Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 5, No. 4, Ed. 1, Wednesday, July 10, 1839 Page: 2 of 4
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JPOlSTRArrS BY LORD BROUGHAM.
One of the most.remaikable men of our times as a po-
litician, or of any age as philosopher, was Franklin; who
also stands alone in combining together these two charac-
ters, the greatest that man could sustain,-and in the,1 that
laving bornethe first part in enlargeing science by one of
thVgreaiest discoveries "erefmade, he bore the second
r nart in founding one of the greatest empires in the world.
jithij truly-great man every" thingseems jo concur that
coes towards the constitution of exalted merit First, he
was the architect .of his own fortune. Bom in the hum-
'hlest station, he jrsised himself by bis talrafsfand his"in-
tu dustry, first to the'place in society which may "be attained
i2.nwith theiielp only of ordinary abilities, great application
i"nnd goodtlufik; but next to the loitier heights which a da-
H 'ringand nappy genius alone can scale; and the poorprin-
""t'erVboy who at one period of his lifejiad no covering to
"a shelter his head from the dews, of the night, rent in twain
1 'the proud dominion of England, and live 1 to be'the am-
T Dassa'ddr of a common-wealth which he had formed at the
s court of the"haughty monarchs of France, who bad been
Then; he. had beentried by prosperity as well as ad-
, Tetseibrtune, ahd had passed unhurt through the perils of
both. No ordinary apprentice, no common place jour-
neymen, ever-laid the foundations of his independence in
habits of-mdustry and temperance more aeeo. man ne aw,
" whose genius was afterwards to rarik him with the Ualli-
" J leosahd the'Newtons of the world. No patrician born to
- shine-in courts, or assist at the councils of monarchs, over
, , bofe-his'honers in a lolly station more easly, or was less
spoilt by the enjoyment of "them than this common work-
man did when negotiating with royal representatives, or
- caressed by all the beauty and fashion ofthe most brilliant
court in Europe. - -
Again, he was self taught in all he knew. His-hours
-of study were stolen 'from thosV'of sleep and or meals, or
i gained by:some'ragenious contrivance for reading while
. thelrwock of bis daily calling went en. Assisted by none
of tie-helps which influence tendered to the studies ofthe
rich,the.had to supply the place of tutors, by redoubled di
ligence, and of commentaries, by repeated perusal. Nay,
-the .possession of books.was to -bo obtained by copying
-. "what the art which he himself exercised, furnished easily
- taotheis.'"-- - -.
FNexfffhe circamstancesunder which others sucsumb,
i ie made to yield and bendto his-own purposes a succses-
- .fal kaderof a revolrthat ended in complete triumph, after
appealing desperate for years; a great discoverer in phil-
- osophy withoht the ordinary helps to' knowledge; a wri-
ter.famed for-his chaste style withoutj classicle education;
- aisirilful negociator, though never bred to politics, ending
. as al favorite, nay: a pattern of fashion,' when the guest of
f frivolous courts, the life which he had begnn in garrets
" LllBcombinations of faculties in others deemed im-
pdsioTcYappWed'easy and natural in him. " The philo-
sophejdelighting in speculation, was also eminently a man
of action. Ingenious reasoning, refined andsubtle consud
tation, were in him combined with prompt resolution and
-inflexible -firmness of purpose. To a lively fancy, he
joined a -learned and. deep' reflection, his original and in-ventiveT-genius
stooped to the convenient alliance of the
most ordinary prudence in everyday; affairs; the mind that
- soared above the clouds and was conversant with thelofti--est
of human contemplation", disdained not to make pro-
verbs and feign parablesTor the guidance of apprenticed
youths' and servile 'maidens, and-the hands that sketched
" a free constitution'fora -whole continent, or drew down the
-...lightning from heaven, easly and cheerfully lent themsel--.ves
to simplify the apparatus by which truths were to be
-illustrated, or discoveries pursued.
' His whole course both in acting and in speculation was
simple nnd plain, ever preferring the easiest and theshort--'
est road, nor ever having recourse to any but the simplest
means to compass his ends. His policy rejected all Te-
'fin6mentsand: aimed at accomplishing its purposes by the
'Tnostsrati6nal and obvious expedents; His language was
taa"dorned,and'used"as the medium of, communicating his
thoughts, not of raismgadmiration;"but it was pure, expres-
'-sive.racy. .His manner ol reasoning was manly and
c cogent'thn address of a rational being to others ofthe
same' order; and so concise, that preferring decision to dis-
cussiori;"ne Sever exceeded a quarter of an hour in any
s.public- address. His correspondence upon business,"weth-'-er
private or on state affairs, is a model of clearness and
compendious shortness nor can any state papers surpass
in-cUgalf vt-'i in1' uwiuiiMhro'TfwMclr,hrijbolgvcri'Tg-r-'
have been the1 author in the earlier part ofthe 'American
revolutionary war. His mode of philosophising as the
purest application ofthe inductive principle, so eminently
adapted to his nature and so-clearly dictated by common
' sense, that we can have little doubt it would have ben sug-
gested byFranklin, if it had hot been unfolded by Bacon,
though it is as clear that in this case it would nave b' en
expounded in far more simple terms. But all tbis great
man's scientific excellencies, the most .remarkable is the
smallness, the simplicity, the apparent inadequacy , ofthe
- means which he employed inbis experimental researches
His -discoveries were -made with' hardly any apparatus at
all j and if, at any timeihe- had "been led to employ instru-
ments of a somewhat lesS'ordinary description, he never
restsd satisfied unnT-hei"ad, as ti were, afterwards transla-
ted the process, by Tesolvhig the problem with such sim-
'ple machinery, that you'jiriight say he had done it wholly
.unaided by apparatus. "The experiments,by which the
identity of lightning and electricity was demonstrated were
'made with a sheet of brown paper; a bit of twine, a silk
thread, and aa iron key.
Upon the integrity-of this great man, whether in public
ior private life, there 'rests no stain. Strictly honest, and
even-scrupulously punctual in all his dealings, he preser-
ved in'tho, highest fortune that regularity which he had
practised; as well as inculcated in the lowest The phrase
which-hconce used when interrupted in his proceedings'
upon the most arduous and important attairs, by a demand
.of some petty item in a long account "Thou shalt not
muzzle the ox that treads out thecorn," has been cited a-
gainst him as proving the laxity of his dealings when in
trust of public money; it plainly proves the reverse j-for he
.well knew that in a 'country abounding in discussion, and
foll.of bitter personal animosities, nothing could be gained
of immunity by refusing to produce his vouchers at the
fitting time; ang his venturing to use such language de-
monstrates that he knew his conduct to be really above all
In'domestic life, he was faultless, and in the intercourse
of society, delightful. There was a constant good humor
and jdayJbXwfe easy and of high relish, without any am-
biuoBtq.shine, the natural fruit of his lively fancy, his so-
lid, natural good sense, and his cheerful temper, that gave
his conversation an unspeakable charm, and alike suited
every circle, 'from the humblest to 'the most elevated.
"With all his strong opinions, 'so often solemnly dclared, so
imperishably recorded in his deeds, he retained a tolerance
for those who'differeu1 with him which conld not be sur-
passed in men whose 'principles hang so loosely about
them as to be taken up for a convenient cloak, and laid
"down when found to"impede their progress. In his fami-
ly he was every thing that worth, warm affections and
sound prudence could contribute to make a man both use-
ful and amiable, respected and beloved. In religion, he
would'be .reckoned by many a latitudinarian; yet iris cer-
tain 'that his mind was imbued with a deep sense ofthe di-
vine perfections, 'a constant impreisionof our accountable
'nature, and a lively hope of future enjoyment. .Accord-
ingly,"his death bed, the'test of both faith and jworks, was
.easy jind placid, resigned and devout, and indicated at once
an imflinchingretrospect ofthejiast, and a comfortable as-
surance of thafuture.
If we tarn from" the truly great man whom we have been
contemplating' to 'his celebrated contemporary' in the" old
"world, (Frederick the Great) who only affected the philo-
- sophy that Franklin possessed, .and employed his talents
for civil and military affairs in'extinguishing thatindepen-
- dence which Franklin's life was consecrated to establish,
the contrast Is marvellous indeed, between the monarch
land the printer.
i "Tat LiBEBAUTt' of Love In Tristam Shandy
Trim, giving.an account of his btautiful begune, who
.'attended him during a. fe?er, and relating the feverish
idreams' which distorted. his slumbers says: I was all
night long cutting the world in two,' and giving her half"
From the Edinburgh Philosophical Review.
ON THE PROBABLE DURATION OF HU-
' I MAN LIFE.
Dr. Caspar, of Berlin, in his valuable work, entitled
"Der teahrscheinliche Lebendaur det Meuschen, J-c,
1835," after having"examined the current opinions as to
the average' duration "of human life, and as to the most
satisfactory method of ascertaining such a result, announ-
ces his own doctrine in the following proposition: the
proportion of births to the population in any place ex-
presses almost "exactly the medium or average duration of
me mere. --1
For example, suppose that this proportion is in the
ratio of 1 to 28, then the average life ofthe inhabitants of
the place'' will be found to be 38 years.
If this rule be correct it must follow that the duration
of life is increased and diminished in a population accord-
ing as their fecundity is greater or less, ro that man, if
not as an individual, at least as a member of the mass,
may be said to have it in his power to lengthen or abridge
This, if true, is indeed a proposition of gieat import-
ance in political economy.
To prove that the mortality is in a direct ratio with
the fecundity of any population, and consequently that
governmentvseeing that the force of states consists not so
much on the mere number, as on the strength, fecundity,
and longevity of their inhabitants, ought not to favor or
encourage an over-abundant population, the author has
collected together a vast number of facts, and for this pur-
pose has drawn up tables of the mortality, not only in
Prussh, but also in Britain, France, and Belgium. '
a rom tnese researches he comes to the conclusion that
every where, the mortality is directly proportional to the
fecundity of the population.
This doctrine, if confirmed by future inquiries, mar, to
a certain extent, reconcile the 'opinions of Malthus, and
his opponents, as it "shows that Nature herself tends to
remedy the evil"of a reduniant population.
Dr. Caspar gives a valuable table of the mortality in
Berlin, ibr tw lve years, from 1817 to 1829, which rom-
prises nearly 70,000 deaths in nearly 2,000,000 inhabi-
tants. " .
The following are a few interesting data which are
derivable from his researches.
The longevity of the female is greater than that of the
The age of puberty carries off 8 per cent more ol the
female than ofthe male sex.
The proportion of deaths of women in labor is 1 to 108.
It has been erroneous, although hitherto a very preva-
lent notion, that the climacteric age of a woman has a
marked influence in increasing the mortality oflhefemale
This opinion has been shown to be incorrect by seve-
ral statistical writers, and the researches of Dr. Caspar
confirm the accuracy of their statements. On the whole,
therefore, we may assert that the iongevity'of the female
is greater than that ofthe male sex.
It is also worthy of notice that of still-born infants,
there are more ofthe male than of the female sex.
Dr Caspar proceeds to shew that the medium or
average duration of life has increased considerably in
most European cities, of late years; in London, this in-
crease is great for it would seeni that, within the last
century, probable life has increased by twenty years.
At Geneva, again, in the 16ih century, one-half ofthe
infants born there died, we arc told, before their fifth year,
whereas, in the present day, it would appear that this half
reaches nearly 43 years of age. A similar remark may
be madis as to the increased length of life at Berlin.
Dr. Caspar treats- pretty fully on the influences of
pursuits and occupations on the duration of human life;
and from his inquiries it appears that clergymen are, on
the whole, the longest, and medical men the shortest
1 vra. The. different classes "may be arranged, in re-
spect to longevity, as follows:
Clergymen 65 years.
Merchants, 62 da.
Cleiks, . . . ' . . 61 da. '.
Farmers, 2 do.
Military men, .... 59 do.
Lawyers, ..... 59 do. J
Medical men, . . . . 56 do.
Another important agent or influence on the probable
duration of life, is marriage. Jt is proved by the re-
CPFlThoeof rttlf Ollldni- 4 Tint t movviafrn etntn Xr V. w
The influence of poverty and destitution in shortening:
the medium deration of life, iswcll known. Dr. Caspar
gives soma tables of mortality which proves the contrast
in this resp'ct between the uoor an 1 the nfiltrcnt. From
these it vouldseem that the medium age of the qoliilityl
in (jerm.ny may be stated at about 50 years, whereas
that ofthe paupers ts as low as 32 veais. '
The last chapter ofthe work treats of the influence ofH
the lecundity of a population upon its mortality. Dr.
Cspar shews, by a vast number of documents that ".the
mortality in .my population is always in exact ratio to
its fecundity," or, in other words, "the more prolific the
people are, the greater, usually, is the mortality among
He alhides to the differrncr, in this respect, .in the dif-
fer.nt districts in England; and maintains, that -wherever
the number of births is highest, there the mortality is
greatest at the same time.
The same result is derivable, from smtistical investiga-
tions, in Belgium, France, and other countries.
Dr. Caspar concludes his work by emhodying the
general principles of his re-searches in the following .con-
clusions: 1. The proportion of births to the actual stationary
population of any place exprtsses, oi is relative to, the
medium duration of life in that population.
2 The female sex enjoys, at every period of life, ex-
cept at puberty, at which epoch the mortality is rather
greater among young females, a greater longevity than
the male sex.
3. Pregnancy and labor occasion, indeed, a consider-
able loss of life; but this loss disappears, or" is lost in the
4. The so-called climacteric periods oi life do not
seem to have any influence on the longevity of eiiher
5. The medium duration of life, at the present time, J6
in Russia, about 41 years, in Prussia 29, in Switzerland
34, in France 36, in Belgium 35, and in England 58
6. The medium duration of life "has, in recent fimrs,
increased very greatly in most cities in Europe.
n 1 ftm. A.7. Trf "'.Pro,C5S,0D,3 r ,'CC""
nation on life, it seems that ecclesiastics are, on the whole.
the longest and medical men are the shortest livers-; I
military-men are nearly betweeh.the two extremes, but (
reach very advanced years.
ti,,.,!;.,,;:,. 0ii o., ,v ..
facluring than. in agricultural districts.
9. Marriage is decidedly favorable to longevity.
10. The mortality among the poor is always greater
than among the wealthier classes.
1 1. The-mortalitv in a nnnulatinn annears tn be nkv.ivq
proportionate to its fecundity, as the number of births '.
increase so uots tne number ot deaths at the same time.
John Q, Adams and John C. Calhoux. In Mr. 'ticular association, the existi nee of which, the Frenchman
Adams' letter to the editors of ihe National Intelligencer, ' to whom these words were addressed had lately bicomi
he refers in one passage to the political vagaries of the nware of, and of which hi hud hi come a mi ruber. H
great nullifier, in the following scorching terms. j was-questiontd, but he denied all knowl dge, they urtd
Lonisianian. I him to confess, with piomises of additional reward his
Speaking of the leading men of South Carolina, he : only reply was a d-mand for immediate death and his
says: "At the head of them is Mr. John C. Calhoun, with . iiiimtion ws compl fd.
his sanguine temperament his dashing eloquence, his' All that pissid wvs a terrible tri :1 of fidelity, those who
never doubting confidence in himself, his superficial ac- surrounded him were mernbeis of the s'-ci'-ty, nnd eu-ry
quaintance with human nature, and his non acquaintance incident thu his beerrdi scrib d fiom the summons to the
with human history, and his never-hesitating versatility
of conduct, and his ludicrously sincere claims to consis
tency, tvith the memory of his premature advancement in
early youth of his grasping ambition of his blasted
hopes and his mortifying disappointments, ihis is pre-,
cn-ly the man to acquire wteJudnvBof
souhern sun, that ascendency over the intellect of Ins
contemporaries which fen a po .nlhonty.
over his disciples, and settles every question among them
by the simple formula of "he said it." And such an as-
cendancy he has acquired, with the exception cjfa few in-
telligent men, unable to keep pace with Sinfitrhe sud-
denness and rapidity of hi3 political pirouettes'but who
cannot sustain themselvesiong in opposition to an'y'ofvhis
During the revolutionary war, one James Rivington,
the king's printer, was always assailing the "nbelsj1 for
which, the celebrated Ethan Allen, of Vermont,' deter-
mined to chastise him. The folio winerr from some remi
niscences published in a late number of the Niw York
hxpress, shows the pleasant manner in which he got rid
of this unpleasant affair:
He had been bold in his misrepresentations of the "re-
bels," and so personal in his remarks, that although he
had assurances from the Governor, Clinton, of saftty for
hjs person and property, yet there were some expected
vLitois that he did not want to see. The foremost of
these was Ethan Allen. Rivingston. was a fine poitly
looking man, and wore powder. At last Allen appeared.
His clerk, who first saw him, well knew hi? master's
horror for Alltn. Rivington afterward gae to Mr.
Dunlap, the following account ofthe meeting: "I was
sitting, after a good dinner, alone, with my bottle of Ma-
deira before me, when I heard an unusual noise in the
streit and a huzza from the boys. I was in the second
story, and an stepping to the window, saw a tall figure in
tarnished regimentals, with a Iaige cocked hat, and n
enormously long suoid, followed by a crowd of boy;;,
who occasionally cheered him with huzzas, of which "be-
seemed insensible. He came up to mv door and stormed.
i couia see no more my ncait tola me it was lit hart
Allen. I shut down my window, and retired behind my
"table and bottle. 1 was certain the hour of reckoning
was come, mere was no retreat, ivir. btaplPS, my
clerk, came in paler than ever, and clasping his hands,
said, 'Master, he hai come. I know it He entered the
store, and asked if James Rivington Jived here. I an
swereil, yew, sir.' 'Is he at home?' ' I will go and see.
sir, I said; and now, master, what is lo be done? The re
he is, sir, in the store, and the boys peeping at him fiom
the street." I had made up my mind 1 looked at the
Madeira possibly tooka glass. -'Show him up," said I;
and I thought if such Madeira could not mollify him, he
must be harder than adamant. There was a fearful mo-
ment of suspense. I listtned; 1 heard him on the stairs,
and heard his long sword clanking on every step. In be
staiKea. us your name James Kivmgton' 'It is, sir,
and no man could he more happy to see general Ethan
Allen. Take a chair, sir, by the table, and afterwards a
glass of this Madeira.' He sat down and began 'Sir,
I come.' 'Not a word, ireneral, till vou take a class:'
and I filial ten years old on my own keeping anothei
glass, sir, -ad then w-e will talk of old affairs.' Sir, we
finished two bottles, and parted as good 'Henri's as if
nothing had ever happened to make us otherwise.
Irom the Galveston Civilian
most efficient one we have heard of for sometime. By
disposing of those persons who have no apparent means
ofsubsistence, according to his rule, a benefit is confer-
red upon themselves, and they may be made useful to
their rountry. Besides, it is very expensive to keep them
in prison. Will our Recorder take the hint?
" We are likely hereafter to be annoyed"' but little by
sturdy vagrants. A fellow of this class, who was arrest-
ed the other day, was discharged by the Recorder on con-
dition that he would enlist in the army, which he accord
ingly did, expresasng great satislaction at -beinEr allowed
"His nime was Robert Morris, and he was arrested for
the third time for riotous conduct It appeared upon his r
trial that he had n: means, and used no endeavors to ob-
tain an honest living. The Recorder offlred him his
choice, to work thirty days on the stredts, receive thirty-J
lashes, or enlist in the service ot tne country, tie chose
the latter, and remarktd that without compulsion, he
would-rather enlist in the service of his country than lead
a vagrant life longer.
Next day, two men by the name of Mead and Shepley,
weie fined ten dollars each, an J costs, for fighting. Olio
of them remarked that the amusement uas cheap, at tint
price: but the other said it was hard to pay for beinsr as
saulted, though he could not acknowledge his right to indulge-in
the sport free ol expense.
'On-fue24th. a Mr. Mills was hm d. 810, and a Mr.
M'Nabb 812. for a smill round at milling nnd nabbing"
vvhich they chose to indulge in fi.r-.hpir mvn private .
nusi mrnt out wiucn wes cons'ruui 'nio a violation oithe
peace nnd dignity ofour very peaceful and dignified city."
The Last Tjal of Fidelity The iiign of
Napoleon, worried and ranracked as it has bcn by the
nuU-rs of memoirs, recollections and histoii's, is a mine
that still has a .ntiltittide.of rich, and as yet, unexploied
i lews The history of the secret . ssociations that spring
up iu the latest days of the cmptior, would form a most
cuiioi's and interesting -solume, and there would be no
lacE of materials to fill it. The society ofthe United
Brothers alone would furnish pages of the most absorb
ing interest, while nothing could appeal more forcibly to
the imagination than the ftrangc and dramatic episodfs
connected with its mysterious imitation. Perhaps a hun-
dred incidents might be related as striking and well con-
ceived as the following :
An officer of the" French arm', having incurred the
suspicion or resentment of the emperor, thought it expe-
dient to abandon his country, nnd take refuge in one of
the Austrian ptovinces, and here he became ndvistd of"
and initiated into a seciety, the object of whos foimation
wa3 to hurl to the giound the Colossus whose arm smoh
and governed the whole continent of Enropi with a
sceptre of iron. One day a li iter was brought to him,.
coiit'n:ng the usual signs t.nd passu ords of tin- society ,.jj
Anil inir!riiT Iiiiti tf rennir nn tle fnllnn'inrr ninlit In r
secluJ.d spot in a lorst, where he would mi it some ofi!
his associates, tie went, but he lound nobjdy. the
oiders were repeated four times: the officer sought the
appointed place, uith no better success than the first On
the fifth night of his appearance at the rendezvous, after
wai'ing some ime, he was on the point of returning,
whtn loud cues suade-nly an-sud Ins attention
Drawina1 his sword, he hast nsd to the sprit whence
they seemed to proc. td.atid u..s lir:d upen by three meu,
who on seeing that he remainid unwounded, instantly
took to flight; tui p.t his feet lay the bleeding corpse, in
which, by the feeble light ol the moon, be in ain soucht
for tokens of returning animation. He was yet bendint-
ou r t.icdead man. when a detachment ol chasseurs, sum
moned apparently by the noise of the pistols thnt had
bun discharged by hiirsflf, came up suddenly and ar-
nstfd him as the assassin. He was loaded with chains,
tri. d the nr xt day, and condemned to die for his suppos-d
. - ' ; .,. W..,t ,n ,i, io .; i.
! . '
His exicution was ordered to take place at mid
"f " , tI:X
& ,r , I ,
"as a scaffold, environed hy
Surround. d by the ministers of justice, be was
of torches, and the funeral
quare. in tliccintrecl which
by horsemen: beyond these
were a numerous group ot sp-ctators, who muttered im-
patiently, and at iutenals sent forth aciy of abhorrence.
The victim mounted-the scaffold, and his sentence was
re-ad, and the fiist act of trngidy was on the point of ful-
filmint, when nn officer ht fall a word of hope. An
diet had just been promulgated hy the government offer
ing a pardon and life to any condemned criminal who
should disclose the members and stent tokens of a par-
lasi momeni oi epecna i mi, w.is uuiy a sup in me
progress of tht ft .u fill exp riment by which he sought to
d( termine the trustworthiness of the neophyte. Foreign
Tfa . f B f fc . f reaSonabie
rntePhiadPt.lphia, . butchers have resolv.-d to refirn
oflhearticl would b qllitt acceptable in New Orleans
fa time.-JV. O. Bulletin.
Ta.the Captains and Chiefs of the friendly Nations, and
to which iheij wight to conform the plan of the Cam-
paignfor the serurity of their country diidJiomes.
. "The Mexican troops occupied at present with the atten-
tion demanded by the war with France, cannot at this
time render assistance to the friendly nations to pjace them
in peaceful possession of their territory, and expel the re-
bel cobnuts who pretend to usurp them; but if this war
should cease, and the Mexicans be in a condition to re-
sume their operations, if in the mean time they are left in
peace, and have an opportunity to strengthen their estab-
lishment, and increase their population and resources, they
may gather such force that it will afterwards be difficult to
Wherefore it is the power ofthe said friendly Nations,
and at the same time to their interest, to prevent the enemy
from taking advantage ofthe fortunate circumstancesj-and
lo effect this they must not trust to flying invasions which
pro luce only momentary effects but to operations having
more permanent results, anl attended with less danger on
our part, causing if not great and'daily injury, at least per-
petual alarm and inquietuJeto the enemy, depriving them
ofthe most important of their means of prosperity, which
is their commerce, the spoils of-which will enrich our
The first thing to be attended to, and that which is chief-
ly recommenced to the captions, is never to pass, under
any pretext, nor even to advance too nearly to the frontier
of the United States ofthe north, but on the contrary to pur-s-ie
and chastise any one who shall do so.
Families can remain where they are or in such places
as they shall find most adapted to their support, and se-
curity, but the warriors should occupy the line of San
Antonio de Bexar, about the Guadalupe, and from the
heads ofthe San Marcos to their mouths.
This position is the most favorable for the friendly Na-
tions (as well as for the inhabitants of Texas who faithful
to their government have joined them) in order that they
shall have the enemy in front only, keeping a friendly
nation as Mi-xico is in the rear; a nation which hasjtoo
much ten itory ever to envy that occupied with its consent
by its friends and not possessed ofthe wretched hanker-
ings of those icbel alventurers who are anxious to usurp
their lands upon which they were born, trampling the
sail which .encloses the rem uns of their ancestors, and lev-
eling with the greedy and the trees upon which the crad-
les of taeir infancy were suspended. This position has
beaid js the a Ivantige of cutting off the enemies commerce
.vita the interior of Mexico, an! will furnish abundanj
spoil as well of foreign goods, as ofthe horses-which are
carried from this frontier, into Texas to be sold, and will
be nearer to the provisions and arms which are situated
at a point which will s )on be covered by the movements
of the Mexican Troops, when diseinbirrased by the war
with France, they shall be able to undertake it.
vTo obtain all the objects proposeel, it is necessary not to
rease to harrass the enemy for a single day to burn their
habitations, to lay waste their fields, and to prevent them
from assembling in great numbers by rapid and well con-
certed movements, so aS to draw their attention in every di-
rection, and not to offer to them any determinate object at
which to strike; but in case they should succeed in uniting
in a considerable number, let care be taken-always to
keep in sight small partits, who shall hang- upon and har-
F rass them, day and night, endeavoring at every cost to
cut ott their supply ot horses' and not lorgettmg that the
movement by which the enemy shall concentrate their
forces at o e point is to be taken advantrge of, to operate
with the greatest vigor, at other distant points, understand-
ing always that when the bulk ofthe enemy returns to
protect the point attacked, and when the advantage ofthe
incursion shall have been secured, the friendly troops may
disperse to strike another blow, continually wearying the
enemy by calling their att( ntion in every direction.
Every Mexican who shall be lound going o or com- j
mg from Texas .shall be taken and sent securely to Mata-
moras and the goods which he maybe carryingshall be
confiscated and divided amongst the soldiers v, ho appre-
Humanity and good treatment are'recommended to-
wards defenceless persons of all sexes and ages.
The packagi s which are. delivered to the Commission
ers Don Minuet Flores he will eddeavor with the most '
active diligence, to have them placed in the hands of those j
, tj whom they are addressed, and he is especially charg-
ed, when he forwards that directed to Captain Cordoia,
that he shall design ite a convenient point foran' interview
in which they sh ill agree upon their operations, and ifit
shall be the opinion of both, that it is not best for the said
Ciptain to operate upon th-: lines specified they can act ac-
cordingly. One of the first things to be observed and which is es
pccially aipon the tioops who are to act upon the line of
is-'xar is to avoia causing any injury to tne Mexican popu-
lation, or compromising their security in atiy manner,
making use ofthe greatest reserve and precoution to main-
ain n gool uudt rstandmg with them,
t They are alsD recommcndel to pursue the Lip-ins
Tonchaes, and any others who like them, commit depre-
d itions upon this frontier.
All correspordence upon this business will be carried
on wi'h Daa M inusl E lores principal Co nmissioner in
it, and he is strongly urged to endeavor to give us fre-
quant advice of all his operations.
Head Quarters Mata moras,
February 27, 1J39.
To Don Menuei, Flores.
From the Red Lander.
TO COLONEL BOWLES
ANK OTHER HEAD MEN" OF THE CHEROKEES.
have learned with much surprise that you have order-
ed Major Watters from the Great Saline. In this you
have committed an error. That officer was acting under
the a'uthority and orders of this government, and any at-
tempt on your part either by force or threats, to impede
the -execution of his duty, cannot be regarded by theEx-
ecutive in any wither light than as an outrage upon the
sovereignty oi tne nation.
Youjmd your people have been deceived by evil coun-
sellois " The forked tongue ofthe Mexicans has beguiled
you; and you are running inlodangerous paths, contrived
by the enemies of Texas for o-jt injury and your ruin.
Be wise then in season. Abindon your wicked and im-
potent advisers, and listen to the voice of reason and of
You assume to be acting under a treaty nogociated at
your village, on thetwentieth day of February, 1836." with
co-n nissioners appointed by the provisional government of
levas. ' no nouot, there are those who would lead you to
believe, that by virtue of that treaty, you have a right to
maintiin within the limits of this republic, an independent
government, bearing no" responsibility to us as though we
were a foreign n ition. Be not deceived by this. For you
may nst ussared that such counsels are fil xious and de-
ceiif.il ; and if you anl ycur people shall be so unfortu-
n ,ie as to 0" guided by them, you will be led into inextri
cibledihiculues and final destruction. The people of
it-.as nave acquirea meir sovereignty by many nghtlul
and glorious achievmenU, and they will evercise if with-
out division or community with any other people. They
can recognize no alien political power, within their bor-
uers; ana you ana your tribe, having no legitimate rights
oi sou or sovereignty in this country, can never be per-
mitted to exercise a conflicting authority.
The treaty alluded to, was a nullity when made is in-
operative now has never been sanctioned by this govern-
ment uni never will be. It is, therefore, vain for you to
build any hopes upon it. Such hopes will only termin-
ate in disappointment and despair. Even if this govern-
m nt were for a moment to admit that treaty to possess any
sinctity or n convey any obligation on the part of Texas,
your people have defiled it bv robbery and murder, and
have forfeited all claims which might have accrued unJor
it by leaguing with other Indians and Mexicans against
our peace and safet). You and your people have held
repeated correspondence with our enemies have entered
into belligerent compacts with them have received and
cherished their emissaries among you and have given
connti'n3ncetoan insurrection raised in your own vicinity
by Mexicans who had been incorporated into our nation-
al family, and were enjoying all the benefits and nrivile-
I .- --. , mi ., . .
ges oi cinzensuip. iiiese mings you unow-
know too,thaHhey are destructive of every obligation
which that treaty can be supposed to import
in'view of this discrepancy between yoardeclarations
and yourLconduct, how can this government regard you
in any other light than as a.secm enemy.orsuspicious
friend. Professing Jriendship, yet in constant collusion
with our foes, you cry peace, peace when every action
betrays a secret disposition to hostility. Yourvillage has
been thdchief point where our-enemleVhaveTmet to con-
cert.thcir plans, and we believe thaTit has beenpartly
through your tribeThat other Indians with whom we are
at war, have received their ammunition and supplies.
Neither is this governmet ignorant of the fact, that a se-
cret understanding has existed bttwten you and the traitor
Cordova, wh6se return fiom the Rio Grande, and co-operation
is expected by.you. He is our open enemy? and
known to be your conhdential friend and counsellor. Un-
der such circumstances, a military post was ordered to be
established at the Saline, with no intention of interrupting
your people in the enjoyment of their possessions or any
of their rights; but for the purpose of guarding more effec-
tually against the incursions of lhe hostile tribes, and to
prevent their-making your settlement their Head Quail-
ters for conspiracy, and a place of. refuge in danger. A.
measure so essential to our safely and in no wise involv-
ing yours could not reasonably be objected to by you, if
your designs were as pacific-as yoor professions. But the
fact that you are unwilling for Major Watters to occupy
a pofnt which you know to be all-important tojhe protec-
tion of a large portion of our exposed population, as well
as the threatening and dictatorial language with which you
have thought propei to order him off, makes it the more
necessary that he should not abandon it I have accord-
ingly ordered him back to the Saline; and in doing this,
it becomes proper that the rel.tions which is to subsist be-
tween the-Cherokees and this government should be dis-
I, therefore, feel it to be my duty as'Chief Magistrate of
this Republic, to tellyouin the plain language of sincerity,
that theCherokees. will never be permitted to establish a
permanent and independent jurisdiction within the inhabi-
ted limits-of this government that ihe political and fee-
simple claims which they Set up to the terrifory now occu-
pied by them, will never be allowed, and thai they are per-
mitted, at present to remain where they ateonly because
this government is looking forward to the time when some
peaceable arrangements can be made for their removal,
.without the necessity of shedding blood; but, that their fi-
nal removal is contemplated, is certain, and that it will be
effected'is equally so. Whe'ther itwill be done by' friend-.
ly negociation, or by the violence ol war, must depend up-
on the Che'rokees themselves- If they remain at Home
quietly and inoffensively without murdering our people
stealing their property or giving succor and protection
to our enemies, they" will be permitted to remain in the un-
disturbed enjoyment of their present possessions until con-
gress shall be able to make somo final arrangements satis-
factory to, both parties, for their return to their own tribe
beyond the Red River. But if, listening to the sugges-
tions of bad men. equally the.enemies of the red man and
the white, they shall pursue such a course of conduct as to .
put in jeopardy the lives and property of ourcjlizens, or to
destroy that sense of security .essential tp the happiness and
prosperity of oui froutier, the inevitable consequence"will
be a prompt and sanguinary war, which can terminate on
ly in iheirdestruction or expulsion.
This language may. sound harshly to a. people who
have been so seldom spoken to in the spirit of frankness
and candor. But, however disagreeable it may be to bear
the tr'itb, it is always better that it should be known, and
it is now spoken from no unkindness to those to whpm it
is addressed. If the executive were capable of dissem-
jbling, he might use, a language far more flattering-and
pleasing. Hecouldamusc you with pledges which would
never be fulfilled"; and with, his unauthorised promises se-
cure youi confidence and friendship until he should choose
to apply coercion .in the place of argument. But in the
opinion of this government no crisis can arise which
would lustily the employment ot hypocrisy and 'dissimula-
tion ; and he is much more your friend, and worthy to be
listened to, who, knowing your destiny, tells you.wbat
you may expect and be prepared to encounter, than him
who woum exene expectations wnicn niusi meei.wim ais-
appointment and encourage the indulgence of passions
which can only lead to disaster.
Permit me then, as one who has never deceived the red
men, to advise the Cherokees, to abandon qll ideas of war
tovremain at home in peace cultivate their farms re-
nounce all conm ction with our enemies, and shew by their
conduct as well as by their words, that they are sincere
in me-ir proiessipns ot inenusnip. jier. tnem ao mis, ana
wait the next meeting ol ouf national congress, and the
president will take great pleasure in recommending to that
honorable body, to take their peculiar situation into con-
sideration an to adopt towards them a policy which shall
be so liberal in its character, as to satisfy every reasonable
mind, and lead to a permanent friendship between the two
parties. -Tin. president n ill do this because he is the friend
of peace, justice and humanity; and if the Cherokees will
act right on their part he has no hesitancy in saying that
the congress will do for them whatever duty and honor
Certainly this is a far better course to pursue than the
opposite one, of contending for what this government will
never concede, and which vou never can obtain bv force
or if obtained, would only tend to increase yoar difficul
ties. For if we were to give you a 11 you ask if this gov-
ernment were to acknowledge you as a free, sovereign
and independent power to the fullest extent, your condition
would not be the least improved 6y it You "could net
live in peace with ouf people you would be subject to
perpetual and unavoidable annoyances, and wonld have
finally to sell out your lands and leave the country. - Sur-
rounded as you soon would be by a strong population ; jand
daily harrassed by bad men, ever ready to take advantage
of your ignorance or your weakness, whntsecurity would
you have for any of your rights? and what redress of
wrongs? There would be none, except the honor of this
government. You would be powerless to help yourselves
and wpuld have to rely upon the magnanimity of congress.
Then why nofrely npon it now? why not do" it before
calamities ensue? Would it not'be wiserin yon to say to
the government of Texas the red man and the white man
cannot dwell together let-us separate; not in wrath, but
in friendship; and, on those sacred principles of generosi-
ty and virtue which the Great Father of nations will ap-
prove and prosper.
This language will now be duly appreciated and pro-
perly responded to ; and I would advise you to adopt it
beforo the patience of this govcrninenrstoirijaverbecome
exhausted by repeated injuries. A few more wrongs from
the Cherokees will loose to them all the advantages which
it is now in their power to reap from the present amica-
ble disposition oi this government; and that clemency to
which they will'untimately have to appeal, will be forced"
to give way to the stern principles of vindictive justice.
Your destiny is involved in the rejection or adoption of
this counsel. - if vou listen to the voice of reason, you may
"become a prosperous and happy people; but if you follow -
the cl is tales ot improper passions, your mm is inevitaoie.
This government has no desire to wrong the Indian, or to
shed his blood; but itwill not hesitate to adopt the most
vigorous and decisive measures for the defence of its rights
and the protection of its people. -Your friend, " "
M1RABEAU B. LAMAR.
Houston, May26ih, 1839.
Col. Karnes arrived in this city on Saturday evening,
from San Antonio. He brings no news of particular im-
portance. Patties of Indians occasionally make their ap-
pearance in the neighborhood of Bexar, but do compara-
tively little damage except in the way of plunder. It seems
that the white ''land pirates" are milch more troublesome
than any of our enemies. One ofthe worst features ifi
their robberies is that they are principally confined to Mex-
ican traders, between whom and our citizens Congress at
its last session, attempted to encourage trade. They are
by no means particular, however any thing in the way
of plunder is acceptable. We learn that a company is a-
bout being raised to proceed to the West, to preserve the
citizens and the traders from further violence. Star i
Beauty. Remember, says Raleigh, that if you marry
for beauty thou bindf st thyself all thy life for that which
nerehanc-will neither last or please thee one year; and
when thou hast it, it will be to thee of no price at all, for
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Cruger & Moore. Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 5, No. 4, Ed. 1, Wednesday, July 10, 1839, newspaper, July 10, 1839; Houston, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth48061/m1/2/: accessed July 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.