History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families Page: 83
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HISTORY OF TEXAS.
red aced the amount of her apparent obligations
($12,436,991)to nearly half ($6,827,278),
over the president's veto, by a strong vote."
As soon as Texas was annexe l to thle United
States, immigration began to increase, and increase
more and more rapidly after peace was
established. The only drawback to uninterrupted
prosperity was Indian depredations.
Though the main body of each border tribe
professed friendship, the outlying settlements
suffered considerable damage, especially on the
western frontier. These depredations for the
most part were committed by the Comanches,
who generally did their mischief on returning
from raids into Mexico. On several occasions
white men were killed and captives
taken. Also the Choctaws, Chickasaws and
Kickapoos made raids from the north. In
the spring of 1854 a band of Kickapoos killed
the special agent, Stein, and a Mr. Lepperman
from Ohio, near Fort Belknap. The
affair was reported to the Government at
Washington, and aid invoked.
INDIAN COLONIZATION, ETC.
The Indians were the more incited to predatory
raids on account of the diminution of
wild game on the approach of the white race,
and they were in danger of being reduced to
destitution, since their manner of living made
them dependent upon flesh food; and they
were unwilling to adopt the white main's
method of raising domestic animals for a subsistence.
As a remedy for the evil, a system of colonization
was applied, but this system, too,
was quite unwelcome, being more a white
man's method of managing affairs than the
Indians'. Means were to be provide by the
United States Government to aid and instruct
Indian settlers in the cultivation of land. In
carrying out this policy two Indian colonies
were established in Texas in the spring of
1855, on reservations granted by the State in
Young county, one of whlic, consisting (of
eight leagues of land, was located on the
Brazos river, below thle junction ot' Cdlea'
Fork, and fifteen umiiles front Fort 1Belknap.
This reservation was called the nihazos agency.
Tlhe other, comprising four leagues, was sitnated
on Clear fork about forty-five miles
above its confluence with the main river. In
the first colony were placed Anadarcoes, Caddoes,
Talbwacorroes, Wacoes and Tonlkawas,
numbering in all 794 souls. At the other
reservation were 277 northern Coinanches.
At first the reports of the agents at these
points held out every prospect of success.
The Indians of the Brazos settlement, in good
behavior, morality and industry, surpassed
the most sanguine expectations. They voluntarily
abstained from the use of ardent
spirits. By the end of August, public buildings
had been erected,-store rooms, houses
for agents and employees, and a blacksmith's
shop. Two farmers, with assistant laborers,
were employed to instruct thle Indians, and
295 acres of land had been plowed and planted
with corn. At thle other reservation the
Comanches were too late in arriving for cornplanting,
but from the disposition evinced by
them the agents looked forward to the success
of the settlement. Within three years
these settlements attained a high degree of
prosperity. The Brazos Indians, however,
on account of their always having had more
familiar and friendly intercourse with the
whites, were more apt in the new arts, and
their settlement accordingly made more rapid
progress in the arts of civilization. They
erected comfortable dwellings, had school
houses, and were accumulating a goodly number
of live stock by honest methods. Besides,
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Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families, book, 1893; Chicago. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/m1/88/?q=edwin%20antony: accessed May 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; .