Heritage, Volume 13, Number 1, Winter 1995 Page: 12
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Above is the Oak Hill Village site plan topographic map showing the layout of the Caddoan settlement.
of these items were decorated with elaborate
engraved or incised geometric designs,
often in a scroll or cross hatched pattern.
Other artifacts recovered from the
midden deposits at the site include ceramic
pipe stems and pipe bowl fragments, stone
arrow points and knives, ground and pitted
stones for processing nuts and seeds, a fish
hook fashioned from a small bone, and
other bone and shell fragments from a wide
variety of small to large game animals that
were hunted to supplement the daily diet.
Bone was also probably used as digging implements
and hoes, and to fashion tools such as
awls for sewing, or as ornaments or beads.
Other artifacts from the site include
groundstone celts and chipped axes for cutting
trees and brush, and a variety of small
hand-held tools for such tasks as scraping
hides, cutting bone, and piercing leather.
The dispersed communities of the
Caddoan groups were situated along the
creeks and streams of the region where they
practiced a successful horticultural economy
based on the cultivation of maize, beans,
and squash. Analysis of Caddoan skeletal
remains has revealed that by ca. 1200 the
Caddoan groups were consuming large
quantities of maize, and it is probable that
maize was the most important food source
for the Caddoan groups. It is likely that
they raised two crops -- one that matured in
late spring and another that matured in
late summer. Some of the corn was stored as
seed for the next year's planting while the
rest was processed and eaten.
At the Oak Hill Village site a number of
small pits filled with charred corn cobs
have been found. One pit inside Structure
2 contained more than 100 corn cobs. The
cobs are small compared to today's corn.
Most of the cobs are only about two-tothree
inches long and contain eight kernel
rows, though a few contain up to 14 rows
compared to the corn produced today that
generally has 18 to 20 kernel rows. The
cobs themselves were apparently used as a
fuel source in cooking.
The houses of the Caddoan peoples
were constructed using a circular framework
of posts that was covered with coarse
grass and thatch. Some of the houses were
plastered with mud as "chinking" to fill in
cracks. According to historical accounts,
the construction of the houses was a communal
affair supervised by the caddi. Measurements
for the structure were made by
the caddi who also marked the spots where
the rib poles were to be set. The houses
varied in size, depending upon the number
of occupants and their position in the social
At the Oak Hill Village site the remains
of 14 structures have been uncovered. These
remains are represented by alignments of
post mold stains. The post molds are holes
that were dug into the clay and then a post
was set into them to form the wall supports
for the structures. If the post was removed
or decayed or, in some cases, burned, then
the hole would usually fill with the darker
midden soil leaving a mold of the post that
once occupied the hole. The structures at
the Oak Hill Village site are all marked by
circular post mold alignments. These circular
structures range in size from about
nine feet in diameter for the smallest structure,
which was probably a storage facility,
to about 30 feet in diameter for the largest
habitation structure. Generally, the struc
12 HERITAGE * WINTER 1995
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Texas Historical Foundation. Heritage, Volume 13, Number 1, Winter 1995, periodical, Winter 1995; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45408/m1/12/: accessed March 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas Historical Foundation.