Icing Page: 7 of 22
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ANSWER: d. All of the above.
TYPES OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL ICE
Aircraft structural icing may be CLEAR, RIME, a combination of both, or FROST. The type
of ice that forms on a moving structure normally depends on 4 factors:
1. Free air temperature.
2. Surface temperature of the structure.
3. Surface characteristics of the structure. (i.e. roughness, configuration, etc.)
4. The size of the waterdrops.
CLEAR ICE, called glaze, is the most dangerous type of structural ice. It is caused by large
supercooled waterdrops in cumuliform clouds where the temperature is between 0 degrees
centigrade and -10 degrees centigrade or by areas of freezing rain associated with warm frontal
systems. A typical clear ice formation is transparent with a glassy smooth or rippled surface.
Large supercooled waterdrops tend to spread out on the surface before they freeze. The resulting
glaze adheres firmly to the surface and is difficult to remove.
"CLEAN" AIRFOIL--Airflow is smooth
and undisturbed over rotor blades
CLEAR ICE FORMATION--Shape: Blunt
nosed, tapering towards rear--air "burbles" over rotor blades
RIME ICE is created by small supercooled water droplets formed either in stratiform clouds
where the temperature ranges from 0 degrees centigrade to -20 degrees C, or in cumuliform
clouds with temperatures from -10 degrees centigrade to -20 degrees C. It is a milky white,
granular deposit of ice with a rough or splintery surface which is caused by small water droplets
that do not spread out before they freeze. Rime ice is less compact than glaze and does not
adhere tenaciously to exposed objects.
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Snyder, Henry W. Icing, pamphlet, February 1971; Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth46570/m1/7/: accessed October 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Boyce Ditto Public Library.