The Texas Democrat (Austin, Tex.), Vol. 1, No. 5, Ed. 1, Saturday, February 24, 1849 Page: 1 of 4
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AUSTIN, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 24, 1849.
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THE TEXAS DEMOCRAT,
WiU be published every Saturday by
- WH. CUSHNEY.
The TEXAS DEMOCRAT- wilLTie continued until the arrange- ,
rnontsin progress shall have been completed 10 issue uie xao
STATE GAZETTE. It will ihec give place to that paper.
Tho Democrat will be sent to all those who have paid their Sub-
criptions in advance until the engagements of the former publishers
hall have been fulfilled.
Those who subscribe o the State Gazette, will be furnished with
the Democrat until the new paper is commenced; and charged at
tho rate of $4 per year for the time they receiveit.
All Jetter to the publisher must be JPosl Paid or they wil. not be
t.Vn from the office.
could be kept in repair and manned without returning
round Cape Horn to the Atlantic Sirttes. When that
recommendation was made, I had no conception of
the stale of things in Upper California. For the- pre
sent, and I fe
I for the United
Everv subsequent publication,
Advertisements of more than a square in. tile same proportion.
A discount of fifty per cent, will be made to those who adv.'rli:
by the year.
The Cash will alw ays bo required in advance for Advertising.
"One hundred words may be considered as constituting a square,
RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC.
The Boston Post says :
The tide of public opinion seems at present to be
fitino" in f:nnr n hmlrluicr n milrnnrl frnsn sump, nornf.
ar for years tocome, it will be impossible , on lh Mississippi to the Pacific coast. St. Louis is
d btates to maintain any Naval or iwniia- w now tjle pjucs moJ.t rre
jqueully mentioned as the
.... . . . ,. - . i J-"- - i
ry establishments in Ualilornia ; as at present, no nope , nt of departure. Thcplau is now before co-givss.
oi reward, nor tear or punisnment is suincienr 10 matte j .,nd we hope t0 sec pronipl .lctjon tafcen linon jt ilQt
binding any contract between man and man upon the he 0V.rnmeut take a llberal vjew 0f the mailer, let
soil oi Caliiorma. To send troops out here wouja ne
TEIAS STATE GAZETTE.
Eiklt in March next, the undersigned will commence the pub-
lication of a weekly journal at the City of Austin, to be called the
" Texas State G vzette." For this purpose, an abundant supply of
t new material has been ordered, and will be on hand in due season.
The State Gazette jiriH be issued in quarto or double form, sitni-
v larto that of the best weeklies now printed in the United Slates: in
ize, it win ne couaiaeraoiy larger man any newspaper now
published in Texas. Great care will be bestowed upon the style
and mechanical execution of the work; and the form and size
adopted, together with its regular publication at the seat of govern-
ment, will render it a convenient repository of much valuable
matter pertaining lo.tLe affairs of the Slate, which may be readily
preserved and filed or bound for future reference. As the name
imports, its columns will be especially devoted to ihe interests of
the Stale and people of Texas. Particular attention will be given
to an early, full, and faithful report of the proceedings of the Le-
gislature, to the publication of the laws immediately after their
passage, and to the acts and measures of the Executive Adminis-
tration. In politics, the State Gazette will b3 thoroughly democratic ; and
will advocate earuesHy and fiithfullv, but without violence or
Tiiuperatioa, llmse doctrines and principles which lie at the found-
ation of our republican system, and on which rest the pro&perit'
and. happiness of the great mass of the American people.
In audition to politics, both S'ale and Federal, the State Gazette
will contain full accounts of the current news, foreign and domes-
tic; and likewise selected articles, from the best sources, upon
morals, education, health, agriculture, science, and the arts.
Nothing in, the nature of an attack on private character, or per-
sonal ab'ise, will ever be admitted.
Burir.gthe sessions of the Legislature, the State Gazette will be
issued at lezst twice a week. Fifiy-taro nunibzrs will constitute a
volume, for which the subscription price will be five dolhrs.
It is deemed lust for all parties, that the cash system, without
qualification, should be adopted, and strictly adhere'd to : subscrip-
tions, therefore will not be- received, nor advertisements inserted,
unless p-rid for ia advance, or the payment assumed by some res-
ponsible resident of the city of Austin. Advertisements will be
inserted at the uual rales.
The names of subscribers should be accurately and legibly
writtenj-pnd the post-office to which their papers are lo be sent par-
ticularly specified. An extra number of copies will bj printed, to
Mipply subscribers who may desire to have the paper complete
from tjje commencement.
An allowance often per cent, will be made on all sums collected
tnd paid over by agents.
W. H. CUSHNEY.
Austix, January S, 1819.
needless, for thev would immediately desert,
show what chance there is for apprehending deserters,
I enclose an advertisement which has been widely cir-
culated for a fortnight, but without bringing in a sin-
gle deserter. Among tho deserters from the squadron
are some of the best petty officers and seamen, having
- -$oo4'bnttifew-luoniusto serve, and large balances dnelhem,
amounting in the aggregate to over ten thousand
Then there is a great deficiency of coin in the coun-
try and especially in the mines ; the traders, by taking
advantage of the pressing necessities of the digger, not
tin frequently compelling hinrtosell his ounce zf good
gold for a silver dollar : and it has been bought, under
like circumstances, for fifty cents per ounce, of Indi-
ans. To this state of dependency laboring miners are
now subjected, and must be until coin is more abun-
dant. Disease, congestive and intermittent fever, is
making great havoc among the diggers, as they are al-
most destitute of food and raiment, and for the most
part without houses of any kind to protect them from
the inclement season now at hand. ,
The commerce of this coast may be said to be en-
tirely cut off by desertion. No sooner does a mer-
chant ship arrive in any of the ports of California than
all hands leave her, in some instances, captain, cook
and all.- At this moment there are a number of mer-
chant ships thus abandoned at San Francisco, and such
will be the fate of all that subsequently arrive. The
master of the ship Izaak Walton that brought stores
for the squadron to this port, offered, without success,
$50 per month to Callao, and thence 20 per month'
home, lo disbanded volunteers, not seamen. We
were at last obliged to su, ply hitn with four men
whose terms of service were drawing to a closed
This state of things is not confined to California alone.
Oregon is fast depopulating ; her inhabitants pour into
the gold diggings, and foreign residents and runaway
sailors from the Sandwich Islands arc aniving by eve-
ry vessel that approaches the coast.
Very respectfully, vour obedient servant.
'Trios. AP C JONES,
Commander-in-Chief Pacific Squadron,
lion. J. y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy.
v From the Washington Union, of Jan. 21.
CALIFORNIA GOLD REGION.
Exiract of a letter from Thomas O. Larlcin, Esq.,
late Consul, and now Navy Agent of the United
Stales, lo the Secretary of State, dated at Monte-
rey, November l&lh, 1S48. and received in this city
on Friday evening" last.
41 The digging and washing for gold continues to
'increase on the Sacramento placer, so far as regards
the number of persons engaged in the business, and
the size and quantities of the metal daily obtained.
I have had in my hand several pieces of gold twenty-
three carets fine, weighing from one to two pounds,
and have it from good authority that pieces have been
fuund weighing sixteen pounds. Indeed, I have heard
of one specimen that weighed twenty-five pounds.
There are many men at the placer, who in June had
riot one hundred dollars, now in possession of from 5
to $20,000, which they made by digging gold and
trading with" the Indians. Several, 1 believe, have
made more. A common calico shirt, proven a silver
dollar has been taken by an Indian for gold, without
regard to size ; and a half to one ounce of gold say
S to $1G is now considered the price of a shirt, while
from three to ten ounces is the price of a blanket.
8100 a day for several days in succession, was and is
considered a common remuneration for a gold digger,
though few work over a month at a time, as the fa-
tigue is very great. From July to October, one-half
of the gold hunters have been afflicted either with the
ague aud fever, or the intermitten fever, and 20 days
absence from the placer during these months is neces-
sary to escape those diseases. There have not, how-
ever, been many fatal cases. The gold is now sold
from the smallest imaginary piece in size, lo pieces of
one pound in weight, at sixteen dollars per troy ounce
for all the purposes of commerce ; but those who are
under the necessity of raising coin lo pay duties to
the government are obliged to accept from $10 to .$11
per ounce. "All the coin in California is likely to be
locked up in the custom houses as the last tarifl of our
Congress is in force here in regard to the receipt of
" Could you know the value of the California pla-
cer as I know it, -you would think you had been in-
strumental in obtaining a most splendid purchase for
our country., to put no other construction on the late
Flag Ship Ohio, Bay of Monterey, )
November 2, 1S4S.
Sir In my letter No. 21, from La Paz, I recom-
mended the retention on this coast of all cruisingships '
of the Pacific squadron, and pointel out how they
nonpnnvwiw nnrl nnnnrl fnnlish pniisirlprnlinns rlfitnr
1 , tlfem from accessions to proposals which may be made
by companies or-individuals, and a compliance with
iich might hasten the accomplishment of the work.
'Senator Houston proposes that a railroad from the
Mississippi to California be undertaken by the govern-
gnfs and that the expense be paid by an assessment
6f& per cent, rents on the gold mines. Suppose the
road be constructed, and St. Louis be made the eastern
terminus, then shall we have a capital line of railroad
communication between Boston and California. Ar-
rived at Philadelphia, we proceed westward over a
line of railroad called the Central Railroad route,
through Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, to St. Louis. By
this course we should pass Harrisburgh, Pittsburgh, In-
dianapolis, Terre Haute. Yandalia, and many other
imp rtant towns. r
The air line distance from Boston to St. Louis is
Call the distance thence to the" Pacific coast, over
the great railroad, 1900 miles, and we believe the length
of the Pacific road need not exceed that, and we have
2850 miles as the length of way between Boston and
the California!! coast. Reckoning the rate of travel
at ten miles an hour, night and day, and in the way
proposed we should reach California and the gold
country in twelve to fifteen days. If anybody can
invent or discover a shorter way into the midst of the
heaps of gold, we await the announcement of such
Our ships are all Siort of their complements ; the Ohio is M3
slicrt. We can spare no more to our merchantmen.
Moktcrey, (Cal.,) Oct. 23.
Gi:neh.ai. I arrived here on the iSth instant from
San Diego, and have paid the four companies of the
1st New York regiment in full, afid'lhey have started
for the gold mines. The three corrrpanies composing
the command of Lieut. Colonel Burton are now here.
and will be mustered out to-day or to-morrow, and paid
by Major Hill immediately, as the residents are ex-
tremely anxious to get rid of 'them they have the
place in their power. Nearly all the men of conjpany
P. 3d artillery, have deserted. We have the Ohio.
Warren, Dale, Lexington, and Southampton in port:
but they cannot land a man, as they deseit as soon as
they 5-et foot on shore. The only thing the ships
could do in case of an outbreak, would Ije to fire upon
the town : The volunteers at Santa Barbara, Los An-
gelos, &c, behaved very well no murmuring of diffi-
culties of any kind with them ; they complained that
they were not allowed travelling allowance.
The funds from Mazatlan have at last reached here:
the amount is $130,000. It arrived veiy opportunely,
as we have expended nearly all we had. The amount
is a great deal more than will bo required, as there are
at present but two companies in California one of the
1st dragoons, and the other of the 3d artillery, the lat-
ter reduced to a mere skeleton by desertion, and the
former in a fairway to share the same fate. I should
suppose $20,000 would be sufficient to pay the present
force (provided the companies are filled up) for a year.
Treasury notes are good for nothing now. bills on the
United States could not be negotiated on any terms.
Gold dust can be purchased for eight or ten "dollars the
ounce, and it is said to be worth $18 in the United
States, consequently all remittances are made in it.
Col. Mason, and most of the army officers, are at
Fort Sutler. Commodore Jones thinks it would be
veiy imprudent to bring the public funds on shore, ex-
cept in sucli sums as may be required for immediate
use. He does not like to leave a ship here, on ac-
count of the difficulty of keeping the men. .
The gold fever rages as bad as ever, and the quantity
collected has not diminished, but increased. Provis-
ions, clothing, and all the necessaries of life, are at
most exhorbiant prices. Living was always expensive
in this country, but now it passess all reason board,
four dollars per day, washing, five to six dollars per do-
zen. Merchants' clerks are receiving from $1,S00 to
$3,000 per annum salary ! "What the government will
do for civil officers, I do not know. Salaries will have
to correspond with the times. The pay of judges, etc.,
as allowed in the United States, will hardly compare
with that paid lo salesmen and shop clerks here.
I am. sir, respectfully, your ob't serv't,
WILLIAM 'RICH, A. P. U. S. A.
Gen. N. Towsox, Paymaster General, U. S. A..
Washington, D. C.
Mr. Webster as an Author. Mr. Webster is
said to be engaged in writing a history of Washing-
ton's administration at least, his friends say so.
From the National Intelligencer.)
"THE CAUSE OF CHOLERA.
If it were a miasma, it would either irritate or in-
flame the parts with which it comes into contact, or
I. being inhaled into the lungs, decompose or unite with
Ihe blood ; but it produces no impression upon the
surface cf the body, and the science of chemistry fur-
nishes no substance which, when introduced into the'
circulation of the blood, produces effects resembling
those of Cholera. Bisides, its ?nigrations are inde-
pendent of, and frequently opposed to, the prevailing
winds ; and therefore, since it does not obey the laws
of iuorganized matter, it must have the power of lo-
comotion, I. e., must be animate. '
If it is an ilisecl, (say a species of fly, which analo-
gy indicates it to be,) it will be erratic in ils course;
will generally follow rivers and vallejTs, sometimes
remain stationary, and at others travel many miles in
a few 'days. It will almost entirely disappear in a
continued cold atmosphere, and frequently re-appear
with the return of heat or summer.. It will seek by
preference, the places where it will find substances
suitable for the deposite of its eggs. It will visit un-
cleanly in preference to cleanly places, cities in pre-
ference to country, and old food, or what amounts to
the same thing, food of a bad qualit, will fiequently
be made a repository for its larvce.
The larvaj of various species of Hies prey upon liv-
ing as well as upon decaying bodies : and our medical
annals furnish numerous facts showing that our race
is not free from their attacks : and that minute but nu-
merous larvas introduced into the alimentary canal,
nny produce all the effects which are visible in Cho
lera. Ly assuming these to ne the cause, we may
satisfactorily account for the apparent contradictions
observed in this disease: but by assuming any oilier
cause, we are inevitably led into absurd conclusions.
Preventives. Cleanliness and wholesome and new-
ly prepared food, with condiments obnoxious to the
Rc?nedies. Calomel, peppermint, assafcetida, to-
bacco, aloes, camphor, garlic, &c. iSome lo be taken
into the stomach, and others administrd in poultices
It is asserted by Mr. Rasp ail, that, with proper care
and'attention, nearly all cases of Cholera may l;a cured,
when taken in time, and the epidemic itself controlled
and arrested in its course. T.
WHAT THE ABOLITIONISTS EXPECT.
The t: Republic," the organ of the Pennsylvania
abolitionists, has the following in reference to the Pre-
sidential election : . "
:In one point of view, we may regard the result as
a victory for our cause. Taylor will owe his election
to the solemn oft-rCpealed declaration of Misleading
supporters at the north that he would not veto the Wil-
mot Provbo. Without these assurances his election
would have been absolutely impossible. The next
Congress will be largely whig; and the party, or at
least the northern portion of it, is pledged to prevent
by adequate legislation, the establishment of slavery
in the new territories. If the southern whigs go
against the measure, as most of them doubtless will,
there are northern democrats enough to secure ils pas-
sage ; and then let Taylor veto it if tie dare. Such
an" act on his part would array against him the great
majority of those whose votes elected him, and pro-
duce a moral convulsion which would prove a lesson
lo trading politicians in all time to come.
The New York Sun says, that a large number of
the most influential Catholic citizens of New York in-
tend calling a public meeting at an early day, for the
purpose of inviting his Holiness, Pope Pius the ninth,
to take up his permanent residence in this country.
Should the temporal power of the Pope be wrested
FRO 31 CALIFORNIA.
We have by way of alexico a copy of the Californi-
an of Oct. 21st laU'r than any paper from Sail Fran-
cisco we have seen, but containing little news. We
clip a few items from it :
Improvements. Improvements in the shape of
building are rapidly jsroing on in our city. Among the
rest, Messrs. De Witt Harrison's new building,
-which was framed in the States, is going up on Samson.
street, oposite the Government Reserve.
Naval. The U. S. ship of the line Ohio, Com.T.
Catesby Jones, and U. S. ships Southampton and Lex-
ington, arrived at Monterey on the 12th inst., bringing
350 Mexican refugees. We understand these vessels
may be all expected here in the course of the coming
week. Their presence will enliven our community to
no inconsiderable extent. Lieut. Col. Burton arrived
at Monterey in the Ohio.
For The States. Our Monterey "correspondent
informs us that the U. S. storeship Lexington will leave
this port for New York between the 1st and 10th of
November. She will touch at Valparaiso, Rio de Jan-
eiro, and should the interests of commerce require it,
at the Sandwich Islands. The Lexington will take
gold and silver bullion (placer) to either of the above
mentioned ports, and deliver it to the agent or consignee-
at the following rates of freight : To Honolulu and
Valparaiso, on gold and silver, one per centum to
Rio and New York, on gold, one and a half per centum
on silver, two and a half per centum. The insur-
ance on gold and silver, on board a man of war, is-
usually below one per cent. The Lexington is a fast-
sailer, and will undoubtedly make a short passage.
Piracy. A rurrjor is extant here that a merchant
bark, bound from Valparaiso to this port, has been
seized by the crew and the captain and officers put to
death. Also, that an armed vessel has been despatched
from Callao in her pursuit. We cannot vouch for the
truth of this story, though it comes testis in a very
From a long article upon the civil organization of"
the Territory of California we exiract the following :
That we are without any established form of civil
government is readily admitted : but that '' the Col. of
the 1st Dragoons,'' as commanding officer of the U.
S. forces in this Territory, has the power lo establish
and continue a temporary civil government here, by
the appointment of a governor and council, in whom
shall reside the power of framing such laws and adopt-
ing such measures as the present state of theTerritory
imperatively demands. Now that Com. Jones has ar-
rived upon our coast. Col. Mason is of course second
in authority.: and with the conunod re, ascommander
of the Pacific squadron, lies the power of immediately
establishing a government here. Should neither of
these officers, however, feel inclined to assume the re-
. sensibility required, we believe it will be not only
proper but highly necessary that the people of this-
Territory should, as a measure of self-defence, immedi-
ately take the necessary steps in the matter, after the
example of our sister at the North and establish not.
a young Republic, but a moderate system of a free
government, which shall ultimately and almost insen-
sibly become a portion of that which Congress shall
vouchsafe to give us, when ever the opposing parties-
have worried each other down to a compromise.
A rumor has reached us that Com. Jones and Col.-
Mason have had a conversation upon this all-important-subject,
from which we arc eager to announce that sal-
utary measures will immediately be entered into which
will ensure the safety of life and property, in accordance
with the laws of the United States. Then shall Cali-
fornia, with her great resources, her fertility of soil,
the salubrity of her climate, and above all, her extraor-
dinary mineral resources, become the garden -spot of
the world the place above all others most to be desired
as a residence, where peace and prosperity shall spread
their fostering influences.
Newspaper Support. The Editor of an ex-
change paper understands his biisiiess Hear him :
" Much depends upon the superiors ot a newspaper,
whether it is conducted with spirit and interest. If
they are niggardly or negligent in their pavements, the
pride and ambition of the Editor is broken down ; he
works at a profitless and unthankful task ; his paper
looses its pith and interest, and dies. But, on the
contrary, if his subcribers are the right sort ; if they
are punctual, liberal hearted fellows, always in advance
on the subcription list, taking an interest in increasing
ihe number of his subscribers, and now and then speak--
ing a v.oiu ior ms ijuwipiipsr. cneermg nun on ins
course by smiles of approbation; with such subscribers
as ihese, he nrist be a dolt indeed who could not get
up an interesting sheet. With such patrons as these,
we would foreswear comfort, ease, leisure, everything
that could possibly step between us and the gratification
of every laudable desire on their part. "We would
know no other pleasure than their satisfaction. How'
much can the supporters of a newspaper do to make
it interesting and respectable! Indeed, without con-
curing efforts on their part, the publisher of the news-
paper will not, cannot, bestow the attention which is
necessary lo make it what it should be."
The Trade of China with the United States, in1
round numbers, is worth $10,000,000 a year, indepen-
dent of the traffic in opium, which is principally in1
the hands of foreign houses.
Flogging ire tiie Navy. The House ofRepre-
sei.-tatives have, by a vote of two to one, adopted the'-
following amendment offered by Mr. Sawyer of Ohio,-
to the civil and diplomatic bill :
Proridrd. Tnnt it shall be. and is hereby, made the
from him, it is not unlikely that he may .find a home duty of tlii'Scvrvtitrv of Navy forthwith to 'publish an
in our happy republic ! order to :bu'i'i tV practice of whipping in the Navy.
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The Texas Democrat (Austin, Tex.), Vol. 1, No. 5, Ed. 1, Saturday, February 24, 1849, newspaper, February 24, 1849; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth48387/m1/1/: accessed September 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.