My Land, My Heritage, My Hope

Description

Paper submitted to the Junior Historical Society state writing contest held by the Texas State Historical Society, discussing historical landmarks, landscape, and people of Marfa. This written speech accompanied photographic slides (noted in the text with slide numbers).

Physical Description

16 p. ; 23 cm.

Creation Information

Edwards, Nancy 1969.

Context

This paper is part of the collection entitled: Marfa, Diversity in the Desert and was provided by Marfa Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 308 times , with 7 in the last month . More information about this paper can be viewed below.

Who

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this paper or its content.

Provided By

Marfa Public Library

Marfa gained a public library in 1947 with the current building donated in 1973. Through the help of organizations such as the Friends of the Marfa Library, the Library has been able to continue to provide residents with access to materials, programs, and city history.

Contact Us

What

Descriptive information to help identify this paper. Follow the links below to find similar items on the Portal.

Description

Paper submitted to the Junior Historical Society state writing contest held by the Texas State Historical Society, discussing historical landmarks, landscape, and people of Marfa. This written speech accompanied photographic slides (noted in the text with slide numbers).

Physical Description

16 p. ; 23 cm.

Notes

The papers was presented at the Texas State Historical Society convention in 1969 and later at a meeting of Texas Mayors during The Texas Folklife Festival in San Antonio in the late 1970s.

Subjects

Keywords

University of North Texas Libraries Browse Structure

Language

Item Type

Identifier

Unique identifying numbers for this paper in the Portal or other systems.

Relationships

Collections

This paper is part of the following collection of related materials.

Marfa, Diversity in the Desert

These photographs document the local history of Marfa and the surrounding area, as well as local families and the ghost town of Shafter.

Related Items

[Outskirts of Marfa] (Photograph)

[Outskirts of Marfa]

Photograph of the town of Marfa taken from a distance. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Marfa's twenty-five hundred citizens are a blend of three ethnic groups" (p. 13).

[Outskirts of Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39596

[Three students in sweatshirts] (Photograph)

[Three students in sweatshirts]

Photograph of three unidentified male Marfa students wearing hooded sweatshirts and sweatpants. Two of the students' sweatshirts have logos with the text "Marfa Shorthorns." The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Besides football, basketball, tennis, and golf wins, several members of the track team have gone on to higher competition" (p. 13).

[Three students in sweatshirts] - ark:/67531/metapth39597

[Students playing in an outdoor athletic field] (Photograph)

[Students playing in an outdoor athletic field]

Photograph of an outdoor athletic field, taken from across a Marfa street. Four unidentified Marfa High School students are practicing tennis. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Besides football, basketball, tennis, and golf wins, several members of the track team have gone on to higher competition" (p. 13).

[Students playing in an outdoor athletic field] - ark:/67531/metapth39598

[Students with instruments] (Photograph)

[Students with instruments]

Photograph of five Marfa High School students posing together in front of soundproofed walls; three in the front and two in the back. They are identified from left to right as: Beverly Webb (holding a sheaf of papers), Mark Covington (holding a euphonium), Marfa Gene LaLanne (holding a saxaphone), Delma Gonzales (holding papers or another instrument) and Gene Dempsey (holding a trumpet). The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The band members work many extra hours in perfecting their marching and concert material for contests" (p. 13).

[Students with instruments] - ark:/67531/metapth39599

[Hunter Gymnasium at Marfa High School] (Photograph)

[Hunter Gymnasium at Marfa High School]

Photograph of several unidentified students gathering near the Hunter Gymnasium at Marfa High School. There is a flag pole with the American flag and another flag in front of the building. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The students themselves take pride in their town by winning awards in nearly all activities. Junior Historians are creating a museum to honor their founders" (pp. 12-13).

[Hunter Gymnasium at Marfa High School] - ark:/67531/metapth39600

[Marfa billboard] (Photograph)

[Marfa billboard]

Photograph of a billboard at the side of the road welcoming golfers to Marfa, Texas. The billboard has an image with a golfer, golf cart, and hold, with the text "Welcome to Marfa. Relax & Play the Highest Golf Course in Texas (Elevation 4882 Ft.), Bent Greens, Bermuda Fairways. Entrance to Big Bend National Park." A smaller sign underneath says "July 4-14, 1967." The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The golf course is one of the best in the state and encourages young golfers to pursue their interests" (p. 12).

[Marfa billboard] - ark:/67531/metapth39601

[Coffield Park] (Photograph)

[Coffield Park]

Photograph of the swimming pool and surrounding areas of Coffield Park, in Marfa, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Marfa citizens are very proud of their youth and realize that young people are the future of our country. Marfa citizens provide several facilities for warm weather enjoyment. The Marfa Lions Club takes care of the public pool during the summer. Coffield park provides a baseball diamond for Little Leagers" (p. 12).

[Coffield Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39602

[Marfa street scene] (Photograph)

[Marfa street scene]

Photograph of several storefrongs on a Marfa, Texas street, including a jewelry store in the background. Cars are parked outside of the buildings, on the left side of the image, and there is an American flag. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Positive Americanism is too seldom publicized. The people of Marfa demonstrate their patriotism and love for America by daily flying American flags from all businesses" (p. 12).

[Marfa street scene] - ark:/67531/metapth39603

[Glider in the sky] (Photograph)

[Glider in the sky]

Photograph of a white glider in the sky above Marfa, Texas. "6X" is written on the underside of one wing. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The Presidio County Airport between Marfa and Alpine [...] is the site of several regional and national soaring contests. The International Soaring Contest, never before held in the Western Hemisphere, will be held here in 1970" (p. 12).

[Glider in the sky] - ark:/67531/metapth39604

[Presidio County Airport] (Photograph)

[Presidio County Airport]

Photograph of the Presidio County Airport, viewed from across a paved tarmac. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The Presidio County Airport between Marfa and Alpine, important during World War II as a training base for pilots, is the site of several regional and national soaring contests" (p. 12).

[Presidio County Airport] - ark:/67531/metapth39605

[Soaring in Marfa] (Photograph)

[Soaring in Marfa]

Photograph of a man in the cockpit of a glider on a tarmac. Five men are standing around the glider, looking down at it. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "A new source of revenue in the Big Bend is coming with the growing popularity of soaring" (p. 12).

[Soaring in Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39606

[Car and set from movie Giant] (Photograph)

[Car and set from movie Giant]

Photograph of a set from the movie, "Giant" including the front of a stone mansion with a car parked in front. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The house used for the shooting still stands in the pasture where it was put together nearly fourteen years ago" (p. 12).

[Car and set from movie Giant] - ark:/67531/metapth39607

[Frame of a mansion on the set of Giant] (Photograph)

[Frame of a mansion on the set of Giant]

Photograph of a set from the movie, "Giant" showing a close up of one side and the wooden bracing across the back of the facade. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "In 1955, a Warner Brothers film crew [...] moved into Marfa [for] the on-location shooting of the movie, 'Giant,' based on the novel by Edna Ferber. The three hundred stars' and crewmen's presence was probably the most exciting event in Marfa's recent history" (pp. 11-12).

[Frame of a mansion on the set of Giant] - ark:/67531/metapth39608

[Set of Giant] (Photograph)

[Set of Giant]

Photograph of a set from the movie, "Giant" including the front of a stone mansion that has decorative ironwork along the roofline. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "During a severe drought which strained the economy, help came from a glamorous source. In 1955, a Warner Brothers film crew with movie stars, including Elizabeth Taylor, Rock Hudson, Chill Wills, and others moved into Marfa. The event was the on-location shooting of the movie, 'Giant,' based on the novel by Edna Ferber" (p. 11).

[Set of Giant] - ark:/67531/metapth39609

[Sheared sheep roundup] (Photograph)

[Sheared sheep roundup]

Photograph of four cowboys on horseback rounding up sheep in pens. A group of sheared sheep are in a pen in the foreground and a group of unsheared sheep are grouped on the other side of the fence, with the cowboys spread out behind them. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Although modern inventions have made ranching easier, the truck can't compare to the cow pony when it is time for round-up" (p. 11).

[Sheared sheep roundup] - ark:/67531/metapth39610

[Cowboy with horse] (Photograph)

[Cowboy with horse]

Photograph of a cowboy adjusting the saddle on a horse, in front of a wood and wire fence. On the other side of the fence, there are several parked trucks, a windmill, and a second cowboy who appears to be on horseback. A desert hill is visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Although modern inventions have made ranching easier, the truck can't compare to the cow pony when it is time for round-up" (p. 11).

[Cowboy with horse] - ark:/67531/metapth39611

[Sheep being sheared near Marfa] (Photograph)

[Sheep being sheared near Marfa]

Photograph of two men shearing sheep who are laying on a low platform in a pen. A third man is in the background, looking at fleeces and tools around the fence of the pen. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Shearing usually takes place in April before lambing season" (p. 11).

[Sheep being sheared near Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39612

[Sheep in a field near Marfa] (Photograph)

[Sheep in a field near Marfa]

Photograph of a flock of sheep a field; a structure is partially visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Sheep ranching is most successful on the stony, rolling hills" (p. 11).

[Sheep in a field near Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39613

[Head of cattle in a field near Marfa] (Photograph)

[Head of cattle in a field near Marfa]

Photograph of a herd of brown-and-white cattle in a grassy field; there are mountains in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Cattle ranching is the primary industry of this country. The major breeds raised are Hereford, Brahmas, Angus, and Charolais" (p. 11).

[Head of cattle in a field near Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39614

[Two heads of cattle behind barbed wire] (Photograph)

[Two heads of cattle behind barbed wire]

Photograph of two large brown-and-white cattle behind a barbed wire fence in the Big Bend area. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Cattle ranching is the primary industry of this country" (p. 11).

[Two heads of cattle behind barbed wire] - ark:/67531/metapth39615

[Two bobcats at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Two bobcats at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of two bobcats drinking from a body of water at Big Bend National Park. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Ranchers often have to hunt mountain lion, coyote, and bobcat to protect their flocks of sheep and newborn calves" (p. 11).

[Two bobcats at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39616

[Javelina at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Javelina at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of a javelina at Big Bend National Park. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Rattlesnake, badger, and Javelina make the dry, brushy areas their domain. Many ranch children have raised baby Javelinas into fine pets" (p. 11).

[Javelina at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39617

[Badger at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Badger at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of a badger at Big Bend National Park. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Rattlesnake, badger, and Javelina make the dry, brushy areas their domain" (p. 11).

[Badger at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39618

[Grassy Landscape at Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Grassy Landscape at Big Bend]

Photograph of bushes in the Big Bend landscape with a long line of mountains in the background. The image accompanied a written speech with the caption: "J. M. Dean, an attorney from El Paso, bought land around Marfa" (p. 6).

[Grassy Landscape at Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39651

[Early railroad station in Marfa, Texas] (Photograph)

[Early railroad station in Marfa, Texas]

Photograph of one of the first railway stations in the Big Bend area. It is a long, one-story wooden structure with a two-story section on the far left. A carriage is parked outside the building. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The chief engineer gave the honor of naming the newly-created water stop to his wife, who was reading a Russian novel. She named the stop, Marfa, after the book's heroine. In 1882, Presidio County also contained the present counties of Jeff Davis and Brewster as well as Presidio" (p. 6).

[Early railroad station in Marfa, Texas] - ark:/67531/metapth39652

[Barren landscape with small mountains in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Barren landscape with small mountains in Big Bend]

Photograph of a grassy, barren Big Bend landscape, with mountains in the far distance. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The chief engineer gave the honor of naming the newly-created water store to his wife, who was reading a Russian novel" (p. 6).

[Barren landscape with small mountains in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39653

[Big Bend landscape with unidentified mountain peak] (Photograph)

[Big Bend landscape with unidentified mountain peak]

Photograph of a desert landscape in the Big Bend area with a prominent mountain in the center. A dirt road is visible in the foreground as well as an unidentified building. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The city fathers didn't want the noise of the trains to disturb their beautiful, quiet town, and the plan was revised so the tracks would be laid twenty-five miles south" (p. 6).

[Big Bend landscape with unidentified mountain peak] - ark:/67531/metapth39654

[Big Bend landscape with mountains and trees] (Photograph)

[Big Bend landscape with mountains and trees]

Photograph of a desert landscape in the Big Bend area, including trees and bushes with mountains in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The Big Bend really began to open up when in 1882 the Southern Pacific Railroad planned to lay rails through Ft. Davis on its way to the ocean. The city fathers didn't want the noise of the trains to disturb their beautiful, quiet town, and the plan was revised so the tracks would be laid twenty-five miles south" (p. 6).

[Big Bend landscape with mountains and trees] - ark:/67531/metapth39655

[Longhorn cattle in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Longhorn cattle in Big Bend]

Photograph of three longhorns in Big Bend ranch, standing in a fenced area in front of a desert area with a mountain in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "His [Don Milton Faver's] entire herd of three hundred cattle was run off by the Indians, leaving him with only thirty or forty calves which were in a corral. From this meager beginning, he built a second herd of ten to twenty thousand" (p. 6).

[Longhorn cattle in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39656

[Ranch home in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Ranch home in Big Bend]

Photograph of the front of the Cibolo ranch home in Presidio, surrounded by desert trees and landscape. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The first Anglo-American rancher in the Big Bend was Don Milton Faver. He established three ranch headquarters when he came in 1857. His first cattle were Mexican longhorns which he branded with a 'lazy F' on the left hip " (pp. 5-6).

[Ranch home in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39657

[Portrait of Don Milton Faver] (Photograph)

[Portrait of Don Milton Faver]

Photograph of Don Milton Faver, wearing a suit, seated next to a child partially visible on the far left. The image accompanied a written speech with the caption: "The first Anglo-American rancher in the Big Bend was Don Milton Faver" (p. 5).

[Portrait of Don Milton Faver] - ark:/67531/metapth39658

[Windmill and ruins in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Windmill and ruins in Big Bend]

Photograph of a windmill on top of a small fort in Big Bend. Various sparse bushes surround it and a rocky hillside is to the right of the fort. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The presence of a United States Army fort in the Big Bend encouraged more settlers to ranch" (p. 5).

[Windmill and ruins in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39659

[Craggy desert landscape in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Craggy desert landscape in Big Bend]

Photograph of a rocky desert landscape in Big Bend near Marfa, Texas. The landscape has sparse grasses and weeds; two hilltops are visible in the top right corner of the image. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[John W.] Spencer tried horse and cattle raising, but because of Indians, failed" (p. 4).

[Craggy desert landscape in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39660

[Mountainside at Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Mountainside at Big Bend]

Photograph of a pathway on a rocky hillside in the Big Bend area. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "An exploratory group headed by John W. Spencer met in Chihuahua and came into the Big Bend. This was the first of the rush of settlers to come on the Chihuahua Trail" (p. 4).

[Mountainside at Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39661

[Sul Ross Normal College] (Photograph)

[Sul Ross Normal College]

Photograph of the administration building and another academic building at Sul Ross Normal College, in Alpine, Texas. Both buildings are large, three-story brick buildings with Greek revival architecture, including multi-story white columns around the entrances. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Several groups of concerned people began to work for a college to serve the surrounding counties" (p. 9).

[Sul Ross Normal College] - ark:/67531/metapth39630

[Marfa High School featuring the J.E. Gregg Auditorium ] (Photograph)

[Marfa High School featuring the J.E. Gregg Auditorium ]

Photograph of a large brick building labeled "J.E. Gregg Auditorium" at Marfa High School. A group of people are lining up to enter the auditorium next to a marquee that says: "Annual Staff Variety Show March 3rd." The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "High schools were built in all three towns [ -- Marfa, Aloine, and Ft. Davis -- ] and a new high school was erected in Marfa in 1926" (p. 9).

[Marfa High School featuring the J.E. Gregg Auditorium ] - ark:/67531/metapth39631

[Marfa Public High School] (Photograph)

[Marfa Public High School]

Photograph of a large, three-story brick educational building near Marfa, Texas. The building has architectural embellishments around the windows and along the roofline, as well as Classic revival-style architecture in the front, with two-story columns around the front entrance. There is also a square tower visible at the back of the building. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "With the more important mission of staying alive relieved somewhat, the citizens of Marfa, Aloine, and Ft. Davis dedicated more time to the education of their children. A school was started in 1885 by Kate Barnhart in Marfa. High schools were built in all three towns..." (p. 9). This building is identified as Marfa Public High School, which burned down in the early 1900s.

[Marfa Public High School] - ark:/67531/metapth39632

[Mexican refugees being loaded on trains] (Photograph)

[Mexican refugees being loaded on trains]

Photograph of Mexican refugees fleeing during Pancho Villa's attacks. A large group of people are being loaded onto a flatbed train car; on the right, one unidentified man is helping a woman onto the train. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The people were loaded onto railroad cars and sent to El Paso to be relocated in Mexico near Juarez. Finally, in 1920, when Carranza was ousted as President of Mexico, Pancho Villa made peace with the government" (p. 9).

[Mexican refugees being loaded on trains] - ark:/67531/metapth39633

[Mexican refugees fleeing from Pancho Villa] (Photograph)

[Mexican refugees fleeing from Pancho Villa]

Photograph of Mexican refugees fleeing during Pancho Villa's attacks. Several groups of Mexican refugees are seated on the ground and mules are wandering around the camp; men in suits are visiting with the refugees. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "At one time ten thousand frightened Mexican refugees flooded into Marfa trying to escape Villa's depredations" (p. 9).

[Mexican refugees fleeing from Pancho Villa] - ark:/67531/metapth39634

[Ruins near Marfa] (Photograph)

[Ruins near Marfa]

Photograph of stone ruins surrounded by desert brush near Marfa, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Because of the presence of the U.S. Army, and help provided by the Texas Rangers and Border Patrol, many raids were prevented. Still, ranchers and their families were slaughtered and their stock stolen" (pp. 8-9).

[Ruins near Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39635

[Fort D. A. Russell] (Photograph)

[Fort D. A. Russell]

Photograph of a series of one-story white buildings making up part of Camp Marfa, viewed from across a large, open, grassy field. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Camp Marfa, later Ft. D. A. Russell, housed cavalry troops during this time [from 1915 to 1920]" (p. 8).

[Fort D. A. Russell] - ark:/67531/metapth39636

Transporting soldiers from Marfa to border by US Army trucks (Photograph)

Transporting soldiers from Marfa to border by US Army trucks

Photograph of United States troops heading from Marfa, Texas, to the Mexican border. The uniformed men are piled into a line of open military trucks with covered beds. A note in the lower-right corner says "Transporting soldiers from Marfa to border by U.S. Army trucks." The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "These troops resisted Mexican bandits under the leadership of Pancho Villa who raided ranches and farms on both sides of the Rio Grande" (p. 8).

Transporting soldiers from Marfa to border by US Army trucks - ark:/67531/metapth39637

[Robert E. Lee Tyler and others at the Half-Way House] (Photograph)

[Robert E. Lee Tyler and others at the Half-Way House]

Photograph of Robert E. Lee Tyler with a group of people (including two horse-drawn wagons) at the Half-Way House in Marfa, Texas. The building is a small, one-story stone structure. A handwritten note in the lower-left corner says "1/2 Way house." The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[Robert E. Lee Tyler] married Dora Collins from the rapidly growing town of Marfa and took her to live at a lonely ranch house between Marfa and Shafter. At the Half-way House they provided food for ranch hands, miners, and stage passengers. In 1885, Mr. Tyler bought a ranch and used TYL as his brand on some of the finest Hereford cattle in West Texas" (p. 7).

[Robert E. Lee Tyler and others at the Half-Way House] - ark:/67531/metapth39638

[Robert E. Lee Tyler with two children] (Photograph)

[Robert E. Lee Tyler with two children]

Photograph of Robert E. Lee Tyler seated in an easy chair and two young girls are leaning against the left arm of the chair, looking at him. A large radio is in the room next to the girls and a dining room table appears to be partially visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "My family has been in the Big Bend since 1882, when my great-grandfather, Robert E. Lee Tyler, traveled through the Big Bend with his brother, Will, while driving sheep from Georgetown, Texas to present Jeff Davis county. He sold the flock to A. G. Gage and stayed to work for him" (p. 7).

[Robert E. Lee Tyler with two children] - ark:/67531/metapth39639

[Early picture of Presidio County courthouse] (Photograph)

[Early picture of Presidio County courthouse]

Photograph of the Presidio County courthouse in the middle of an open desert landscape. There is a small wooden building on the left of the courthouse and a stone building to the far right of the courthouse. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The courthouse and jail in Marfa were built in 1886 from local brick and stone. Eight-three years later, this is the same courthouse, a West Texas landmark" (pp. 6-7).

[Early picture of Presidio County courthouse] - ark:/67531/metapth39640

[Bighorn sheep at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Bighorn sheep at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of two male and one female bighorn sheep on the side of a hill or mountain, surrounded by desert brush and bushes at Big Bend National Park. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Bighorn sheep are being reintroduced in the rocky mountains of the Black Gap Game Preserve" (p. 11).

[Bighorn sheep at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39619

[Quail at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Quail at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of two quail standing on stones in front of brush and greenery at Big Bend National Park. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Quail and dove seasons net a good time and a fine meal as well as controlling flock population" (p. 11).

[Quail at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39620

[Antelope herd at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Antelope herd at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of an antelope herd at Big Bend National Park; more than fifteen antelope are running across a large grassy plain. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The wildlife is as varied as the land on which it feeds. During the hunting seasons, sportsmen come to kill mule deer and antelope. The casual traveler can usually spot both grazing in the pastures" (p. 11).

[Antelope herd at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39621

[Body of water at Big Bend National Park surrounded by buildings and hills] (Photograph)

[Body of water at Big Bend National Park surrounded by buildings and hills]

Photograph a river winding through the desert landscape at Big Bend National Park. Some buildings are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The native has a deep respect of the land which the traveler must quickly learn if he takes it upon himself to stray from the trails" (p. 10).

[Body of water at Big Bend National Park surrounded by buildings and hills] - ark:/67531/metapth39622

[Small body of water at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Small body of water at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of the banks of a curving river at Big Bend National Park. Vegetation is growing along the banks of the water and there are desert hills rising on the right side of the photo. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "An excellent highway curves through terrain in which hikers are often lost in the rough mountains of the park along the Rio Grande. The native has a deep respect for the land which the traveler must quickly learn if he takes it upon himself to stray from the trails" (p. 10).

[Small body of water at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39623

[Mountains and shrubbery at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Mountains and shrubbery at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of mountains at Big Bend National Park, taken from between two mountain peaks overlooking a valley. Another mountain peak is in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Work was begun in 1934 to establish a national park out of the newly created Big Bend State Park. It wasn't until nine years later that the park became a reality" (p. 10).

[Mountains and shrubbery at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39624

[Mountains and hills at Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Mountains and hills at Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of a mountain peak and grassy hills in Big Bend National Park; a group of cacti are visible in the foreground. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Long termed as 'the end of the world' of the 'jumping off' place, the thorns and rocks and adverse geography with the land's beautiful and unusual contrasts have been enjoyed by many people who pass through the Big Bend National Park" (p. 10).

[Mountains and hills at Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39625

[Big Bend National Park] (Photograph)

[Big Bend National Park]

Photograph of a body of water at Big Bend National Park, with hills and mountain ridges rising up on either side and in the background of the photo. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Long termed as 'the end of the world' of the 'jumping off' place, the thorns and rocks and adverse geography with the land's beautiful and unusual contrasts have been enjoyed by many people who pass through the Big Bend National Park" (p. 10).

[Big Bend National Park] - ark:/67531/metapth39626

[McDonald Observatory and Davis Mountains] (Photograph)

[McDonald Observatory and Davis Mountains]

Photograph of two domed buildings on a mountaintop; they contain telescopes that are part of the McDonald Observatory. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The McDonald Observatory was constructed on Mt. Locke in the Davis Mountains in the 1930's with money given to the University of Texas by William Johnson McDonald. The site was chosen because of its high percentage of clear nights and its isolation from brightly lighted cities. The observatory is sixty-eight hundred feet above sea level, and until 1948, the 82-inch lens was the larges in the world. In 1968, a new 107-inch lens was installed in a new building adjacent to the original plant" (pp. 9-10).

[McDonald Observatory and Davis Mountains] - ark:/67531/metapth39627

[McDonald Observatory] (Photograph)

[McDonald Observatory]

Close-up photograph of the exterior of McDonald Observatory, a round, white building several stories tall, capped with a very large dome. A seal and text are visible above the entrance. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Some would designate the rough inaccessibility of the Davis Mountains of the Big Bend a handicap, but this resource has turned to great advantage. The McDonald Observatory was constructed on Mt. Locke in the Davis Mountains in the 1930's with money given to the University of Texas by William Johnson McDonald" (pp. 9-10).

[McDonald Observatory] - ark:/67531/metapth39628

[Ben Leaton and Juana Pedraza] (Photograph)

[Ben Leaton and Juana Pedraza]

Portrait of Ben Leaton and Juana Pedraza posing together. Juana is wearing a dark-colored dress and is seated in a wooden chair; Leaton is wearing a dark colored suit, standing to her left, with one hand on her arm. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "An exploratory group headed by John W. Spencer met in Chihuahua and came into the Big Bend" (p. 4).

[Ben Leaton and Juana Pedraza] - ark:/67531/metapth39662

[Fort Leaton ruins in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Fort Leaton ruins in Big Bend]

Photograph of a stone or adobe building that is part of the ruins of Fort Leaton ("El Fortin"), near Rio Grande, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Ben Leaton sold guns and ammunition to the Indians to kill the immigrants on the wagon trains. He then gave aid and shelter to the same immigrants at 'El Fortin.' He was called the 'Noble Desperado'" (p. 4).

[Fort Leaton ruins in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39663

[Big Bend landscape with tractors] (Photograph)

[Big Bend landscape with tractors]

Photograph of farm fields in front of a mountain range, located in the Big Bend area. Several tractors and wagons are visible on dirt roads around the fields and desert scrub is visible in the foreground. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The two to three hundred acres behind the mission have been given the title of 'the oldest piece of land continuously used for farming in North America'" (p. 4).

[Big Bend landscape with tractors] - ark:/67531/metapth39664

[Wide angle view of Presidio ruins] (Photograph)

[Wide angle view of Presidio ruins]

Photograph of ruins in Big Bend desert. Several bushes and cacti are visible in the foreground. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Ben Leaton rebuilt the mission when he came to the Big Bend in 1848" (pp. 3-4).

[Wide angle view of Presidio ruins] - ark:/67531/metapth39665

[Additional ruins of Presidio structure] (Photograph)

[Additional ruins of Presidio structure]

Photograph of Fort Leaton ruins in the Big Bend desert, near Presidio, Texas. Several wood support beams of varying lengths support the wall structure. A stone marker near the photograph's left quadrant describes the structure. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The mission was successful, and Christianized many of the tribes until the Padres were called back from this wilderness in the eighteenth century" (pp. 3-4).

[Additional ruins of Presidio structure] - ark:/67531/metapth39666

[Ruins of Presidio structure] (Photograph)

[Ruins of Presidio structure]

Photograph of intact ruins in the Presidio desert; the structure is a long rectangle with a square opening. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "El Apostol Santiago built, with Indian labor, a mission on the north side of the Rio Grande in 1684" (p. 3).

[Ruins of Presidio structure] - ark:/67531/metapth39667

[Tree in Presidio landscape] (Photograph)

[Tree in Presidio landscape]

Photograph of a tree and bushes in Presidio desert. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "El Apostol Santiago built, with Indian labor, a mission on the north side of the Rio Grande in 1684" (p. 3).

[Tree in Presidio landscape] - ark:/67531/metapth39668

[Pictures of Presidio indians in a museum] (Photograph)

[Pictures of Presidio indians in a museum]

Photograph of images hanging on a wall in a Presidio museum. There is a painting of an Apache Indian on the left and a photograph of an older Indian seated among desert cacti and brush on the right. Text is printed below the images, but is not readable. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "After the death of the Apache chief, Victorio, the Big Bend was relatively safe. Fort Davis was decommissioned in 1891, after outliving its usefulness" (p. 5).

[Pictures of Presidio indians in a museum] - ark:/67531/metapth39669

[Several ruins in Presidio] (Photograph)

[Several ruins in Presidio]

Photograph of the remains of several stone buildings that are part of the remaining ruins of a Presidio ranch. The ruins are next to a road lined with small posts, visible in the lower-right corner, and desert mountains are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "These are the ruins of the ranch house of another West Texas settler whom the land defeated. Manuel Musquiz tried to homestead in the canyon near the present town of Ft. Davis in 1854. Continued Indian raids drove him back to the security of the East" (p. 4).

[Several ruins in Presidio] - ark:/67531/metapth39670

[Ruins of a ranch in Presidio] (Photograph)

[Ruins of a ranch in Presidio]

Photograph of the ruins of a small stone fort that were part of a ranch in Presidio. The ruins are in a desert landscape and rocky mountains are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Besides farming, [John W. Spencer] ran several stores in Ojinaga and Presidio" (p. 4)

[Ruins of a ranch in Presidio] - ark:/67531/metapth39671

[Presidio County courthouse] (Photograph)

[Presidio County courthouse]

Photograph of the Presidio County courthouse, visible behind a line of trees. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The courthouse and jail in Marfa were built in 1886 from local brick and stone" (p. 7).

[Presidio County courthouse] - ark:/67531/metapth39641

[Hotels and industry near Marfa] (Photograph)

[Hotels and industry near Marfa]

Photograph containing two images of towns near and around Marfa. The top half features a pool hall and several unidentified buildings lining one side of a street; the lower portion features a large brick building with the words "Murphy-Walker Company" and the Hotel Saint George in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The separate counties of Brewster and Jeff Davis were later carved from Presidio county by citizens who had no interests in Marfa" (p. 7).

[Hotels and industry near Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39642

[United States troops at Marfa] (Photograph)

[United States troops at Marfa]

Photograph of U.S. cavalry troops in uniform lined up on a street in Marfa, Texas in front of a series of buildings. Several men are standing on the right side of the image including two holding flags. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "United States troops were ordered into the Big Bend from 1915 to 1920 because the area was plagued with a new and terrible trouble" (p. 8).

[United States troops at Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39643

[Texas Barbed Wire] (Photograph)

[Texas Barbed Wire]

Photograph of a wooden display board with samples of a variety of barbed wires used in Texas barbed wire. Each wire sample has a label, though they are unreadable. Shelves are partially visible on the left side of the photo. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[William Franklin Mitchell] was the first man to string barbed wire in the Big Bend, where he fenced three sections as a holding trap at his Antelope Springs ranch in 1886. The days of the 'open plain' and the 'long drive' were coming to an end in West Texas" (p. 8).

[Texas Barbed Wire] - ark:/67531/metapth39644

[William Franklin Mitchell and Mrs. Mitchell] (Photograph)

[William Franklin Mitchell and Mrs. Mitchell]

Copy print of an oval portrait of Mr. William Franklin Mitchell and his wife, visible from the chest up. Mr. Mitchell is wearing a light-colored suit with a dark bow tie; his wife is wearing a light-colored dress with lace embellishments around the collar. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "In August of 1884, William Franklin Mitchell moved to Presidio County" (p. 8).

[William Franklin Mitchell and Mrs. Mitchell] - ark:/67531/metapth39645

[Structures in Shafter ghost town] (Photograph)

[Structures in Shafter ghost town]

Photograph of partial ruins in abandoned Shafter, Texas. Mountains are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: About twenty-three million dollars worth of silver was extracted by 1942 when the price of silver dropped, and mining was no longer profitable. Cinnabar, source of mercury, was mined and processed at Terlingua for many years" (p. 8).

[Structures in Shafter ghost town] - ark:/67531/metapth39646

[Cylindrical structures in Shafter ghost town] (Photograph)

[Cylindrical structures in Shafter ghost town]

Photograph of two large, cylindrical structures in abandoned Shafter, Texas. Mountains are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Silver was discovered by John W. Spencer in 1883 and with Col. W. R. Shafter, who was stationed at Ft. Davis, gained the necessary capitol to organize the Presidio Mining Company" (pp. 7-8).

[Cylindrical structures in Shafter ghost town] - ark:/67531/metapth39647

[Shafter ghost town] (Photograph)

[Shafter ghost town]

Photograph of a series of partial ruins and lots in abandoned Shafter, Texas. Mountains are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Once this ghost town, Shafter, was the producer of an important source of income, silver" (p. 7).

[Shafter ghost town] - ark:/67531/metapth39648

[Early Marfa street scene] (Photograph)

[Early Marfa street scene]

Copy print of an early photograph of businesses and structures on one side of a street in Marfa, Texas. A handwritten note under the image says "Marfa Street Scene - 35 years ago: Sun-Set Saloon, Marfa House Hotel, Marfa House Dining Room, Mrs. Heebie's Grocery Store." There are additional notes on the back include one that says "Early Street Scene." The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "An election was held as a formality, and the Marfa depot became the county seat of most of West Texas" (pp. 6-7).

[Early Marfa street scene] - ark:/67531/metapth39649

[Early photograph of Marfa] (Photograph)

[Early photograph of Marfa]

Early photograph of businesses and structures lining one side of a street in Marfa, Texas. Two unidentified men wearing dark-colored suits and bowler hats are standing on the right side of the photograph. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[J. M. Dean] then obtained the county records from Ft. Davis and moved them to Marfa because he felt the prestige of Marfa's being the county seat would increase the value of his land" (p. 6).

[Early photograph of Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39650

[Rio Grande river near Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Rio Grande river near Big Bend]

Photograph of the Rio Grande River near the Big Bend area. Threes and brush are visible on both banks. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The first white man to enter the Big Bend area was the Spaniard, Cabeza de Vaca, who led an expedition in 1535. The later expedition of Antonio de Espejo left a better record of the Indians found along the Rio Grande" (p. 3).

[Rio Grande river near Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39684

[Indian cave paintings in Marfa] (Photograph)

[Indian cave paintings in Marfa]

Photograph of a cave painting containing eight vertical stripes on the wall, which may depict human bodies. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: “The Great Comanche War Trail led through Brewster County and into Mexico. Apache and Comanche warriors raided and plundered each other. Their paintings tell the story of their life in a land which defied them" (p. 3).

[Indian cave paintings in Marfa] - ark:/67531/metapth39685

[Person observing dinosaur bones and fossils in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Person observing dinosaur bones and fossils in Big Bend]

Photograph of a man wearing a cowboy hat, crouched at the edge of a dig, looking at bones and fossils embedded in the soil. A small fenced-in dirt mound is to the left of the man. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The huge mammoth was once the king of the grassy fields" (p. 1).

[Person observing dinosaur bones and fossils in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39695

[Bones and fossils in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Bones and fossils in Big Bend]

Close-up photograph of woolly mammoth bones and fossils embedded in the soil, near Marfa, Texas. A red trowel is visible near the top of the image. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The land turned against the 'thundering lizards,' and the Age of mammals came upon the earth" (p. 1).

[Bones and fossils in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39696

[Big Bend fossils and stones] (Photograph)

[Big Bend fossils and stones]

Photograph of seven stone items -- fossils of prehistoric shells and bones, and Indian manos (grinding stones) -- displayed on the bottom of a metal tub sitting on a grassy plain. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Water-dwelling dinosaurs, such as those related to the modern crocodile, and bird-like reptiles have been excavated from their rock prisons" (p. 1).

[Big Bend fossils and stones] - ark:/67531/metapth39697

[Grannison Chaney] (Photograph)

[Grannison Chaney]

Photograph of Grannison Chaney, visible from the waist up, standing in a doorway. He is wearing a Marfa High School jacket and a baseball cap. To the right, a wall clock is visible through a window with the name "Baker Jewelers." The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Grannison Chaney came to Marfa as a shoeshine boy. He became a staunch supporter of the students, the school, and the athletics programs. The students awarded him a school jacket which he wears proudly" (p. 13).

[Grannison Chaney] - ark:/67531/metapth39690

[Carolina Borunda Humphries] (Photograph)

[Carolina Borunda Humphries]

Photograph of Carolina Borunda Humphries cooking on a wood stove at The Old Borunda cafe. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Carolina Borunda Humphries has cooked on her wood stove in the kitchen at 'The Old Borunda' for many years. This restaurant has been in the Borunda family for three generations" (p. 13).

[Carolina Borunda Humphries] - ark:/67531/metapth39691

[Nicholas Machuca] (Photograph)

[Nicholas Machuca]

Photograph of Nicholas Machuca, visible from the waist up, posing outside a stone building. He is wearing a blue plaid shirt and cowboy hat; he has his left hand on his hip and his right arm on a post or wall. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Nicholas Machuca has worked as a cowboy on several of the area ranches after coming to the Big Bend in 1913 from his birthplace in Mexico" (p. 13).

[Nicholas Machuca] - ark:/67531/metapth39692

[Inside a small, rocky canyon at Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Inside a small, rocky canyon at Big Bend]

Photograph of a rocky canyon in the Big Bend desert landscape with a mountain range in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Actually, for many thousands of years, Texas was underwater. Many fossils of sea animals can be found especially around Shafter. Even when West Texas became a lush grassland with many rivers and swamps, the animal inhabitants had little security" (p. 1)

[Inside a small, rocky canyon at Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39698

[Close up of Big Bend desert mountain] (Photograph)

[Close up of Big Bend desert mountain]

Photograph of a large, rocky hill in a desert landscape in the Big Bend area. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[According to an] Indian legend [...] After the heavens, the earth, and the living creatures had been shaped, the Great Spirit had a great accumulation of rocks and stony material left over. Even the Evil Spirit refused the pile, and so it became the mighty Big Bend of Texas" (p. 1).

[Close up of Big Bend desert mountain] - ark:/67531/metapth39699

[Collection of fossils in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Collection of fossils in Big Bend]

Photograph of bones and fossils that have been partially excavated from soil, with a trowel in front of them on the ground. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "This beast watered at a lake which was once in the Big Bend. His feet were caught in the sticky mud, and the mammoth, unable to move, was preserved" (pp. 1-2).

[Collection of fossils in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39693

[Collection of bones and fossils in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Collection of bones and fossils in Big Bend]

Photograph of bones and fossils embedded in the soil, near Marfa, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "This beast watered at a lake which was once in the Big Bend" (p. 1)

[Collection of bones and fossils in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39694

[Students Studying] (Photograph)

[Students Studying]

Photograph of a tutoring session. A young boy is seated on the left, behind the corner of a desk or table; he is looking at an open book on the lap of a much older student sitting next to him. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The students of all nationalities int he school work together on many projects. Junior and senior high school students voluntarily tutor children in arithmetic, science, reading, and physical education without pay" (p. 13).

[Students Studying] - ark:/67531/metapth39688

[Photograph of Mrs. W. K. Livingston] (Photograph)

[Photograph of Mrs. W. K. Livingston]

Photograph of Mrs. W. K. Livingston seated in a wooden chair in front of sheer curtains. A large piece of wooden furniture is partially visible on the right and has a candlestick on top. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Mrs. W. K. Livingston, a pioneer woman, was a member of the first graduating class of Marfa High School. She has lived all of her eighty-six years in this area" (p. 13).

[Photograph of Mrs. W. K. Livingston] - ark:/67531/metapth39689

[Picture of desert landscape] (Photograph)

[Picture of desert landscape]

Photograph of a rocky desert landscape with a mountain ridge (part of the Chinati Mountain range) in Presidio County, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The Big Bend is composed of the counties of Presidio, Brewster, and Jeff Davis" (p. 1).

[Picture of desert landscape] - ark:/67531/metapth39702

[Close up of Big Bend area landscape] (Photograph)

[Close up of Big Bend area landscape]

Photograph of a rocky mountain ( part of the Davis Mountain range) behind a line of trees in the Big Bend area of Jeff Davis County, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[According to an] Indian legend [...] After the heavens, the earth, and the living creatures had been shaped, the Great Spirit had a great accumulation of rocks and stony material left over. Even the Evil Spirit refused the pile, and so it became the mighty Big Bend of Texas" (p. 1).

[Close up of Big Bend area landscape] - ark:/67531/metapth39700

[Picture of Big Bend desert landscape] (Photograph)

[Picture of Big Bend desert landscape]

Photograph of mountain peaks outside of Alpine, Texas, which are part of the Davis Mountain range. A desert landscape and a grove of trees are visible in the foreground. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "This is a land which has fought against those who have tried to make it home since its creation" (p. 1).

[Picture of Big Bend desert landscape] - ark:/67531/metapth39701

[American and Texas flags] (Photograph)

[American and Texas flags]

Photograph of a flagpole, viewed from the ground looking up with an American flag at the top and a Texas state flag below. A cloudy sky is visible above the pole. The image accompanied the conclusion of a written speech, with the caption: "To those who would protest the American life of challenge and accomplishment, I would remind them, our land has never been easy. [...] The land is rich, not only in landscape, but also in the heritage of those who have tried to tame it. This is My Land, My Heritage, My Hope" (p. 14)

[American and Texas flags] - ark:/67531/metapth39686

[Student writing math problem on chalkboard] (Photograph)

[Student writing math problem on chalkboard]

Photograph of a boy writing out a math problem on a chalkboard and another student sitting at a desk, watching him. According to accompanying information, this photo was taken during a session when Cesar Vasquesz, a Marfa High School student was tutoring younger students. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Junior and senior high school students voluntarily tutor children in arithmetic, science, reading, and physical education without pay. This is a positive study in understanding and selflessness" (pp. 13-14).

[Student writing math problem on chalkboard] - ark:/67531/metapth39687

[Collection of fossils and bones in Big Bend] (Photograph)

[Collection of fossils and bones in Big Bend]

Photograph of rocks and mammoth fossils embedded in the soil next to tree roots. A pickaxe and large hole are visible near the top of the image. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "This beast watered at a lake which was once in the Big Bend. His feet were caught in the sticky mud, and the mammoth, unable to move, was preserved" (p. 2).

[Collection of fossils and bones in Big Bend] - ark:/67531/metapth39683

[Desert flowers] (Photograph)

[Desert flowers]

Photograph of yellow and purple wildflowers in the desert soil near Marfa, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Thorns are not the only dangers, as shown by these plants -- senecio and loco -- which are highly poisonous to livestock" (p. 2).

[Desert flowers] - ark:/67531/metapth39682

[Stone tool artifacts] (Photograph)

[Stone tool artifacts]

Photograph of several large rocks including ancient mortars lined up on the dirt to the right of a long, white wall. Several of the flat stones have small, smooth stones on top and one of the mortars has a pestle. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[The Jumanos] Indians were primarily farmers, whose filed lined the banks of now dry rivers and creeks" (p. 3).

[Stone tool artifacts] - ark:/67531/metapth39675

[Canine artifact] (Photograph)

[Canine artifact]

Photograph of an oval, white soapstone Indian artifact carved with the shape of a small canine. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The first tribe of Indians to be recorded were called the 'Basketmakers.' They quickly faded into the background with the coming of the Jumanos" (pp. 2-3).

[Canine artifact] - ark:/67531/metapth39676

[Indian artifact] (Photograph)

[Indian artifact]

Photograph of a white stone Indian artifact in the shape of a man, or an ape. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The first tribe of Indians to be recorded were called the 'Basketmakers'" (p. 2).

[Indian artifact] - ark:/67531/metapth39677

[Carving of dinosaur] (Photograph)

[Carving of dinosaur]

Photograph of a statue artifact in the shape of a dinosaur. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Early man, who created these artifacts, entered West Texas while the mammoth roamed free" (p. 2).

[Carving of dinosaur] - ark:/67531/metapth39678

What responsibilities do I have when using this paper?

When

Dates and time periods associated with this paper.

Creation Date

  • 1969

Added to The The Portal to Texas History

  • Aug. 29, 2008, 9 p.m.

Description Last Updated

  • Jan. 26, 2015, 5:15 p.m.

Usage Statistics

When was this paper last used?

Yesterday: 1
Past 30 days: 7
Total Uses: 308

Where

Geographical information about where this paper originated or about its content.

Map Information

  • map marker Automatically generated Place Name coordinates.
  • Repositioning map may be required for optimal printing.

Mapped Locations

Interact With This Paper

Here are some suggestions for what to do next.

Start Reading

International Image Interoperability Framework

IIF Logo

We support the IIIF Presentation API

Edwards, Nancy. My Land, My Heritage, My Hope, paper, 1969; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39396/: accessed November 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Marfa Public Library.