Icing Page: 11 of 22
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ANSWER: d. 0 degrees C and -/0 degrees C.
The factors influencing the rate of ice formation on an aircraft in flight are as follows:
1. Amount of liquid water. Ice formation is more rapid in dense than in scattered clouds.
The rate of ice formation increases as the amount of super-cooled liquid water in the air
2. Drop size. Water droplets in the air tend to move with the deflected airstream. The
smaller the water drops, the greater their tendency to follow the airstream - the larger the drops
the more they resist the deflecting influence. Therefore, the large drops collect on a wing more
easily than small drops.
3. Airspeed. The rate of ice formation is increased by an increase in airspeed.
4. Smoothness of airfoil. The smoothness of the airfoil surface also effects the rate of icing.
After the initial accumulation, the airfoil is aerodynamically unclean and presents a
larger surface area to collect the freezing droplets. Structural ice on airfoil surfaces,
disrupting the smooth flow of air around the airfoil, causes a loss of lift and an increase
Large size water droplets produce or form ice on an aircraft in flight more easily than small droplets because
a. tend to follow the airstream.
b. are partly frozen when they hit.
1j? resist the deflective influence.
d. Both a and b..
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Snyder, Henry W. Icing, pamphlet, February 1971; Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth46570/m1/11/: accessed April 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Boyce Ditto Public Library.