Texas Almanac, 1992-1993 Page: 86
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86 TEXAS ALMANAC 1992-1993
* Crab trap gear tags were made valid for 30 days to
prevent waste caused by abandoned traps.
* Harmful or potentially harmful exotic fish, shellf-
ish and aquatic plants were defined and rules for their
importation, sale, purchase, propagation, possession or
release into Texas public waters were adopted.
* Sharks were defined as gamefish, making the pole
and line the only legal means for their capture. Sharks
are in danger of depletion.
* It was made unlawful for any person to use game
fish as bait.
* Snagging and jerking of fish was better defined to
prevent the taking of fish stunned by cold weather.
* A definition of "legal shrimping operations" was
adopted to ensure against possible abuse of the provi-
sion allowing for the retention of fish (except red drum
and spotted seatrout) caught in shrimp trawls.
* Snapper traps and trotlines were prohibited in the
Gulf of Mexico in compliance with federal government
rules and to protect red snapper and red drum, which
are in danger of depletion.
* Development of an artificial reef management
plan was completed.
* Coastal Fisheries staff was mobilized to assess the
fish kill caused by freezing temperatures in December.
Almost 6 million fishes were killed.
* 1,540 survey-days were spent to estimate landings
and pressure of sport-boat fishermen.
* A one-year survey of shore-based fishermen was
started to reassess the relative contribution of these rec-
reational fishermen to the total saltwater recreational
f Gulf of Mexico waters from Alabama to the Rio
Grande were sampled to a depth of 270 feet during June-
July and October-November with other Gulf states and
the NMFS. This effort was coordinated by the Gulf States
Marine Fisheries Commission through SEAMAP. Re-
sults of sampling were used by the NMFS to evaluate the
closure of Gulf waters to shrimping.
* A statewide mail survey of holders of the saltwater
sport fishing stamp was conducted. The survey exam-
ines species preference, participation and socio-econom-
ic aspects of saltwater fishermen in Texas.
* Routine collection of commercial landings data
continued through a formal cooperative statistics
agreement with NMFS. TP&WD collected commercial
landings statistics on crabs, oysters and finfishes, while
NMFS continued to gather landings statistics on shrimp.
* Studies of spotted seatrout, tarpon and snook cul-
ture and reproduction continued. Methods for artificial-
ly inducing sexual maturity and spawning in these
species were examined. Pond-cultured fry and finger-
ling of several fish species were stocked in Texas bays
and inland reservoirs.
Shrimp made up 84 percent of the pounds landed
and 94 percent of the value of all reported commercial
marine products during 1989.
(Jan. 1, 1989 to Dec. 31, 1989)
Source: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
Finfish Pounds Value
Drum, Black.............. 610,900 $474,600
Flounder ............... . 154,200 187,100
Sheepshead ............. 42,000 12,600
Snapper ................ 589,100 1,185,300
Other .................. 1,069,800 1,168,700
Total Finfish ........... 2,466,000 $3,028,300
Shrimp (Heads On): . ....... 62,453,900 $119,761,700
Brown and Pink ......... . 10,850,300 22,325,700
White ................ 3,807,600 2,018,200
Other ................ 9,066,200 3,946,300
Crabs .................. 1,979,900 4,903,900
Other .................. 202,000 132,000
Total Shellfish .......... 88,360,0001 $153,087,800
Grand Total. ........... 90,826,0001 $156,116,100
Water Supplies and Needs
The 69th Legislature separated the state's single water agency, the Texas Department of Water Resources, into
two agencies: the Texas Water Commission and the Texas Water Development Board. In addition, the three-mem-
ber Texas Water Commission was retained to handle judicial matters, and a six-member Texas Water Devel-
opment Board was retained to establish board policy.
Texas, through its river authorities, municipalities, water districts and state-level agencies, exercises the dom-
inant role in development of municipal and industrial water supplies. Approximately 80 percent of the money
invested in the state's water projects has been provided by Texas entities of government.
Ground-Water Supplies and Use
Aquifers underlie about 76 percent of the area of
Texas. This ground water has long been the principal
source of municipal supplies, but cities now increas-
ingly depend upon surface reservoirs due to depletion
of water in aquifer storage. More than half of Texas'
total agricultural crop value is produced utilizing
ground water for irrigation, mainly from the High
Plains (Ogallala) aquifer, which underlies most of the
Declining water levels, mining and exhaustion of
ground water, coupled with increasing energy costs,
are maior problems facing the state's water managers
Major aquifers in Texas follow (see map):
High Plains (Ogallala) - This formation furnishes
practically the only usable quality water on the High
Plains. It is composed of unconsolidated, fine- to
coarse-grained, gray to red sand, clay, silt and gravel.
Effective recharge from precipitation is small, averag-
ing less than one-quarter inch yearly, whereas ground-
water pumping is heavy, averaging about 8.9 million
acre-feet yearly (1984). Depletion at the present pump-
ing rate threatens this as a water source for irrigation.
The High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer supplies Texas'
largest irrigated farming region, which produces most
of Texas' cotton, grain sorghum and other crops.
Alluvium and Bolson Deposits - These water-bear-
ing deposits are scattered throughout many areas in
the state. They include the Hueco and Mesilla Bolsons,
the Cenozoic Alluvium of West Texas, the alluviums of
North Central Texas, the Leona Alluvium of Tom
Green County and the Brazos River Alluvium of South-
east Texas. These deposits consist generally of sand,
gravel, silt and clay. The quality of the water can
range from fresh to saline.
In the westernmost Texas region, the Mesilla and
Hueco Bolsons are the primary source of water supply
for the El Paso area, where serious problems exist re-
garding ground-water depletion and quality degra-
dation. Other sources of ground-water supply are from
the Salt Bolson (Wildhorse Draw, Michigan Flat, Lobo
Flat and Ryan Flat areas), the Red Light Draw Bol-
son, the Green River Valley Bolson and the Presidio
and Redford Bolsons. In the Cenozoic Alluvium region,
the Coyonosa area of northwest Pecos and northeast
Reeves counties and northeastern Ward County are
the most productive areas of usable quality ground wa-
ter. Supplies are produced from the Seymour aquifer
in North Central Texas.
Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) - This aquifer under-
lies the Edwards Plateau region of Southwest Texas. It
consists of saturated sediments of the Lower Creta-
ceous Comanchean Series made up of sand, sand-
stone, gravel and conglomerate of the Trinity Group
(Antlers Sand); and cherty, gypsiferous, argillaceous,
cavernous lime-and dolomites of the Comanche Peak,
Edwards and Georgetown formations. The ground
water generally flows southeasterly, and near the edge
of the Plateau, movement is toward the main streams
where the water issues from springs. The water ranges
in quality from fresh to slightly saline and is hard.
Most of the municipalities on the Plateau depend on
this aquifer for their water supply. Where the land is
arable and yield from wells is sufficient, irrigated
TEXAS ALMANAC 1992-1993
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Kingston, Mike. Texas Almanac, 1992-1993, book, 1991; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth279642/m1/90/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.