camping on the area, but Corps of
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Kingston, Mike. Texas Almanac, 1992-1993, book, 1991; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth279642/m1/83/: accessed October 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.