Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 12, No. 13, Ed. 1, Monday, March 29, 1847 Page: 2 of 4
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v- 'WE? -
' " v
1 rich.c5?t'" i 'i
IfeMflPtmiform level. Its bauKs aro ww, aiiu iu&j.
tjr' the bottom good, njt tne nanKSimuaav. Mv ntt-i go.
, and about iweet o mencs aeei. v e encampca on t.:
'V-west sidcr Grazing good.
VOctoiel Jsr. Made a reconnolssanaeaof the rirer
1 -apoufc;? miles up found no newfprd ascertained that
Knobi as has been asserted. I also sent anartv up the
jiver,t)n'foot. on the west side, but they could find no
ewiford. un my return 1 found myself quite ill wall
wOctbberilMllVJtib engineers camo in with the ponton
rain carhvThejieneral and his staff arrived in the af-
icrnoqn. Vejemained" here all day.
CfeioFer.SdStill ill. The advance moved on a-
jbouto'ciock,a-ni., towards tlie Rio Npeccs, which
Avas about$l2 miles off. Encamped on tho cast side
iftho river, with tho start, artillery, and squadron o.
:io 1st draTCons. Pasturage pretty pood. Ihenver
is about 300 feet wide. Crossing good, water excellent;
about two feet deep.
October. 4th. Left at G o'clock, a. m. Ground
low (and in wet weather difficult for wagons) to Ar-
rest creek, 9 miles; and also to Dry creek, 6 miles:
then more elevated and broken to La Chapperosa, 7
miles, .where we 'encamped, making our march to-day
22 miles. The water stands in pools. Grazing pretty
good. The road to-day was sandy, the ground covered
October 5th. Still ill, and travelling in a wagon.
Last night Lieut. Frankling was sent forward to look
for water and grazing, with an escort of tho 1st dra-
goons. Sent back his report early in the morning.
5 miles to the Saladin, a very pretty small stream of
puro water ; which has been always represented as
being brackish. The natural crossing was bade but a
bridge erected by Colonel Harney, having been re- I
paired by tho engineers, wo were enabled to cross
without difficulty, after a short delay. The grass on ,
the. west side of the stream was good. To Fish creek ,
7 miles, then 8 miles to our encampment, making 21 '
miles march. Water standing in pools, but good. Gra-
zing also good.
r October atk. Left at 6 a. m., andmarched ten mile
to tho Cucvas. Scarcely any drinkable water on the ,
route. At our encampment water in pools, bat pala
table : grazing good, and fuel scarce.
October 7th. Remained this day on the Cuevas.
October 8th. Moved on to tho Rio Grande, eleven
miles, and encamped on the west bank of the river
water and grass good, and fuel scarce.
Resume oj our line of march from San Antonio de ,
Bexar to the Rio Grande :
To the Leone - - - 7
To the Medio 5
To' the San Li cas Sprin?, 4
'1 o tho Saos C eck
To the Medina River
To the Qinhi C reek
NTo tho Lucky s Creek
To tho Hondo ,-
- 5 2 j from Bexar.
- 10 -
-" .: .
- 6 not in any of maps.
.wafer good, and abun
- Z5 i
9 SO miles from Bexar
JoLc Small jCreek
To tiio Sacro, 'River,
To tho Ranchero
To the Journal" -To
tho Lilt J & Sabinal
To I !in "Rio FV?n -i
f otheiucces "-i
12 100 miles from Bexar.
p,o;iiio- jirrest orceis, -
ntHatr-'A ----. -
iunaovTV orecK -
'oChapperosa S&& -ifthc&aladuio
12 164 miles fromSan,)
Antonio to the west bdnt I
jc - of tho Rio Grande. j
Observations for the determination of longitude and
.tiludo-havo Been niadeas"ofteu as practicable: butt
isthey live not'Wl been reduced, I rlavfc thoup-ht it
liUi VJ giVV tH'IillJJClJCUl. li&t Ul UlCUI, ,UUl IU llitVU 1
uesigntcdoir-thc topographical map which Lieut. (
TOiaye tEouchMwst, m this short descriptive memoir, $
to. condense my notes as much, as possible, and to confine-
myself to strictly practical results.
October 10. Crossed the river with several officers
of tho staff) under orders from the commanding general.
,, Tho R."o Grande is a noble river, 816 feet wide at
the. ford; water 3 feet deep, bottom hard'graver, and
the currenf very swift. Several wagons crossed to-dayf
'outwith some difficulty. The party was accompanied
j .byra squadron of the 2d dragoons, under tho command
af Col. Harney, which encamped about twamJes be-
jond tho town of Presidio.
Piesidio ilcl Rio Grande is about fivo miles from the
livery tho general course of the road being 52 degreesi
AVit. Al E U 1UIVII Ul ilOUUt 1,UUU lUUUIIlulUUi, piCilJ
santly situated, on a small creek falling into tho river.t
Tlero is a good deal of corn and sugar grown in the vi-
cinity. About a mile from the town, in direction of the,'
ford, arc the ruins of a monastery, the walls of which,
biiHtof stons.aro thick and in.cxcellent state of presorva-
tionrit could be rendered a strong difeasive work. With-
ntho towriis asfono tower, built, and formerly occupi- J
.euas a guard-house. jKetunied to camp at night
fctaber 11 th. Lieut? Sitgreaves, accompanied by
ect JBrayan, .went to examine. Wolfs ford or rather
erry, about 3 miles from tho usual ford. The river,
tliuj point, was wide, with a very rapid current, and
iot fordable. In tho afternoon examined the river be-
t lowthc ford, hat could find no crossing-place. Lieut
Franklui was engaged in reducing hisastrouomical ob-
nOciober 12th. Tho whole advance of the army,
corarnanauig general ana sian, crossea uie mo uranue,
rnar;hJd through Presidio, and encamped about 4 miles
sontli of the town. Grazing good, but tcater hard and
Klip1" fKB. -
Ocw&fJtA.-vcnt into Presidio, by order of com-
maudiicncralJItoobYain ihformation in relation to
uiu )auuLiiu. .iicu urcucriii ouicius, uu ills
Ocoorx4iiReceived orders from headqnartors
to proceed to-morrow morning, with a squadron of Ar-
kansas mounted men, under command of Lieut Col.
Roaiio-to reponno'tre the eouutry as farasiSanta Rosa,
at which town wo were required to wait for further iu-
OctobarToth. Left tlie Presidio camp at 7 o'clock
' in the morning, with Fiko and Preston's companies.
There is no water -between our camp and a point two
miles cant of tho town ofNava, altough the entire
country was obviously once irrigated, and in a high
state of cultivation. The distance to Nava from Prc-
pidio vro estimated at 28 miles. We marched through
the town ; but not finding any good camping ground,
the whole country being cut up with ditches, we were
compelled to return to the east side, where we pitched
our tent. Iho water was excellent, and grazing
good ; wood scarce, hut com, fodder, and other supplies
A October lCth. Marched at 7 a. m., and reached
i "San Fernando de Roeas in three nours. The estimated
distance is eleven miles. The town is situated on the
f-oiit!i-weit bank of the river Escondido, a beautiful aud
unp:d stream of pure water, which rises about ten
mites south-west of the town, and fioivs, after passing
it, about thirty miles to the Rio Grande, 6ome twenty-
live miles above Presidio.
, San Fernando contains -abont 1,600 mhab'.tants, and
is u wcli-"fcui!t and rcspectable.lookiug town. The
- people are well dressed, aud aro said to bs well off. A
good deal of com is grown here, and in the neighboring
"villages of Morales eud San Juan the former contain-
ing about 9J0, and the latter 700 souls.
The cemmptid passed through the town, rccrossed
the nvcr, and encamped about six m.les beyond, where
tlie wSrtr was excellent, gras good, and fuel abundant
Ihcro aro several rancho? between tho town and tho
camp plenty of com, and other supplies.
, October 17th. Duriuir tho nicht a norther set in.
.with extreme severity. The weather, which had been
cxcpsncly hot, suddenly changing to a low teinpcra-J
, ture the'wind being very penetrating. 7
Broke upjbsr camp this morning at 8 o'clock; we
marched only eleven miles, (as thero was said to bo
no water for twenty-four miles,) whcn wc encamped
at tho Santa Rita Springe, which here formed a bcau-
tl ul little lake oi pure and palatable water. J? ucl plenty,
but crazing InduTerent
anta Rita Springs aro tlie sources of the water
which supplies the towru of San Juan, Morale and
Nava, and was formerly earned as far as our camp
acaz Presklip?irrigatuig the whole intermediate country,
a distance of more than forty miles through which it
was carried in artificial channels.
October lSlkr Left at 8 o'clock, a. m. At four
j: miles came tSjllie intersection of the Sau Juan and
2! Morales roud,and, soon afterwards crossed one of the
IFpuraoftliB range of Inlla which wc sw on our left,
-,about fifteen miles distant, on our march from Presidio;
' " thcir course being nearly north and south ; tho Perote
road passes through them. About three miles further
on, wc passed through the range at aa easy ascent
The cTouiid, for ubout eight miles, is much broken, but
ihe read good, and the country easily defended against
an invading lorcc. au distance 01 lb miles from
SaptajRosa.camo to pool of good water, which all
? .Mexican accounts had repressented to be brackish and
ticweous, and unfit even for horses to drink. Tho pas-
turage here was very good, but fuel scarce. Sent back
a man to Gen. Wool, recommending this placo as a
6u.ablc cncempmeEt for the army. When a running
- llgJSthfi'Fish Creek
-flstream.'tho water discharges into tho Sabina. From
rthis pool it was 14 miles to tho llio Alamos, thetfirst
tenmiles of which was overa levelprame ot good grass.
The next 4 miles was a descent to the river, where wo
encamped. Tho Perote road comes iii at this ford, a-
bout 1 mile back ; the banks of the river covered with
a growth or cottonwood. .
October 19th. The Alamos 19 about 100 feet wide,
4 feet deep, hard pebbly bottom, and the current a
perfect torrent With great difficulty wo passed our
train over the river, after narrowly. escaping the loss of
one mule, and two men, who were carried off their
horses by tho force of the current After crossing tho
river,,tho road tarns suddenly to the left, and a half
mifgurther tho roads dn crge : tho left one leading to
the 'ferry, being the direct Monclova road; and tho
righfrhand one to IheSabiuos ford, being the Santa
Rosa road. At the ferry, the river is not fordablo.
Four miles from tho Alamos, we came to the Sabi-
nos a river neither as wide, nor as swift, nor as deep
as the former ; the bottom hard. We crossed it with-
out much difficulty. The shores of the river are cover-
ed with a growth of very large cypress tress. This
river at times overflows its banks to a great extent,
showing that it sometimes discharges an immense vo-
lume of water, when it must bo utterly impossible to
pass it. Neither this stream nor the Alamos could bo
permanently bridged. Good camping-ground on tho
right bank, with plenty of grass and fuel. Water in
both rivers clsar and excellent Four miles brought us
to tho " Three Ranches"' a good camping-ground, on
a beautiful mountain stream ; four miles further is an-
other good encamping-ground ; one and a half mila
farther, about a half mile from the town of Santa Rosa,
we encamped on tho left bank of the above-mentioned
stream, (Bowing into tho Sab.uos,) on a broad and ex-
tensive plain, almost at the foot of a magnificent volanic
mountain raugo, about 2,000 feet above the level
of tlie plain. These mountains wero visible from tho
banks of the Sabmos, aud as wo approached them' all
wero exhilerated by the contrast between this beautiful
spectacle, and tho dull monotony of tho level prairies,
which we had traversed so long as to deem them ahnost
Soon after leaving tho Sabinos, we were met by a
deputation of the civil authorities of Santa Rosa, who
announced to us that the inunicpality would meet us
on tho road, and tender to ivs the formal surrender of
the town. After encamping, tho principal officers of
tho command, aud a small escort, entered the town with
tho alcade ; and it was agreed that to-morrow we should
take possession. Accordingly, on tho 20th October,
tlie squadron marched mlo town with flags flying and
sabres drawn, and wo accepted the surrender of Santa
Rosa, which had been freely and formally offered by tho
A few invalid soldiers, who had been left behind by
Col. Castanicro, wero disarmed, and tho guns placed
in charge of the alcado. Tho arms were of. British
manufacture, and before the lower proof mark.
. Thero isa difficult mule track from Santa Ro&a to San-
ta Catarma, thronijii the mountains; but nothing which
canabo called a road. Its general direction is bouth.
Presidio de Bavia (an old military pot) is N. 60 W.
(about) SO miles dtaat, on a pretty good road. 4From
thenco to Chihuahua there is a mule track. By the, way
of San Fernando an'l Bavia is the shortest route to
Chihuahua ; but wliclher practicable for an army is a
doubtful matter. v"v
Resume ofdutances from the Rio Grande to Santa
Rio Grande - r- - - 5 miles.
CamiJ -4-&T. - - 4X "
Nava - lTT - -( 24 "
San Fernando -1( - - - ' "-11 "
Camp - -----. C"
Sanitt,ILtaSprmgs4 - - ,-, . 11 "
Water pool "-? .!.,- .Vlb" "
R.o Alamos, .JLt- a 1
R o Sah-nas -' f -$ - 2
Santa Rosa- - - - - 10 "
. ' ' 0L03
Making 2G9 from San Antonio to Santa Rosa,
tsanta jtoaa is agreeab.y situated, at tho cry foot of a.
lofty range 01 mountains, called Monte Rosa, elevated
by igneous act.ou. The out-hers are of volcanic origin,
aud formed of bisalt aud'lavas. The high peaks con-
sist of limestone, and a schistose slate, m which tho-
silver ore is found. It is of a Tery dark-blue color. j --l'he
lodes ofduTercnt metals, particularly lead and sil-
ver, are said to bo uumero., and their yield, extremely ' 1
rich. There hab been, since the cxplus.011 of the Span-
iards, no B,tcmat'c 0 intelligent working of tlie mines
t sin this district,& the veins aro ucually abandoned as soon
". 2as tho wtftcr fills the shatts. Tho workings I have seen;
they appeared to me to bo easily drained by ad ts for "
many years to come, without incurring the expense of
"pumping. The principal ores arc Silver and lead ; and
I am. inclined to IHievo that this is one of tho richest
mining rcgious in .Mexico. The U3iia! process of separa-
tion of the metals, cousists in first pulverizing tho ores,
hand washing out tho dust and light matter with wator;
i!ie raimalmug portiou is put into an elbow furnacej'
siicab apuiiuu, uia ouuua laiLCU uul uu uuu siuc, uuu uiu v
tmelted. silver left behind m a kind of retort Tho
amalgamation process has never been iutroduced here.
Santa Rosa is said to contain 3,000 inhabitans; but
I doubt if its population exceeds 2,000. It is well wa-
tered from mountain streams. Its climate is agreeable
and-salubrious, and a good deal of corn aud sugar aro
made here. But still tho town wears that appearanco
of decay eo common in Mexico. Its former prosperity
depended on Its'mining operations, which have been
nearly entirely suspended for many years, by the de-
predations of thtylndians. The old laws of Spain, "the
laws of the Itid.es," 'jnrelation:.to mining, and mining
interests, are -stillju existence, and are said to bo very
judiciously -framed- TheTeS 'simple of the mines bo-
longs to the government, and leases with certain privi-
leges, aro granted to individuals at very moderato rates.
Any person discovering a new mine, or one that has
becriabandoned, may declare it ; that is, may take a
lease of ft, on application to tho proper authorities, and
by complying with certain prerequisites amongst
which, ho is to work tho mino' a certain number of daj s,
each year, on penalty nf forfeiture.
Tho inhabitants of Santa Rosa aro generally friendly
to tho Un-ted States.
SOIL'S AND SCIENCE.
One of tho most valuable economical results of tho
late progress in geological and chemical science, is the
large aiuo.iut ot information accumulated in a depart-
ment of tho deepest interest to tho agricultural we
mean, the facts and experiments relating to soils and
their various modes of degrees of treatment Whdo
many experiments aro yet undetermined, and whilo
there is a large field of observation and discovery yet
open for exploration, tho progress already made and in-
dicated is encouraging and premises a rich reward.
The old methods 01 treating soils, which were founded
upon an ignorance of their composition, or pursued re-
gardless of tho phys;cal laws which must be observed
111 order to make the earth bnug forth its fruits, aro suf-
fering a very critical mvestigaton at the hands of think-
ing men now aud every new fact and theory, every
new observation, or remark, will have a tendency to.
augment the general amount of intelligence, and per-
haps, indicate tho opening ot a new field of interest
Tho agriculturist can scarcely be too zealous in his
inquiries, or too faithful m his experiments concerning
the nature of sotK Ho may not bo an experienced
chemist, b it ho may, by a sufficient regard to the phy-
sical appearances, and pos.tiou, together with a know-
ledge ol tne sab-stratum, and its c-j icity for absorp-
tion, dra'nage, ,c, be ub!e to dctenu.ue with conside-
rable precis on tlie course lin s!nn:!d pursue. To tho
knowledge of h.swa land, he can scarcely ao.d ad-
diug some kuowlyde ol tint ue gliboriug region, und
tho fct that he 1 iii a p i.mt.ve, traiu.tion, Secoa-
dary, Li ucslou 3Ian . .1, or other dis-lncl, will forco
itself upon Lsobcivai o 1 witim. 1 effort 011 h.s part
If in a region wh'clt :. l.nown lo be Ji posited from tho
granite aud pnnnta e rcckrf, o-io co use must hi parsu-
ed, while an jtlur h m-d-sar in a limestone region.
A soil weu adoted for ono V ud of vegetation will be
inappropriate lor anoth r, ana one tjtid of manure will
bo destructive to a fid! harual. The determination
of these questions aro of no trifimg value to the agri-
culturist, whoio resources are Ui labor and his skill If,
by scientific a ds, ho ca.i m !l p'y these almost 11.d4.fi-
n.tely, it is a duty hr owes to himself, not lew than to
all to contribute to tho general wdfarc.
The most preduqtivo sSU are fortnqd from threo
earths, clay, lime, atid sand and where these threo
are associated there will be the best returns: If tho
granitic and sil.ceous or sandy predominates, or is alcnc,
the laud wJl be barren aud sterile in proportion, and a
pure y unmixed siliceous soil w as barren as an iceberg.
The admixture of cla tends f o light n and loosen tho
latter, and give a firmness to tho former. Tho stiff,
unfavorable clay soil js benefitted by the Eamc canto
ivheu the siliceous sand is mixed with it Lime, how-
ever, is more frequently used than any other earth for
tho mixing and improving of different foiU.
Accurate chemical arialjslsare by no means neces-
sary to the proper treatment of land. For tho purposo
of experimi nl, where tho results are to be used us a
standard of comparison, and as data upon which to
generalize or to practice, thdy ate, of course, indispen-
sable, but no one need doubt li's ability to make fair tri-
als of his land or his manures pr method of treatment,
after having obtained a proper Itaowlc'dgo of the soil
upon whichho intends to operate. We of course, in-
include in this knowledge of the soil, not merely an ac-
quaintance with tho super-stratum, but with that of tho
sub-stratum. Its capability of retaining moisture, and
tho necessity of drainage or of irrigation it's liability
to becomo too wet or too dry, i.nd ether questions of
v 1'ne lannor in tiio determination of th&e questions
j has a practical school iij which ho may becomo emi
nently useiui to otners, as wen as reap a ncn reward
for himself. It is full of interest, and as now facts aro
made known will "becomo of moro extensive applica-
tion. We look upon the practical labors of tho present
day resulting from goological and chemical investiga
tion with no little curiosity, and aro desirous of seeing
an interest widely felt where it is of the most immediate
importance among those men whose circumstances
and pursuits made them dependent upon the soil for
The spirit of improvement is advancing with too swift
a flight now to bo arrested in its career. Old fashions
may be good in their place, and are, just so far as they
conform to scientific principles but many of them aro
exploded by tho recent developements of scientific in-
vestigation, aud require the substitution of new ones.
Wo hopo few will bo found who say, practically as well
as verbally, "These innovations are of no service to us."
Keep tho spirit of inquiry alive distnbuto information
observe and accumulate, and distribute, and the records
of science will be enriched, and tho productive capacity
of our wido spread territory incalculably increased.
EDITED BY FRANCIS MOORE, Jr.
Monday Jflarch 20, 1847.
Killed is Self Defence. It is to us a
subject of most painful regret that so frequent
instances of manslaughter have occurred with-
in the last few months in this and the neighbor-
ing States ; and it is mortifying in the extreme
to find so many of our brethren of the press rea-
dy in almost every instance to acquit the person
who has shed the'blood of his fellow man, of all
blame, by the oft repeated assertion, that the
deed was committed in self defence. Two cases
have occurred within a few weeks in adjoining
counties, one in Fort Bend and one in Galves-
ton. Yet in both instances the parties have been
exculpated, upon the ground that they acted in
self defence. We have already expressed our
opinions respecting the case in Fort Bend coun-
ty ; and in examining the particulars of the
bloody affair at Galveston, that resulted in the
death of Dr. Watson, as detailed in the News
and Civilian, we find only renewed cause to
lament that there is a radical defect in the so-
cial condition of our people. These deplora-
ble events could not have occurred, if our social
organization were more perfect, and adapted
as it ever should be, to the wants of the people.
In every well-regulated community there
should be such perfect security afforded to each
citizen, that he may at all times pursue his
avocations without being subjected to the least
hindrance. He should not be liable to insult,
nor placed in danger of life or limb. We are
told, however, that previous to the death of
Dr. Watson, he had frequently threatened the
life of Mr. Pollock, and that he on one occa-
sion snapped a loaded pistol at him when he
was unarmed. It is stated also that he was
intemperate, and itappears from the statements,
jboth'ofthc Civilian and News, that he was in
toxicated when he made the attack upon Mr.
Pollock, which resulted in his death. We are
told also that the last words that he uttered
expressed his forgiveness of Mr. Pollock, and
it is said that none lament moro than the lat-
ter, that hehad thu3 killed one who had for-
merly been his friend.
Truly these arc lamentable facts, and we
arctotally at a loss to account for the culpa
ble supineness of the community that could
permit such a deed to be perpetrated in its
midst. Thefriend3 of Dr. Watson, since his
death, have held a public meeting, and adopt-
ed resolutions expressive of their high estima-
tion of the "amiable qualities" of the deceased
and of their sympathy for his relations. They
state that he was surrounded in his last mo-
ments by warm friends. Ah ! if these friends
had performed their duty to him while living,
the)r might not thus have been called to mourn
his sad and untimely fate ! When they saw
him under the influence of intoxicating liquor,
roving about with deadly weapons, they should
have arrested him in his mad career, and they
should have compelled him to give security
to keep the peace, or have kept him in their
own custody until he had becomo rational.
Would it not have been their duty to arrest a
madman rushing with a drawn dagger through
the streets 1 It was equally their duty to ar-
rest this person whom they styled a "kind and
true hearted gentleman," and by entreaty or
force deprived him of the power of shedding the
blood of his fellow man. It is but too evident
that he had become partially deranged by in-
temperance, and if proper precautions had
been adopted to prevent him from endanger-
ing the life of his former friend, he might still
be living, and his friends would have just
cause to rejoice that they had rescued from the
grave one whom they had "so long kntjwn
and esteemed." j-
' B the arrn.i! .f the sloop Tom Jack at Gal-
veston, advuis have been lcceived from
Malamoros two days Liter than thoso receiv-
ed by the On .w. It appears from the pri-
atc letters recened from Matatnoros, tha the
nuinberof American officers killed and wound-
jd in the late battle is less than was at nrtt
Wo learn also that the army of Santa Anna
vds not entirely dispersed, but ictired with
ome degice of order fiom the field and ic-
reatcd upon San Luis Potosi. Santa Anna
lad very few pieces of artillery, and Gen. Tay-
'or being aware of this, throw up entrench-
ncnts in the plain, about six miles from Sal-
lllo, on tlie butiiliern road. When the army
if Santa Anna first appealed at the entrance
jfthe valley, at the southwest, several detach-
ments of light troops were bent out to engage
the Mexicans, and after a slight skirmish, they
retired behind the entrenchments, and the
American batteries were opened upon the
Jcnse masses of Meicans that covered the
plain. The battoiies were served with such
fatal effect that the ranks of the enemy were
literally mowed down, and the havoc was so
great that they were soon compelled to retire
in confusion from the field.
Although the Mexican army remained near
the entrenchments for a long time after their
first repulse, they were so much dispirited
that their officers could not force them to make
any effecth e charge upon our troops, and sev-
eral parties of them were so panic stricken tha,
they came into the camp of Gen. Taylor and
laid down their arms, prcfeni.ig to becomo
prisoners of war rather than to submit to the
orders of their officers.
Tho Mexicans were so confident that our
army would be defeated, that they sent out
small detachments of troops in all directions
below Monterey to cut off the communication
with the garrisons in the towns along the Rio
Grande. These detachments intercepted seve-
ral couriers, and it is supposed that the courier
who had the official despatches of Gen. Taylor
has been captured. The forces of Santa Anna
engaged in the battle were variously estimated
at from 15,000 to 20,000 men.
The Civilian gives the following list of the
officers killed and wounded :
Capt Geo. Lincoln, Ass't Ad. Gen. U. S. A.
" Kinler and Walker,2d InjL Regt.
Liout Parr. v " 't - ,
Capt Tarart, 3d " " " .sH .
Lieuts. Moore, and M'Nulty, 1st Miss,3tegimerit,i i'3
Adj. JiM' Vaughn, Ky. Cavalry.. - . . z"xf
A. Xell.Ar&ahsas -". .
Capt A. Porter,
Col. McKeo, 2d
Lt Col. Ii. Clay, "
" W.T.WUlis "
Col. Hardin, let
Capt Zabriskie, '
Lt Hazleton, " "
Capt Woodmans; Lts. Breton, Fletcher, Pricey
Ferguson, Barthson, Atherson, Robins, 2d 111. RegUa
1st Lt Campbell, comp'yiTexas volunteers,
yd " .Leonard, """ " -- "? it,f
Capt E. Steen, (severely)' 1st" Regt DragoonsfclMI
1st Lt J. P. J. O'Brien, (severely). 4th Art'fji
2d Lt. S. G. French, "
Gen. Lane, Iudianana Brigade.
Capts. Saunders and Osborn, 2d
Lts. Cayco and Pennington, 2d
Lts. Morse, Lewis, Davis, Eiperson,
Muj. Gorman, 3d
Capt Steel, "
Col. Jefferson Davis, (slightly) 1st
Capt J. M. Sharpe, "
Lts.V.Cauliu aud Posey, " "
Lt J. P. Stockton, " "
1 Capt and 3 Lieuts. names not known
Lieut Reeder, Arkansas Cavalry.
Lts. Barbour, Wilkins and Mosier, 2d Ky. Infy.
Lts.J.D.McConnellaudH.Evens, 1st 111. Reg.
Capt's. Coffee and Baker, " " "
Lt's. Pickett, Eugerson, Steel, Webb, and Adjutant
Whitsides, 2d Illinois Regiment
Capt. Conner, company Texas Volunteers.
The steamboat Del Norte, which left this
city a few "weeks since to proceed to tho Bra-
zes, was compelled to put into San Luis har-
bor, and while there, encountered so severe a
gale that she dragged her anchors, and would
hae been drhen out to sea, but the Captain,
with admirable foresight, had the fires kindled,
and the engine being put in motion, she was
enabled to ride out the storm in safety. This
storm has proved conclusively that the Del
Norte is not adapted for the trade between tho
Brazos and Galveston, as she would have been
wholly unable to ride out this gale if she had
been upon the Gulf.
We have learned with regret that a flat-bot
tomed vessel belonging to Mr. Jackson, was
driven in the late gale from Bastrop bay,
through the St. Luis Pass out to sea. There
were five persons on board, four white men
and a negro, and the cargo consisted of seven
ty bales of cotton from the plantation of Mr.
Jackson. As nothing has been heard from the
vessel, it is feared that she foundered in the
Gulf, and that all on board perished.
U. S. Distmct Court. The next term
of the U. S. District Court of Texas will com-
mence at Galveston on the first Monday in
The two companies of Rangers under the
command of Captain Henry McCulloch and
Captain Grumbles, were unable to proceed to
Comargo with tho three companies of volun-
teers that marched from Bexar a week ortwo
since. They however were, at the last ac-
counts, making all possible haste to prepare
for the march, and they are probably now in
the vicinity of Comargo.
CA.tu.olic Church. The ceremony of.
laying the corner stone of a now Catholic Ca-
thedral took place at Galveston on the 14th
instant. Bishop Odin presided at the cere-
mony, assisted by the Rev. J. Timon, Rev. B.
Rolando, the Rev. Mr. Chauzel, and Deacons .
J. Brands, Chambodut, and Sub-Deacoa-
Chantrion. Tho News says': r "''
" A sermon was preached from Ephceians, chap, ivf
by the very Jtov. J. Timon, after which an urn was
placed within. tho stone conta'raiug a document with tho
names of tho President of tho United States, tho Gover-
nor and Marshal of Texas, tho Mayorof tho city and
several other officers, also the newspapers of this and
other cities and tlie coins of four different nations.
The assomblago in attendance was very Jarge, and
appeared to take a'dcep interest in tho solemn and im-
posing ceremonies.' '
Th Bilifiee about to beerectednndcr these, favorable
auspices, will be one of the largest, if not tho largest, in
our city, and will bo builU entirely of brick. Jtsdi-
mensnns will ha 120 feet iulcrilth by 60 feet in breadth.
to bi surmounted by throe Gothic towors about 80 feet -m
height" - i - .
Su:;riT." Con:?. We arc gratified to learrT?
that there is an immense quantity of surplus
c.irn in all tho interior counties of the State,
aud that it i3 selling in moat parts of the West
at from two to three bitts per bushel. This is
of great impoitancs to emigrants, as the
abundance and cheapness of food in those
bections will enable them to form new settle-
ments under the most favorable auspices.
There has probably never been a season in
Texas so favorable to emigrants as the pre-
sent, and wc rejoice that thousands of cnterpri-
zing pioneers aro taking advantage of it to lo-
cate in the long neglected but most fertile re-
gions of Western Texas.
Wc have learned with much pleasure that
, all apprehensions of a renewal ot hostilities
with tlie Commanches of the Upper Colorado
have been dissipated. The offer of tho agent
of the German Colonists to purchase their lands
seems at length to have pacified tho majority
of the tribe, and the few who were disposed to
resist the colonists have been compelled to
! vimfl. Tt i; nrnhnliln flint o frnntv will nnn
j j.. . ..- . ,.v ..... nwv,..
be concluded with the principal chiefs of the
Commanches : and tho colonists, by paying a
few hundred dollars, will bo permitted to ex-
tend their settlements to the San Saba with-
out further molestation.
Road to the Brazos. The efforts that
our enterprising neighbors at Galveston arc
making to open a direct communication be-
tween that city and the Brazos, so as to di-
rect the trade of tho flourishing settlements on
that river to their city, should servo to stimu-
late the citizens of Houston to make similar
improvements in this vicinity. If the people
of the Brazos settlements could be assured
that commodious roads will soon be opened
from Houston to that river, they will ndt at'
present trouble themselves about improving
its navigation ; for they have learned by dear-
experience, that they can transport their cot-
ton and other products to this city on their own
teams, at lessA expense than it can possibly
beeipdrtedjto Galveston by steamboats, and
'can.alsoispbse of it here as advantageously
Ks3anflSat city; Wo'met with one of the
fed5niosrintelligent planters of Fort
SecbuStyi-aday or two since, and he in-
formed trt4he-risfSfjtransportlng cotton
on steambctsTirmanypoint on the Brazos
below RJclimbrid, and the expense arrising
ifrom the freighti drayage, commission, &c,
are so great, that na planter "would ship their
cotton bythoBrazos, while thoy hadanjop-
portunkyof transporting it on their own teams
bymtSotOriQSKUo Hbusfdn. Even if the cot-
tonjcwuw'DQ'transportcAfrqm their plantations
Jojthejmouth of tho- Brazos free of charge, it,
is doubtful whether many would be" willing tq
incur the expense and risk of re-shipping sitat'
prefer to transport their cotton on,JheirtOwn
teams to Houston, rather than incuriaii'ex-
pensc of even half a dollar on a bale, and under-
go the risk of losing it all on the voyage round
to Galveston. Even if there were no riskth
would be unwilling that it should bo detained
at the mouth of the river several days, orpof-
haps weeks, exposed to the weather, until.-an
opportunity should be afforded of re-shipping
it to Galveston. The danger of crossing the
bar at Velasco would alone be sufficient to de-
ter many planters from shipping their cotton
by the river. It is of the utmost importance
therefore, that our citizens should offer them
such facilities of transportation, that they will
find it more to their interest to transport it to
this city, than to trust to the uncertain and
dangerous navigation of the river. The dis-
tance from Houston to Richmond by the most
practicable route is, we believe, only 26 miles,
and by ditching and grading about one-third
of this distance, the road could be ren-
dered passable at all seasons. The road
committee at Gah eston, estimates the expense
of excavating a ditch three feet wido and 18
to 20 inches deep, on each side of a road, and
raising it in the centre, so as to slope gradual-
ly to the ditches'on each side, at 8 120 per
mile. Even at this estimate, which may be
considered high, the road to Richmond and
another to the high lands on the route to San
Felipe, or Wasington, could be construct-
ed at an expense that would hardly be felt by
our citizens, and the advantages resulting to
the city from such improvements would be in-
calculable. The following extract from the reported
speech of Mr. Calhoun affords very little con-
solation to the friends or the opponents of the
administration. According to the 'reasoning
of the great Carolina Statesman, every new
victory will only bring us nearer the verge of
ruin. The party it seem3 has taken "thestep"
alluded to by the Senator, and we apprehend
that it will not have so much cause to rue that
it has been taken, as to rue that it had not
taken it sooner :
" When I said there was a mysterious cori-
nection between our fate and the Mexicans, I
alluded to the great fact that we can do nothing
with Mexico if wo "were to go on and subjU-i
gate her. If we incorporate her, weare de-
stroyed if not, our institutions" perish I In
this'view I hold this war to have been, in the.
I first instance, a great departure from tho true
line of policy which, as I have again and again
said, is peace. It is ours to grow and not to
Vddb'yj;bnquest. And I hold that if we should
uo sbluk)rtunato as jo commit tne error now,
insteavailingjnurselves of the means of
teimiBatittg thiswar by taking the defensive
position-Mfnow wo shall take the other step
of prosecuting the war, vigorously, as they
term it, till we compel Mexico to submit, let
me say to the gentlemen, they take a step
whicfrth'ey shalLruethe longest day they have
to live I What is party? Nothing. But the
party that takes thai step will be ruincdand
the party that succeeds it will be in a position
oCgreat difficulty. , r
r ThKrcatdemandin Europe for American
djreadstuffshas 'caused an immense quantity
?JCS;r. Un imnnplnil in Vin TTmfpfl StfttBS.
The Cambria on her last trip, brought over
two millions and a half of specie, and a very
large amount has also been brought over jbji
the mail packets
surplus grain of the United States will be or-
changed for more than 10,000,000 ot specie,
in additioa to the manufactured articles of
Tub Gardex. The weather in tho early
part of March was so cold and unfavorable,
that seeds that aro ordinarily planted at the
commencement of the month, could not be
planted with safety. The weather Ins now
become so mild that all kinds of the tender
vegetables may be planted. Beans, cucum-
bers, melons and celery should be s wed im-
mediately. Butter-beans may be sowed a
week later. This is also a favorable season
for transplanting evergreens. Tonutoes, pep-
pers, and egg-plants may be transplanted from
the hotbeds. Beets, cabbage, cauliflower,
i and lettuce mav bo transplanted in the morn-
ing orjevening, and if thcAweathcr -should, bo
dry,' they sliould be watered for a fewdaysjafi
ter they, are transplanted.
" " :&-.
Since the law rcquiriug all duties taixpaid
in Lspecic at the custom houses has gone into
operation, it has been found so difficult and la-
borious to count the money at the customhouse
ofNcwYorkand other large cities, thatamore
expeditious method has been adopted. Instead
of counting the specie it is weighed, and bags
containing a certain weight of coin are kept at
the bank3 to be used when wanted 'for "tho
payment of customs. Amethod similar to this
has long been in use in India, where bags con-
taining a certain weight of gold dust pass as
current a3 a quantity of coin of equal value.
m -& ft
iMrSsBenton, in his late bitter controversy
pun, ox mo unueaoiaxesoenais
chargeoVthfi latter with having caused the war
withjMexfco,.by' his hasty measures to cfiect
the' annexation of Texas to the Union
frT-'i . . .. ,. . .
this Mr. Calhoun retorted, that hitherto many
Senators and many persons had said that the
Executive had secured annexation. ItCwas
now admitted, and it was with pride and plea-
sure that he heard it, -that the annexation of
Texas was his own act, as (Ht certainly was."'
He had " seized the golden opportunity and
consummated the act." We are willing to
ascribe to- Mr., Calhoun all the credit that is
due to him for tho consummation of this-great
measure ; bat we regard him as only an agent,
but afvery efficient agent, of the Executive, in
'accomplishing the measure. He aided in com-
pleting what President Tyler, with the aid of
the lamented Gilmer had so nobly begun; and
even if Mr. Calhoun had not been called to the
Cabinet the Executive would doubtless have
leffectedijhe.measure with another Secretary
JTe-lkleferateful to Mr. Calhounfor
iae emcieni services mat ne renaerea tatuc
rdayi&tfckadnot received the efficient and suc-
essful support of the honest, patriotic and noble-hearted
Tyler, who, for his- zealous advo-
cacy of the measure, was made the laughing
stock of the Federalists; and now that it is
consummated, is entitled to the thanks of eye -Southern
Brazoria. Caxax. Gen. Hamilton and
"Mr. Jackson, who have purchased the'inte-
rest of the Brazoria Canal Company are stea-
dily proceeding with the work, and it is expected
that they will complete the section from Bas-
trop bay to Oyster Creek in one or two months.
They expect to complete the section west of
Oyster Creek, so as to open the navigation
from Galveston and St. Luis bays to the Bra-
zos in one year. We recollect that the old
company were quite sanguine that this canal
would be opened one or two years since, but
new difficulties occurred with each successive
attempt to prosecute "thrrwork, until they fi-
nally abandoned it. We are somewhat at'a
loss to account for the neglect of the people of
Galveston to engage in this enterprize. Their
committee have explored the country far. and
wide, to hunt out new channels of trade from
their city, and have even ascended the San
Jacinto to divert the trade of the settlements
near it sources from Houston: but they ap-
pear to take little interest in an mrorovement
that is intended to divert the trade of the Brazos
to Galveston bay. Our friend, of the News,
remarks that this canal will open "the entire
trade of tho valley of the Brazos and of San
Bernard and Caney to San Luis and Galves-
ton bay, a region of country capable of making
as much sugar as the State of Louisiana, and
more cotton than the States of 'Alabama 'and
Mississippi, comprising a region of country of
He.further remarks that it xsill add millions
'pfifradeTto Galveston, " whilst to the peoplo
anacontractors ot tne woric, n. must result m
ypfy.Iargcoraparative profits: indeed on the
costofilasexecution, no stock in. the United
jStatessTlikIy to pay a larger profit."
1riGalYeston is to derive such, immense ad
vantages iruiii mus cuiiiii, ii is- iuujitr uiuueu
that tho people of that city aro not straining
every nerve to complete the work at the earli-
est practicable period. An island city should
look to the water for the sources of its pros-
perity ; and if Galveston woull improve tho
facilities of navigation around it, we entertain
no doubt that it would derive tenfold greater
advantages than it ever can derne Coin, tlie
abortive attempt to construct road&tbraughjtho
marshy tracts of tho low countrv thatsur-
rounds it. 2gj
Great Pennsyi,va-iax RAiLEOAnTho
Philadelphia papers announce that the whole
stock required for tho construction of the great
railroad from Philadelphia to. the Ohio has
been taken up. More than the three millions
required wero taken up in the city, and
a t considerable amount nas been taken up
nuhemiterior. The oeoDle of Baltimore have
Sons beenendcaoring to obtain. permission
to,consruct a railroad from that city to tho
'U raj a
Ohio, below Wheeling; but owing to the op-
position of a portion of the Virginians inter-
ested at Wheeling and other points, they could
never obtain a charter to terminate it at any
point South of Wheeling. The contest is
now decided in favor of Philadelphia, and
this city will make rapid strides in the career
of improvement, when the vast trade of the
Ohio is poured into her marts.
Tremendous Hail Storm. We learn
from the Victoria Advocate that a portion of
La Yaca county was visited, on the 3d instant,
by a hail-storm of unusual severity. The hail
stones (says the Advertiser) were from the
size of hen's eggs to double and tripple that
size, ani fed in great numbers, killing fowls,
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Moore, Francis, Jr. Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 12, No. 13, Ed. 1, Monday, March 29, 1847, newspaper, March 29, 1847; Houston, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth48450/m1/2/: accessed November 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.