Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 11, No. 20, Ed. 1, Wednesday, May 20, 1846 Page: 1 of 4
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Tfijtfiffpi 35 in advance.
,, JPuJiUshcd Weekijii. ' .
or r at tUe eHei?ilie-er
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UjlSiljD B gpGpIR &.JV1.G,0-4E
Advertis-hci, 1st" insertion,
Ty.r t:: ' $ft anffsdbseqde
" i,,. jlmc-ucardsj
-' ! ."" Announcement
Ji(A.'dtscoantDf lOper-'cent, oatheabov'exaiesri.l beMna'de'io
sherJa?, on an legal, notices.
Ing' 3 each week, $30; 6sqaareSthangirig4k"cbvel:k,
SAVf advertisements sen t .with out written mslniciioasftll un-
less soqiJiy.orbid, beinserted six mon.thsrarid charged -accordingly.
' " " ' ''" -" 'r--' '. '
"Jia;pc;nsonaladvertisenjents.will be nfccned'hp.9n-"apy.tenns.
No f edit mil be givenx o any transient ad vertisei., timler any
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,.fIhefabjTeteras are" rated in specie. pkitfr equivalent. in,
Tex s or states pa'per.-
CvEUfAIN' PR&MOKIPS EXPEDITION, TO
j -0,REON AND NORTH .CALIFORNIA , rW
Srlh -Sccotiht dfwhicli vasgrveq By fus some
timesmcei Chpt. Fuemo.vt h'avina assembled njs
Iiar'ytja:ojisisnngof ihirty-jiine iiienVneanthe rriouih
of the5JKausas riverj the same point from.which. his
first expedition set out, proceetifid up thaf ., river.
Thei accompanied! the expedition, Mr. Frederick
Dwih',ii gentleoMti from Massachusetts wlio a-v,-ii
fed. himself of thisppporiunily to visit the Sand-
wich islauds and China, .by. the vny of For Van-
couver, ou the Columbia.- The v parly was armed,
generally, with carbines; and l.ad with inerh a brass
Jwelvepnund howitzer. The equipage and provi-
sions ive redrawn in carts by mifies; andhe,fnstru-
"taentscousisnugpf a refracifng telescope, a reflect-
ing circle, two sextants, 4 wo chronometers, two.ba-
rometers, six thermometefs,nd-a-nuinber jof small
cohipassPjS, were conveyed ina light wagpd, :moua-
le'dn'sprihgs... : ; 7m "0
, TJieiparty began their Ibiiinarch on ihe morn
ing of thc--29tho May, i843. They. .proceeded albiig;
the south' banlcof the Kansas.through an;Operi.pfai-
rie country, somewllut broken, but be.-iutifnUy.war.
feredwith numenusstreamsV. The)l(onis, which-
foi tn ihe immed iatp y a eyi of the, Kai isaj. are gen-J
entity; 'acorn inreraiirS1- w.taej flave a rich soil ot
oiacK yegeiaoi.e-rHiouia, ana, tpr..a, .prairie. ; country.
are well timbered. , The country was everywhere
covered with grassjjgeneraljy luxuriant and.nch.
lis elevation hadbeehfapidly-increasifigJsinceihey
reft the mouthf Uie Kansas. A. a pom .1 wo huri-
lred and sixly-.nve'imles tromlhe commencement
of their route, ahe barometerlndteidjanelevatior?
of 1,520 feet. above the level of HJeas , The nu.
dermis small'streariis; each requirhjjja t)ritige, reh-
"dered theirUavelirig very slow. ; After passing ihe
. junctioh of the. iwb great fotks df. the Kansasthe
3iiiky HiH and the Republican, theii- xo.ute;wus
along the latter. Partips)f Kansas, and iOaive
Ind'iHns- weret)ften seenand dVbvI df JbuHaLbajid
anielbpl (reijuen-xnaiiehrrstM -- "
: Jncousequencfof trreif sst&AZ progress, (?u'rjajnT
Fremont difvidecf" his Oartv.. eavinfrMf;FrtZDatrick
wilhxwenly-fiye men In charge .of the Dtpvislon-
nd baggage, while he himselfj' .with .'jhe.hoWUzer
ana nueen meu went in .advance, l'neir route was
generally over-high Ieyel-prairfes. The leid:paii.t
anxorpha Canespens) Was. the; charncieristic plant of
tlie country. Titey pursued.a nearly west course,
-crossing many streams which .flovy'Ttito theJSonih
. foi k of the Kansas.. On the 23d ofJune' Oaptv. F.e-.
mont arrived atJJog l'raine Kivverj-ptie of thepriii
cipal -branches of the Republicanf ..The, bonders of
this stream were populous with , praijrie"7d"gs, thefr
-Tillages occupying the entire. Jjoftoni laud. I'he'
elevation 'of the country on this j-lyerf was found 'io.
be 3100 feet above the sea. JThTedays;,aOer,Jeav-
ing the Dog Prairie 'Biver5xheyfouhcl?that. thereby ti-'
try entirely changed. - BaiesandhiHs eyexywhere
"surrounded' them. .T.he.RfipublicaTi ;hadt:become a
very shallow stream, 600 "yards wide. - "IS p timber
bfanv- Whd was to beseefr, and the cou'titry."'iiad.'a
desert appearance, the sands of which'seerned stn-
ying to;drinkup th& water of "U.b mer.r'Crosling
ihe-RHpublican in about lat.40, and.b.ng.hrf).2, Ihey
found themseives injt region "where, broken ndg.s
gave it a tnouOtainoiis appearance. Water was ve-
ry scarce. . For several days, tlie ixaVplecf dver a
btaketi, dry sandy regiotieiVated 4OO0,3eet- abwve.
thssea. .On the 30th of. June, they '.were tin the
bank of the South Fork of the PJaUe:.ih iatt01-2
-deg. and long. 103 1-2. Passing up the yallev of
hau.st.ed: but they found the fort in au iinDoveVlshed
coudhion, and were able to procure only al.itlle.un-
johed Mexican flour and sonie salt, with arfev
poufids ofpowcIeTanrr lead. . it was- -therefore ne-
carsary lo rejy on the chase for-Iood; . .
From St. Vrain's fort Capt Fremont proceeded.
South, along the South -fork ol the Platte, to the
mouth of the Fontaine qui bouit, on the Arkansas
river, at which place he had ordered one of the par-
ty soncon in advance of the rest, to collect a body of
muies, purcuaseaai laos. ine route otthe party
now lay through the country occupied by the Arap-
ahoe ltd tans, between the Arkansas and the Suu'th
fork of ihe Piaite. On the 7th. o( July, they arrived
at a village of theso Indians, consisting.of . about 160
lodges. The chiefs received tHem, as.they were ac-
customed to receive all strangers to whomtheyUe-.
she to show respect, by throwing their arms arbun'd
thejr necks and embracing them. This they did
without iv ailing for them to dismount. Capt.' Fre-
mont obserees that "it required some skill in horse-
manship to keep the saddle. during ihe performance
of thiscereraony, as our American horses: exhibited
tor tnern the same fear ihey have for if bear, .or any
nttioi-- i.'.j ..: J-ij rm, i .r
" -! wiiuauimuis. iiicy wcie now jn a motin-
tainous region. On their, right, eight or ten, miles
distant, a range .of rhoantaihsxpse-twonir three thou-
aud feet above,, them, witli" another great snowy
chain'-beyoud, rising fiye jhousaneC feet abpye these.
The east range, next to the party, preseied hsfty
escarpeiiients of .red rock. While traveling through
.uis 'egipn uas remarked that always in the.morn-.
ing tlie lof yajks were visibleiand brig'rJt,rnit very
o.,h small wTutefcloudsbegantosettlearbund them,
growing thicker and darker, as- -the day 'advanced,
until afternoon,, when the thunder began tp roll;
nd invariably ,at evening there, was a thunder-
-"., ;: .H"v ir,T; "y . r-tt.ru'n Kwenty.-one
mtlesjj;uth of the fort, where the. river is divided
into three branches, they -ere,r7iSiJ0 feeabove the
sea. Game!tiadbecpme verscaro they. had had
qs i-flft. z i-'l - ? -u?' ' ;
StjMCJUPTio.Hj-per 12?lnontns or f2 nurubetss- S5 00'
,15,US'V paper, --.-.,.... jg
ft&No.vredii will.begiveu 'XbrabScnptioifsr'fiT- .,-
'-. -.,F.s.W?re,,. .1 ,00
int insertion;;-" V- ; f'&hff' .
i eacbnsertiqnf.Hr.f .400 '
bl Candidates 6eranno'C'll 00
"rccson ircaiiouaui-auvpjiisiug.jjjr me quarter-can QOjpon
the following terms.:, ,Eer. '4 squaresjth .JKel jjriyilege of
chariljTng' 2 'square's eacb week, p"erauarfer'.J-g25:5' sanares.
this stream, on the a ternoon of the 1st of July, -they the. valley of Gr&ti river; tlie great-ColOr . a.lo 6f the
aw ih the distance, the bright sno.v-inp ofLoug's west, flowing into the5ulVof Cklifornia. . Theroad
Peak. Proceeding up the" riverthey arrivedlatSt. ed for several dayl-over dry level 'W' interim
Sot r&rf! Plains, 10 whicUafehbbthol ctSSfe
,i-- --- r--. ,--.w.. . Hw ..,.. ww.i tviuuuiiccx. rratto q tlnllni.m etll iri-n.)tnl MAn-. J7H.I
n Ji1e.at,pj?everal!day.s,. and some nryhts they "had '
sleptxyjthout suppiiig; l'paojd. starvation,. -they ,
changediheir route eagtw.ard, hopjpgJp find :some l
buffalqr'On the; IUifi pj J.ulyV siiojv (ell on the;
raou'ritji'ihsr : lie'hex "day, tiiey sa'w'Pike's Peak,.;
Jutnin'o'usaijdgrand,irglitVerihgi--with 'snow as lbvvrt
uowii asuey cpuiu see..; jrneycon.innjeu tfasiwaru,-
but finding no ipdicafions of buffalo, they turned,
sotii, along ihe'n"e'dvaters 0j the Bijuti, a branch l.
oC'llieSouthFork' Tfiev were nowbri'a nrairie.'.
TllClieet abbve (heea,:which. extends almost di
rectly to the base ol PUie's Jfeak. This-vast praii-
rfe Tegison between .the.Platta alid Arkansas rivets,,
is on. 71 tajcerptis fpuudatjpn,' watered "T by many
stretfmsyavrid of soil adiniabjy;adapted to agricul-
tural ipotpqses. The soil 'of thife'gi'briimproves'hS .
we approach the Missouri. The streams generally v
have bottom lands bordered by. bluffs, from 50 to 5U0-
ieechighj The 4imbeiJis eiitirely Confined tbthe
streams. In the eastern half, jvhere" "the soil is adejip.
rich, vegptableinould, retentive, of- rain aud moisture,-
the timber i large ahdof differehtlinds: iid
thr(iigHtUt ,the 'western hall," .it.c'drisisls entirelfcpS-4
.mi,ujMjvjicjXJisefTirio jub ;aucu una nj jna
txFjyiifjLt grows m sandy soilsj.. whexe.no other tree
wilPgrbw'The PawtiVes occu'py'iHe eastern'part,
and the Sioux, Arapliae and 'Cheyenne Indians, the.
western.. . . : A -
On tl)e12(h of July,, they encampedon ihe.jFbrt-j
iuviw .tii uuutj a .uniuuu vi .iie .iTKciiias-.. ,1 ney-
proceeded down this river to -the Arkansfs,mto
which rfver k. empties Vat a- seltlfemfent. called; PQe-
blon occupied by-Aurericans, prTiicipallyj w'hp'hajd
marri.wipa,nislfvivesand carried on a- trade with
the-Indians. .At this place,Capt. Fremont expTeGr
tediopbtain mules,. which, were ibsoJutelyAiieces;-
sary for the journey; butdistur.binsnt-,Taoshai
prevented the mAn whoSv.ase.nt1brtbexnJfrorrrar6 "
curing a supply. Cant. F-. how'coratoenced his re
"tur'n'tp St. Train Vfort,;Tifter. pending1 a' nia)fdbvh.:
the Arkansas with , orders' tacocli reptile's, if'pD'ssij-T
blc, anoSbring tliernvto;the frtrt-''' -'w
. The pa,ty.rrfy;ed iatStVfaiti's'foTtOil the.23d ol f
July, whpfe.-'jYe're found the other diyisfon oBih.
.party, who had beenelt xTehind-p.n aheWoiith Fork ...
iiinder th:i;prnraahd of Vlr.tFitzpatrick. . . -,
-. in accoraaiice wunviisinirLiqiions uapt.vb. waj,s
now.40 exi)bre the" monjitains,with ihu'viewof llif '!-
icoyering; ifpnssiblespmenew pass more direct tfyi
the one already knownt He therefortdetetriiiheivi
rugh4hejii"nntains by tlie "waj.
0 the riyer calIecn,C'ac7te &'ld JPoudre, pffft-;'or;.th.e
aipnueru oraucnes or tne .outn II.ohc. ' jjiy-iainf r
his party again, and 5endiry apprlfoh' of: it unde r
AIa Fi;tzpamck, acrpssihe : cori.ntry to FortLdnmie .
vlth.orders to lproceedprn .thence by ..tlieusnv 1
.emigranUjoad, through theSonth Pass to ForfrHall ,
on Lewis's-lllver, wesfof-tne mountains' Capr. F'.
oegan pisparcn to the mountains.- lie . proceeded l;
in axiorthw.est direeiidnup(i.th.eTGachej through this
Black HUIsra.ndnvastsOon.in a,region of 'jv'ijd ai.id -bttantifuf
scenery, with mountains sometfmes cov-
ereditfi,pjiiesatid sometiThespresentiiig lolty pr
v',ti,p5Sr-v Via6atiiJiJuu "".", mc uiuumaius ,Sj-
graniife "Gjing.the..head. water$4of tji'e. Laramie
and fedrqilielJow; Rjver they.finally.reachjBc't.the
North Fork of tiQPlnUe, after passing over arV ex
tremely rgged c'ouiUry, here,rhe'ri'4t waj cohi- -
jjaiiivtjiy icyci, ic lujius-wjereiextreiiieiy r.ou;ri,lrom
the ipmlnsejjuan'tuiesof thb sfirtib; (arterrfe'sia tri-
dentata)1he characteristic of tjie.: country. Cross-
irig the Platte, tlie.yAvere ori a highfpjate'aabrming-
ti'ie. di v-ijairig ridge between the iya'ters7 of "the Allan v
tic and Pacific, w .They -niw Jiirffe?- ribtth-towards
the Sweet, tVflter River,'ahi''pas3edxiver;a .vast sd-
Lline' plairiJ'In mlmy pjaces exfrepiely level, and 5-ow-
erea.wmLsaline plants. This saline vpl;iiris.ar.)put
ifftymiles south prihSweetWater. .rMp're they
reached that stream Jtliey passed a chjiin of.; snlall
Tresh water lfikes. Tiie. sjrc(ck the ?S,wee.t J ;ateT
iiijo'ng. 107 de-g.50 sc.Slmiles in: diree 3t 'fiiui
from, St. VrainVfort. Pxoceecling'up the five r they
arrived at "the SouilkJ?ass on the I3th,ofi.Aiigusri
This pass is about; 0 i miles wide and&O- Veet p-'
'boye thelevej of the Gnlf -tif Mexico.'- &n a ccorttit
ol'llie grqat imp-,rian,ce of-;tfiis;iia'ce,'.Capfc r; FTn
this expedition noiedpartidularlv- its'localif lv, ele-
vciniMi, aim uisiuuuB iiuiji. leauing points.. its latl
.tudeis45ideig.y4miu..32.'sec.; Idiigitpda 1. ,09,deg.
26 mjn.; its dIstance.4roui tTie-niotiih "of the ' ; Xrkaii-
rii-oic.9Ha. V4 mi. SO: . I V..i. .'.?.
aS'9'2 miles' (rpm St.dLtoulg by tlie 'PJatv te, xbTJJej
lp'B-2 miles 'oqclXrbm thelnoutli of 'tfiet Oi egohl,-
yu muesf so mat u'may oe asaumeu lp, be about
halfway between the'MississjppiahdstheJ pacific.
gvea utiuurui uuu graven coior,- ana. o:
n 'tko o.,n,."
ing-of the 15th theyencampediu the Mo:
tory,'6n the 'left-bank : of Green riyer, he
thaemigrant roaid to Orerom Vvhich b
iugiheii.'pn 2a rs 16 trle-
outhwarOrhefe,-to wvoid mountains.
is quite unexplored, and, so laras its; up
w Kuuwutit auounas m ians ana-rapic- Is. At the
place, where the emigrant road ,crosj$es: it, about Jnl
40 deg. long, ilj) deg., it is. 4.U0. fetit wide. 'The
road here leaves, theriver, ana pfoceeV is sou ih west
a snort instance, ano inen turning nbr.tl lwest..' The
country mus tar, west, ot the South J
tremelv lrqkp;i, inouniauious and barre
nothing but artemesia,"the grass of the
ing so scarce aud poor thatmnny of
diedfor want of nourishment. They t
r;iss, was bx-
I ways ftund
au auiiiiuauco utjgooa water- gusnirrg - out irom the
nm smes, lp. streams sometimes a fc,ot broad and
several inches, deep. They proceedei I up M-j-ddy
Fork,.a'-6ranch ofj$Gr-een river, ;amc-ng the moun-
tains until they arrived in. the valley ,0t Bear river
which flows imp the great Salt'Lake, 'in- at A'Aanl
land long. 12 l 2 deg? Y. They occ'asionally ' m
witn neas-01 coaiontne rpadt 'fhe yallpy of Bear
river iseprcseutedas fertile and pictr j resqqe. The-
regipn.of Bear river and Salt Lake wi is bheto which
Capt. F. had been looking vflh"a s'trange. and ex-
traordinary intereston account -of tHe many vatua
and superstitious accounts given o! tfre lake'by iha
old trappers, the only w'hite men who had ever visi-
ted it. . It was supposed Unit it-shad oc outlet, bnci
lliftiroppars belieyed that. Us waters fbun d tieir wy
to the Ocean ihrough' avast whfrjpool opening into-
a subterranean passagei? v Aroiwid ihefines at nitrhr-
hi their desultory convejeations,-strange winders of
the lake-werq related;. and fhe-je -rbm'antc.desprip-lions,
which afforded, a wide range for the "exercise
of the imagination, thpwftig uJelightful.obscurity
over the whole, and' hirfkirig' tliein fuel as though?
they were alpidst on enchanted grotifnd. were e'dtrer-
ly listened to, half betieyed,incl hlfexpe.:ted to be ';
reafizetl. The valley of Bear river1, not far from the-
source pfjhe .stream, is thretror four miles brdad;
perfcctjyjeveljnnd bounded hyjnountatr. ridges, ri- I
'Ahoiit fnnp -milps hpuninl tlm ,P,.ci-'thQ ..-.. Ti
sing .suddenly from-,! he. plain, one ubpye;a.noiher.-:
Such rs:the charjicterVf fall the.strea;iisii( that re-
gion. The eleyatipn of the valley iy.astfbuhd to be!
(iUOfeet. Parties of .emigrants 'torOregori were
I scattered along, the valley! Soiiietlhiesthe valley
vy to luiiiiuow nuiiinv uiui me nap Deiween ine 11101111-
lajina iiuiuiiiv-u tvitii uiiiiuiuty 111c pussuu ui.iiuvei-
ei'sbetw.een-.ftie stream andxhe mountain. In lati-
tuide 42 deg. 40 sec.,Jhe rippen ranee xifsctfTiated. ba-
sriltindicaLed a volcanic region.. The.whole coun-
try, indeedin their.iuture. route to. -the Columbia,
and down that stream, was 'found to be yoLcHiiic.' :
Mli'neral springs were abundant ill the valley of Bear,
river. Some' of them were, ip the Very bed ot the
ri ver,their place being sufficiently marked by. the
ev 'olution of large currents of effervesciuggas, which
4cc3pt" the. .waters constantly agitated: .In one plate:
oi.x the bank of the. river-wnsrc spring, throwing up
a.'et of-water abou'tthree feet higiij ..accompanied
n ith a jubten-anean noise, somethhig like;"that ota
steamboat. It was a hot spHngNfear the springy
vv-ras. a; hole, Jrom.wn.cn issueaa Diascoi not air,
HvthiErHgrrr wreath' of "smoke", accompanied by a
ri jgnjar noise. The gas which issued irom this hoie
p roduce'da sensation .of giddiness ahd;nausea. The
v.'aUey .was 3exe.. barren havingradry calcined-ap-p
sirance. v Saline efBorescerrces appeared, Sever-
al retnatkable Uills were, discovered, which on ex-:
n mination prove'd to.be fornred by depositions from
tl pe-waters of extmcf springs which once occupied
tl.ae centre of their-' basis. The tops .of these hills
,v-tere fpiind.to exhibit' fa nnel-shaped' orifices- reseni-i
baling small craterstseyer-al feetin diarneteinwhich
't he waters oiice rose. Tiie hills were. regularcones.
' There wersomer ofxthese cones, of asmall- size", in
ficiiyeoperaiion,ine waters upuing over me-njps,
i5tid constantly enlarging the cone by their deposi-
tionSi. These springs were very numerous. A lit-
tle north'iof these .Springs the.rivertHr.ns-spdfh, uhd.:
hc"re;.Capt.' FUeft the emigrant rbad t0 follow the'
rivefloitjrentrance into 'the Great;Salt-Ldke. There
.was.seen, pcac-ilfe turn in .tire river, tlie crater of an
exiiijgtrisht?djVtifcanojabotii .60 feet deep and J..0H0
feetiii circumference. -Tlie walls .ofit were -pei;--fecttv
vertical, composed of brbwn s.cojiac'ep'ns lava.-
iM'he face's ol the .walls were red, and glazedby thej
nxe-m which thev had been me tea, tJeiow mis
place..ih fhe.vallv. thev rinssed.-ov.cjri a volcanic
.-. -- t " .;' lf . v - -
plain, obstrncteuhy .fissucejrand1 biaclf! bveds"coin-
poseu pijragmeius oripcK-- u;iie4iiuiiitis.iuutuui
region li.veToh roots, of dffterent.kinl'is. As they -apr
proached the Jake fields of;cauerWerseeii, and large
numbers of wild. geese and'dttcks .rheJndians of
.;the-great region west of the 'ROcky Mou,niafns, and
.soujiiof theKjlreatSnake river, o.rl.ewis'.nvei are
narrjerous, and snhsist almost solely oiL.roois, seeas,
and suchmali anhnalsj" which -are- scarce,' as they
fcanicatcli. They afevmrsera6jy pooi-j-anoS arined
o;nly with bows, arrowsanjd clubs; V;-IVthe northern
j: jart'.Qf the region, thejv Ifye in- solitary-.jimilies;i.n
t ,ne soumerrn lnvniages k5uciiis - nits cimruuu-iui
' ihisxegion that the Indians use dsiood; roots, seeds,
grass.iiisecis," wormy and ev'ery living (Iling that
"(.illJ,-uy tuny pupoiumjiy ub caicu. . a ncy uic --lJG
. lowest order ofriiumarubeings, apprnachihg toxlie
--,. . 4 - ..- . . rni - ; -i- .1 1 UV :.
lowerjtnimai creation.? 1 neir. soieetiimuymeiii, ia;
10 aiuiuui loooj uieu me is-.a wuai.a.uiot,iuggif,. w
-suphort'existence. , .; . -s ,1. ..
Thescenery ot tne country, as tney apprpacne,a
j. lie tuK.e, was giaou uuu ueuuuiui. rue uiuiuimiiio
.'geheraUy rose abruptly up Ifom'compaTativelyh'h-
brokeu plains "and leyel' .valieys.-wjtii -naked, cra'gs'
sprJTigtng uplnto p.blue fine of pinnacles 30pj.;feel-J
1ui.11, wiiH. iicic anu iiicrjK i i;ipi ui wuui uiju. iut.
'ThU'Vales'below. were green arid full alToflage.rr,
-Che .party dumb the-nrountains-to.geta vie.w ol'tKe1
t lake, mit nolhiugvas -seen' btiV-mbuntdin after
r mountain, with -..peaks. "'r.srngsjnbove peaky. n aie;
JCiUiitry was so miserably pQanin. whatever is'ner
1 cessafy for'subsistnce,; tliat.it was difficult to puri
cuase- proyisions 01 me inaiarrs,.-not. even roois.
.Tarioiis kinds of goods were sent to!.one of the villa?
.ges itr order to purchase, food: but great as theemp
Ration wastosell, the fear'of sjarva0.oh.;was greater..
''Seycral. of the Indians;," says Capt. Fre.m0htr 'drew
.aiiitfe their. blankeis,hbwing''me4heif leafr and! b"b-'
Iny figuresand-l would nor anylongertempt them,
.wn-ha!dispjay of mechatidize,jto parjt with -their
wxeiched subsigtende,; when Cheyjgave'as-'a. reason
thai":it..vouLde"xpoSB"iliem to temporary stjlr.vation.,
-'Forme rly the w-hoje region Westbf the Rodiyt
mounutins anounaeu wiin ininaioi'DULsucn nas-Deen
'the.wijrc carried on .against themVrry the yading'
compaaies, that. they have disappeared. -It is known
Ihaixhe different companies bale pur DOjOOj)' buf-
falo skiua annually; btft It is estimltted -that these
are ouly one-third oiTihewholO hinfiber pf. animals
Blledj-naaking'n slaughter of 2700U0 anhutfUy' ,
1 hey" are stillj however, in , vastSn.umberi east of
the' mountams;v . -?,
As. they approached, tlie'-ltike (he vallvyiof Bear ii-
v.er became expanded to about. twenty five mile in
ibreadUi, belweehv mountains. 3000 and .4000 feel
high, rising suddenly to the, clouds, whicxi" alp day
rested upon the peaks gleaming th the sunliglit and
uiauueu wan snow.-wnue n raineu in inevnney ue
loy, of whirh tht elevation '.was about 4,&J0 feet
above, the-sea. As tney advanced the valley became
(ess fertile, presenting low "flats o'rcapiSd by salt
marches, and the dry beds of shallbw'lakes encrusted
with a deposition ot salt. The plains were absolute-
ly covered with small frinttaoe shells. Saline'plants
i were, the only vegetation. The strtam was very-
deep and sluggish, and fro m six to eight hundred
fedt wide. ' . " ;
On the 3d of September, they encatnpedon the
Iftttle delta at tlie mouth of the river, which opened
u ito a long arih of the lake, stretching beiweeii them
5" nd the mountains. 'Uhe ntean result of. varjous"
o( Dseryatioiis, placed the month of the river in la?.
41 deg." 30 ram: 22 secjlong.. 112 deg. 19 mint 30
se 3.W.;and elevation 420irtefit above theUult ol
Mt sxico. Abpnt the mouili it was a vast miry mo-
rafc , the river dividing into numerous small branch-
es, frjnged with willow's and canesand animated
wit h Vj.st "multitudes of wild fowl, rising for the
spa ce ot n mite round aDout ai ine sounu 01. a gnu,
wit h a nois.e like distant thunoer. niey continued
sou -tb along the shore of the lake, white'wiUisajt ef-
fltin cence. Hot salt springs were found gushing
out of the mountain to tie number often or twelve.
Ihe me of them the thermometer stood at 130 deg.
Stre lams of fresh were found flowing into the lake.
Tin -swater of Bear river is fresh, but Reed creek, a
arg er branch, was salt. "The party finally maie
itf c incampment on jhe shores oVthe lake, near the
inon :th of Weber's river a fresh water stream about
one' hundred and. fifty feet wide. The shore of the
(tJe ,80 far as they could see,-presented not a sulita-
m? - ' rr ee. and vertf little erass. After erectiiiff a small
forii they proposed to explore the lake with their
India .-rubber boat : but before thev commenced the
explo -ration, as provisions were veryscarce,. seven of
the m. on were, senfc away to Fpr( Unll, op-Snake
nver, Tak'fhgwith them the. necessary instiu-
ments, they proceeded tiown Weber's river, but did -not
reach the lake until the-rtext day. When fhey
were'dairly upon its waters, they1 steered for onepf
the islands opposite. them, many of which werej in :
:dijTei'erit parts of iheiake. It was a low islaudj and
as they approached its shores ihei.r nttentiop"vas.at-
tracted by a bank,.from(pn to twenty feet in'breadth, :
iwiiich, on landiug Was'jfburi.d' to be composed; to
the depth of about a foof, entirely "of the larvae of
insects, or of the --kins of wormsx abonUhe size of a
grain of oats, which had been:washed up'-by thawa-,
tersof the lake. These, were the worms which,
cbns'titutea chief article of food among the" liidiaris.
Th'ey ascended the highest peak of the Island, an-
elevation ofabput'8p0.feeti from which, they had an, "
extendedyiew of the lake. The Island was fonnd:
to he about twelve miles in circumference. .Tlitjy
endeavored with thejrv?giasscs to examine tjie out-r -linesof
the Iake,-but the distance was too great-i
Several peninsular rhauntalirs'w.ere-fQtindprDjeotfng'
;mto the-l'ale7 three; or four thousand, feethigh.? ,
The island, 'which. they named .DisdrmoinimeiU Is-'
taiid, was amerej-ockonwbichthere was neither
' " .'"--.-' -p - i-zi -'-"i rrL 7"i - '' '- -
wctttu' nur trees utnuy riuu. a ne c tempniiuvprr--miculqris,
a saline shrub'j .widely diffusedover this,
whole region of country, are-the principal v'egt-table-pfqductions
of the Island. . "Therewcre, noanimals. ; .
'i.fie clifis ajong the shore were of steatite and brown
spar. . ""' T '" -' "'. '
Owing to the JateneSs.of the season ana the frail-
nessof ther boat', this was the end- of their explora-,
tion.. They remained one night on tlie'islanjdin-
lodges bu?ilt, of duTt-w.bod, bpildipg Jarge;fjreson..tl.ie..
shores to. astonish the. savages in the viciu.ify. THer
ritit morning, after st some.vhaC perilous'passage, ",
they landed on Ihe shore, of the.lake, aad-preparecl
to resume .theirjouTneytqwardstlhe Columbia: An
.ness,rimpregriafing not 01 the. wnteVs'ofthesjfeahls'''
fimving into tlie :KkeJbufc-'!ilso- those-' whrehfloJv4
south, into the-ColpradQ--This great sal t-lake. is
h M,l T., . - '.- :' - Jt '' 1 ' il 1 " .
i:iiiicu .uampaiiogos -ou. common maps.; it-is. in iai.
41 deg.,N.and Idiig. L12 l-U-tleg. W., wTl'hii.eTeva-,.
Uon of 4,200 feet above theleveUof-tireGarfarex-t
icu.. . .- . i ( v.. '.-.--.-' ,-'
"i. " -
-mixed:; ,' .' ?- ':. .JJ ;!"".tf-
... By'the arr'iyal of the Steam.Ship .Galvestonvat; -J3al,ye!tdn,
advices-have; jbe'en received fj'Orrt-fhe
.Ameriosin-oaxhp to,he::13,th.jnst.,'incLusj,ve, cohyey?X
ing t.he"pleasing-,intiingen(;e- that the mferican. ar--
;my uiicfer Gerf. Taylorljascorap.leielyrirppteclahe. ",
great MexicXn, army pt the North" killed seyeraL
htrngrecl oiihejrjroopscaptured one of ,ih,eirj,QejnL-
eralsj and al I tiieiri)aggagear,tillery,v.il)eTr military-
chestr.c,.;&Cx W$cbpythe ftirUparticlars oBhe
Iihea,ccpuht of.tiisxengagemerit was furnishtdby
.direcilyfrpnTiPointabeh., ' ?A..,. ; .,
ingireceivedjhforrnatioh1, whileronhis hinfrch-'fiTini-
.ufci....i.rih..w .1, 1 1 " !-.. j:i-.i -
'auif-'auu uuu uimwu lew eiiiuaiiKiiienia uireniiv.
across tlfe rond, and .postedHroops in the thickv -
ni-k!,-.r-. 41.:a .n4 nrl U,l -. -; Lr. iL!-.l-
eis pi- cnaparaij lmmeaiateiy ordered- as-par- t
of'biskbaggage to be sdut ba'ck-'fo.-'Poiar rsaUelj'.an't4 1
.'lliPtt mnrrlipH-fnrrisrH In nflnpl&lhd.dnarriiV.'t.Ui:
'r ' . ' J - t-rioui" - rnL: " '.--- C ,
luiee uuuapieu uiouuiuen.- ji.ue lorce.oi.me. euc -
my: & reported -hyrthe sns to beibHwee"t5d& m0
mux vvvr- nieu.-. iiuuui one mira or- inem-we;- n
mbutiled' talichdrbs." - -.. v-- - . ."
" :- - -, ' -.
' Gerr.TavTo'r nut hisrmv"in motio'n and orirfi'JiSf h
mg.lhe enemy, it w'as'iohubihey wereocclipyir-. ig
the:.ctiaparePaud. hajlthrown.fup.bfeast-wo.rks.albi igM
jfle, rojiu . witn seyeratrpieces oi cannon, planted t I'so
-dstovsweep ttre roud.'-Nof.ume was IpsV in arran itr-
ing the order of hattle, arid advaj.cinff- tin on
ithe enemy, .the "latter opening their 'artilieAry,
w'hicii wasspeedily-retUraed by our forces:- T?' 'he
iVlexl can, coy airy undertook to charge qup "or ,vn., .
lines, uuuer cover ui-uib-siuukb j tiie.yuu-regim rf euL-;j
oTTnfantry having forgjied in square,. receiv'ed-tti, erh:
with a deadly'fire: "Major Ringgold and"-Capt.j)"-v'un'-5
canVcoens ol ffviritr artillery Opened their fire, audr
rrabwed them down. insolid columns, whlchm- "ad
ir .'-. - ...i f.,u I.!. ; -..,-f.:v.L !" i -."
ttieiii awiggei wm iixii uatft, in tuiuusiun ,uu i. t. peir.
lines. -..'"""' ' . . -
The battle was. rr6w principally c6Hfined"Jo..a- rtiL-?
lery on- hpthsides.- Tlie Mexicarismififlng W f ligft7
preveutea mucn ibss.qu. oursiue. uur-.i lying.- Ar--
nljery was. very'destructivt to lh hopes. the.r efie-
'iny, iiiBipiuiLy uuu uoapaiuu wim wiijcji lv WiisT
'brought to bear on diffeient points of the ene! " 'toy's
line created great 'havoc.- MaJ! Ringgold rece ived
a shot tbrroiigh both .tliighs,.uiliiigrhis horst7 iun-.
jde.r him- . ---
Ca'pt. Page had his lower ia-wshot -off. '""
The cannonading contifl'ued fromabcrut'3 P-
un ir-simdowh, and coultl be heard distinctly t
Isabel. The Klexicans retreated .and- lejt.pjie;
of. cannon on the fieltl. Several prisoners wer.,
en. Tiiel alter were asked vthy thelf cavah
uot charge.? they auswered, it was impossible,
them to do.so afterthe first repulsp, the firing
too hot, the inen?coudnot belcept to their arrr.
would: break and run? the order to charge v .
peatedly. given: a fejiv of tlie cavalry would ad i'
"bur uot finding themselves supported by tbeii
raues wouiu inn oacKogain to uie iihuu.x .. jay.. t-
They stated Jhat. one of the officers ot.the-.jK-. ...jvalry
was so ina.gnant at.nis corps msooeying; mss. oiaer
thai he rushed in amongst them cutting rig;
left, and that one of his raenxlrew'a plstot tmi
Milm dead ! ' . '-'
.We lost some 45 in killed and wounded-v
left-about 130in killed and wounded, on the
a large proportion of tlie, latter being carried (
The next morning Gen'. Taylor,, left w '
trains, few pieces of-'aniUeryand a guard to ,
themselves and the wounded ; andptished.i
1800 effective men; in pursuit oftheenea:'
found thSy had,reireated some 8 miles 'offar ;" id takerf-
up a position a lewnules belo.wtha.ca:nip opposite-
Matamorog, occupying some of the. trench s- jyh'icKr.-
had been thrown up by our forces previouj to .their, .
marching to Pointisabel . . "V-'
. The battle commenced by heavy cannonndini r on both
sides. Gen. Taylor, in passing his lines, accci-.teci' Captr"
Mays. of ihe8d dragponsvand told him ";Vqu c .-rcg imf nt.o
'analyis of t he waters ijf ttp. lake gaye-9peicerit
,ofiatr,-" In, the reglp'ntbhe' .south: otthe ISke he'rW:
are irfimense bedsfbf rock salt ofvery grfea.:lhIci?-,
Pomt Isabel-n'qrtbfe canm ""opposite 'OVlatamorQSfc ceTstor rnW, but- Geiil: Tayidr hadsulficfett to-
thaV ihe Mexican; army had taken up a-pOsi- : :v&iixTi''u'
tibBr about eigliteenStbiles-distap't from' - PdinP Is-' JT.'hWbfeen saitf3thatGenLyaylor;oferihlattr.
has- neyf done anythipg yet- yon must takgtagt wujr
ry2' Be. s-udr nothing, bpt turned, tabiaf corara.and.awt
aidrrMWe. must-takfr that battery -follow 1" - Hen)ttd8
a charge with, three companies at least wjth:lherrnwin-
der of three companies. supported by the-Slh.aladjStn; re.r
gimenla-ofinfantry. They 'cleared-the breast work.,Tpde-
over ihe battery, wheeled and canre tbro.dgb-.theteneiny!
line, whilst the "fire.bffthe infantry wasso deadlyjirj. ijs-ef-fecfastocarry.aJI'
before, iu. Capt May-madeSa5:ut- at
an bracer as he cfiarged'vtbroagh-oD- hisremra&eJpOBi
him standing between ihe wheels pf a cannojJr----;xIghtrng"-like
u. hero;. He ordered him lo surrender..' HeAvas
tasked if he was an officer?. GapL .Mays answered Bin
in the ararmutivo, when he prfsented h!sswQrdrreroarKi-
jng 'fcYou receive' General Yega avpx isoper;oK.war." ,
. . .Capfc Mays gave him .in charge pf one' or bis sergeants,
Av.tip, had. lost; his'ho'rse- in the charge, orderiDg: him to-
.conduct' bim io.Geheral Talor, out of. the, lines., h.
;v'.Capt. Inger a. brave and gallant bfneer of the 2d.dfa
igqdns. fell in- thi. charge. JL complete panic 4aD.d. route
:tnsued,on -the part.of tbc'enemv, tbey-fiedj.aiqve'direc
itioiT IoHtfie river; many werg drowned ia.altepaptingto
crossi Jaignt pieces ot artniery iei into uuruauuj au ia--huroBVabl6'quandty.ofsm6H?ar
iimp eqornDage?Tnilitary cbestg-coritaining strlargequaB-
tity of goid General Arista's carriage, baggage, port
'folio, with all&is official co'rresponStncewith ike govern-
fH'Jt -VirliFk- Tnll nluno nfi tUa- onln-il irTTV-flfiflnfldl rhllThtk
from the 'Metiean:gov.ernjneDtf auihorizinghiBix tosendf
.Gtyieral Taylor and bis army when taken prisoaeis,to
'Aiiexiico;rfo ijeat-Gen- Taylor and his officerswitb' such
'cafeabdaUefation &3-b'ecdne3;ih&niagnanimilyot he great-
liMexican iJaiioa, .-Four or fife hun'dred-ihead-bf-mules,-
l.&c. wUh,a.Jarge-number of standi oPcoIors,-
Tne Diarr-otlne campaign ana.toeinsirucireHs-jjgraaja
. .. - . ". ,Y .- .. . t. .--.? i- -. "rr- .. 't"-
to take possession; of 'thrabuih of thetVej anafprtify it
After the rqiAeG.efi? Taylor desnalchedapt: KeRof
the dragoons' ' wrTa?gQar6?-t6 tuVfori. to cpjveylheiniel-
'iigebce;tliey boreso.ip ajjy o.ftheaemyfcolprsibem
that thev oresumeii in'lbe fort taat it wa;tbe, Mexfeaix
coming upTamakTanaSsairit. ilb'eingtdark, and- ttie fort-
Gred .upon th.exn-.-bufortunatelyinjaledrnopQej-
-. Borne 4UU tyieoticanswer.e'Ourieq-ai.ourj.aacwuHis,
lin the -rjypx: . . ; '..-. ..-' JK
" Gapti Wilker and his rangers- prsueasnp enemy. ana-gave-rpbtiBTaluttuiopJOt.niany
in ihe-UMr-..c. . ;.-
. vjfcSlost A'illedjandqanded.abQUfj "Hooa-
1t-anaun' "rr .'. . -,
f ' rC'aprV VJay-ci?ar"gis-spakeiroU
spltfnjSid-eTiprls tyhich would: nave aaorn.eajweorigoie
4fForliinlhe.pume of Jdurotjn, th&palmlggidiiysjlQf;;bi3
,'elorve It cbsthim.sbme 18. Horses with a fevs.'ol'tbe'gal
.'Ifinr nrfprs. "
: This-victo tvenlireIVb"eioncs.toaheUnUed" Stalesrmy.-
jrsTotha day. It will" cnovince-por cotm.try, that West
oirit;drdstbe mateclal of eliiBiting tbyoyragB-.ott&e
lnVricanVsoldrer. ' -
jMaj. Kinggold- died 'on. the mornnig rjKhellth.
h'aPreySiibTdble'HQroj ,CSenV Arjdrcemi-
muToS, where "he reported" thaJAxisfaJiad'hetrayed-
'ihewhtyi0'. v" t ' '
I- -As soSn aGeri.'A'ristn'anivedjn'JHataraoros, he
lVlaramolros:--?Heshew,eUi fijeat- anxieiy. get osuk.
two or mree. oh-
othonoY. which hedecli.ned-acceptingxm
7honnrU ihnuif 'h-pretiiEried he wGuIdtbe.fbrced
' ;te"h?ar arnjs -akjiy.teslGovernnlpat! .Tuisfdis-
- ' - -. in -Lr nrtinaM n rn rn ivrmrtiiij-ry. nnu.LVHi ajtia
nanishedJojKceil. with Col. Martinez: and.-two, oth-
al l'omt lsabel,4puen jegretea oy -au, nisrBvrT-
and.'galiifnjfu.elfeudeaf e fifin to the whole J&
-..(! 1 I k , ....- -
ftoni Ifpb-n otterincrioesKnanaet.wo'or-inree.om-
-efs-lailfed m'thelGolbner !fia;r7ity oh. -He 13th: for .
-New Qrleansi; ;.enXY.egais,tne-uoi, kuvw
rcaplnrtd by-thejrr'exiau'forccs al ihervSlaughterof
iTAcmtd. ;He.asUp aUAsr f aljl.ot the Alamo,
andis aprave4jnd acebmised. or5r.
Getf. r ay for Sniyedf-uVoint lsallftbyen-
tnovnf ihe 11th with his'stantxiaying pMvMsly.isiar-
itedjhe Irath -with! lie-woiiBdd?and!prisohemJrh
latter goyn aooui menuum-um wnun & un.r.. v
the morning, of ihej 3th Gen .Taylor and 5fiT with
thejgnard fnarrmd .brought doun the"lrai,.fcc .
siarted'for his carpp-pewas met, by au expfa a
rew mU'es-'froor Point iSabelr mform1nghfta that
,500 frli t1oopithfe arrived in MahirnjrpSf 5:000 .
of which Jiadcrossover, and IJ0O lid!crQ6sd Uw
-Rio Grandeat BliritaeartrifelBocachicai rtotraoie .
xhan '8Tmi.fromJromt Isabel. Gen.- Taylor re-
urnei3.tbbrBt Isabetatoncej and- nMe .prppara- -'fiOns"tb.
leave tlie nexfdayt with.sucftforees as.re-
arriving. iThe;steamshipt;til vestoTf laqeq aau in
fantrv? repniars nn"d: volunteers:: the. Augusta -knd-
(ed ab"buf2o0r Capt Frie arrived:vi Padre Island,.
TmYii fTnmiis Gficlsti. -with his Cbmpahvof TOxsoun-
Aed RangeretheyxivH -rea? tie tfilie 'Point on, tlie 13tb.
JThe lielegraphand jas.ii. xay win uo.uuiii- iuuu
t hetr trotjps, ambiHi ting to lipvards pTSOO, at -Point
-Isabel oh- itieUth.' Grelat credit is duS lo Capt5 Je.
remiah Smith ofthe steamship Cirjcinnati, - aqct
"Capt. R., tMcBifer of the Jfionmoiith for? the'sknT,..
ehergyapd prbmpiness"r-shewn iiMhe .mahaernent
of their boats. in, transporting Troops and supplies a- .
cross theBar at "Brasos St. lago. - "
'- - ''"" "". TliE1 fortI -
i y '""' ' ""' v ' . J4 -
The arexicans haventinuedtljejr Brjng2n,'P lhe-
iFbr.t opppsite.TMatampros, yearly 'eyerTncer'Gen'
Taylorrleft the'worls- - ' r. -.'The.
braVe and Gallant Major Browniedon
,lroma.wound receivedin his thigh by the explo-
siqrTof oneuf the; enemies'" shells .Hisrwoifnds was
not considered dangerous: out as- net vras jmiueu m
one of the bomb, proofs Borrows, mortificSfoo. en-
sued, from'tfi'e Want of fresh air.- His -death4s; deep-
ly deplored by trle Arny hjs intrepid conduct in
foiling every attempt of tlie enemy to reduce the
Fortpfopared them in.a uisasuxe to aulicipte the
result of tKis conflfcrwith our brave army. The
stretithwof UieForuatid skill- with Lwhich it'is defen-"
ded is incomprehensible td.the ftTexicans, andindeed
well it might "be, for they hayejhrownkUpwards of
L400 shot anS'Shstl into the wurks, and every morn
ing they present tne same .appearance-, our loss nas
-only been two-or tpreeiu the Fort. The constant
practtce ine enemy -naye .iau iu utiug a, it, nas
taught them the prcpet bearing to give.tp- their
Guns-and almost-evryshot fallawiMiin the works.
r. ; ' '4 NA'AL.
The-folloAving Vessels composing aaft.f the United.
Stales na val force in ihe Gulf of Mexico, umier 'The com-
mand of Cpmuiodore DavTd Gtfnoer, nirived orTtho bar at
Erazos'Sinttago-cQ ihe.S'ch inst, and coniejio anchor J
Frigate; GumbajjlanaYbearing the bfpadpennant : fri-
gate .Potomac Capt Aulickcoramander ; frigate Raritan,
'Capt Gregoryftfomrand'er ; -lloo p of warijohn Adams,
commnridef-McCrnaeyvbrig of war' Somen, commandes
I Iof raham. . . -,
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Moore, Francis, Jr. Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 11, No. 20, Ed. 1, Wednesday, May 20, 1846, newspaper, May 20, 1846; Houston, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth48412/m1/1/: accessed March 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.