Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 15, No. 2, Ed. 1, Thursday, January 3, 1850 Page: 1 of 4
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&Y GRUGER& MOORE.
Tfelegraph and Register, :
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ofnea, lie rendered himscif liable for the subscription.
Goy. Wood's Valedictory Address.
Gentlemen cfthe Legislature,
Tho present is an interesting, aud toms, au impo-
sing occasion. Two years ago, by the voluntary
suffrages of my fellow citizens, I was called to the dis-
tinguished position which, in a few moments, I am to
surrender into-oiher bunds. This is a circumstance
which beautifully illustrates one of the chief rxcellun-
cie& of our free s-ysicm of government.
Did tirno permit, it would afford me pleasure to
advert to many incidents in the past history of Texas,
abounding, as it does, in events so humble in the be-
ginning, so glorious m their progress and" termination.
Hut it must sulnce for the present to say, in a fow
words, that daring my term 01 service, several quea;
tions of grave importance to the people of the State,
tiross for my consideration and action.
Daring that period, ser,ous injuries were .Dfiicted
upou portions of our frontier inhabitants, in the loss
and destruction botii of property and life. This, it wis
coucoived, imperiously demanded action on the part of
the Executive of tho State. I pjksdnn-d the responsi-
bility of raising troops, to extend to my fellow-citizens
that protection to which they were entitled, and which
the United Stales lorce in Texas proved itself wholly
'inadequate to ullbrd. I did uotslop to count the cost
nor to inquire how much money would be takeu from
the Treasury. I should have acted as I did, had it
exhausted the last dollar. Tiih I conceived to bo my
duty, and under similar circumstances, my coarse
would always be the same ; for.the highest obligation
of a State is tho protection of hor citizens. I
The unsatisfactory manner in which the go-
vernment of the United States has acted in re-
gard to our frontier defence, has arisen in a
great degree, no doaht, from its imperfect infor-
mation upOfc the subject. The List official act
which Ij)erformed w.is to address a letter to the
proper authorities at Washington City, calling
their attention to such facts aud considerations
as;I regarded important to be .known.
The Stale ofaifairs in Santa Fe has alsooeeu-
picd much of my attention. Every inch of that
territory justly belongs to our State, and she
will defend it to the last eztremity: and if ever
surrendered, it must be when slio has no t.olJier
to defend it" there will he no mesenger of defeat.
Gentlemen nf the Legislature, to the forecast
and wisdom of your counsels to the patriotic
k union of your purposes to the earnest devo-
tion of your energies to the welfare of the state,
hor citizens look confidently to secure a contin-
uance of her present prosperous condition.
By harmony of action and freedom from sel-
fish and sectional prejudices, you? -legislation
will advance the interests of the state. Anima-
ted by these feelings, you will give to her an
impulse in her progress towards the proud des-
tiny which so happily awaits her.
1 ermit rne: gentlemen, to return through you
to the people of Texas, my deep sense of grati-
tude for the many marks of confldence they
have given me, in the bestowal of hor more
humble and her most exalted trusts. And if it
can le any gratificetion to him who is about to
tever his official relationship with a state, to
feel and know that he has discharged honestly
and conscientiously the duties which the nature
of that relationship imposod. I retire at this time
indeed a happy man.
fn" surrendering the Execative office to ray
successor, it affords me peculiar pleasure to ex-
press the assurance, which I feel, that it is com-
mitted to honest, capable and worthy-hands.
All must unite with me in the confidence that
that the interests and the honor of the State arc
safe in his hands.
An in an earnest spirit, Iinvoke Heaven's ble3-
bings upon him, -and that He who can alone
crown human efforts with success, may render
his every act as seed sown in good ground, pro-
ducing to him and the State blessings a thous-
and fold. GEO. T. WOOD.
Austin, Dec. 21, 18).
Gov, Bell's Inaugural Address
Gentleman of tiic Legislature, . ,
The present occasion, interesting as it dos
every patriot citizen, com'es to mo with an q
cumulated weight of hopes and Tears, prod ae-
ing an active struggle of varied emotions.
Against this fain sustained only by the firm
and unshaken reliance, that its origin is deriv-
ed, from a knowledge on my part, that heavy
and important duties, involving a common in-
terest, are shout to be assumed and in a pure
disire to meet them with manly firmness, and a
proper intelligence in he discharge of every
Called by the unbiassed will of the people of
Texas, in the exercise of the exalted privilege
of the. elective franchise, to preside as their
Chief Magistrate, I appear before you to fake
the solemn and sacred ath, "that I will per-
form the duties incumbent upon me, according
to the best of my skilf 'and ability; and agree-
able to the "Constitution and Laws of the State,
and of the United States."' This solemn obser-
vation, to be made in the presence of GOD and
my fellow countrymen brings into lively re-
quisition every moral, every ennoblingBentiment,
and excites every slumbering patriotic sensibili-
ty. Mv heart woald be obdurate and insensi-
ble, inaeed, if it did not swell with unusual
emotions on -an event fraught with so many
consequences to myself, either for good or evil,
tind involving considerations of vital importance
to you. The distinguished mark of confidence
and resnect, from a great and growing State,
implying as it doe high TCgard for my integri-
ty and ability, demands from me the deepest
xnression of cratitude.
A.custom, established by precedent and hon-
ored by time, makes it appropriate before as-
suming the usual constitutional qualification,
that, in making a suitable expression of thanks
. to my fellow citizens at large'for tbchonor they
have conferred, I should, also advert concisely
to some of the principles and sentiments which
will govern me in conducting the civil adminis-
tration of the State.
Jnow offer to you fellov-citi.ons. in the sin-
cerity "of my heart, the humble tribute of my
thank for the tiered trust confided to me: and
desire to join you in hearty congratulations,
that the Great, Aufhorof all "goo J, has- vouch-
safed to our leloved State. jieaee. health, anil
prosperity; and all the elements, physical,
nion'.l, and religions, necessary to constitute us
a truly great and glorious p'oopfc. --
In coming to the, position aligned me. it is
not unfit that J should advert' o.days that are
past, in order that we may bo. directed Avith
more contain aim to those which are' advancing.
The experience of the past affords lessons of
wisdom and instruction for the future; and a
retrospect of days gone by in oar historv, as a
people, whilst it affordsample caus ofJxnUation
and cheering hopes, corner, also luisgled with
melancholy reflections. It is never Tiiprofit-
able, when alluding to our country, lo recur to
our early birory the days 01 thirty-five and
six: and to the brilliant and sonl-slnrinr scenes
to which the events of those days gave rise
In doing this the mind performs a holy, reli-
gious pilgrimage, in visiting tha grave of our
departed friends, aud heroes who have fallen
by the desolation of war cherishing their me-
1inT?rm3nnirr1i33Z"njTiheir for the mind and greatly improves tho"hoart "
placing us higher in the scale as social beings,
and mr.king ad better citizens. The great end
and aim of our institutions is. to afford the
jewel of comfort and solid happiness; and what-
ever curreut of thought tends to moral culture,
becomes a great auxiliary to this object. Fellow-
citizens! the price of liberty in Texas was
dearly paid in the blood of her patriot sons.
Let that be held in grateful remembrance, and
to. us, and to these who are to succeed us, it
shouid.be the highest incentive to virtue, pat-
riotism, and honor. The best vindications of
their motives and the principles fur which they
contended, is to be found in a determined, suc-
cessful effort on our part to secure to those who
arc to come after us, the multiplied advantages
which their sacrifices have brought to U3.
Vv'ith an object so high and hoiy, it is not for
us to slumber in the pathway of duty. With
an awakened sense of our just claims, and a ,
true appreciation of our peculiar position, it be-
hooves us to move forward to the performance
of such measures for the promotion of intelli-
gence, and her hand-maid virtue, as wisdom
and experience may dictate. Let U3 not then
forget, or undervalue, our superior advantages
but with abroad, elevated, and ardent patri-
otism, unite heart and hand in advancing Tex-
as to the proud destiny that-awaits her. With
a country great in extent, and beautiful as she
is great fertile in soil salubrious in climate
established in her institutions and general
laws, and progressive in the moral improvement
of her people, she cannot fail soon to realize the
forest hopes of tho patriot, and successfully
vinoicaro her claims to an elevated rank
amongst the States of the Union. '
The mnstp'.aasinj evidences of gradi al and perma-
nent improvements aro to rje seen at many points.
And we canuot behold so glorious and gratifying a
prot-pect for our infaut Stste, aud not bo animated
with tho most profound 'and grateful acknowledge-
ments to tho Great Author of our being, for those
manifold aud inestimable bjes-ings. -Our vigilance and
unceasing caro for the benefits we enjoy should bo
proportioaably increased for their perpetuation.
Our hopeF, interest, aud affections arp centred here,
an I every true Iovr of his country should f-ac-ifice
every selfish everj- ambitious motive mi fie hal-
lo.ved altar of Patriotism, and in the wine spirit of
gtiiicroas co'iipro'iiise which gave too n- Union a Con-
stitution, and to o'lr Stat' a name, 11.1 V 10 iiarinon-
izo all coutiictin? interests and lend aid m such meas-
ures as will be co'.i Jacivo fo tho puhl.n g,iod.
Texas has, perhdje, as much snbUintial cause for
a high appreciation of hr present phtical position
an 1 advantaged as any country, claiming sovereignty
on earth. Tho circuin.-tances and incidents of her
birihire strange irid interesting, if not illustriois.
Springing into paliti-al existence as by magic at a
poi'it ho obscun- as to b? almost entire.) unknown on
the map of the world astonishing hor u'ends- by the
unexpected d'damtiou that she rctolved to ha "free,
sovereign, and independent" coufounding her ene-
mas by a pract'c.d enforcement cf the declaration.
With no extrinsic advantages to draw to her aid. and
with no friond but her geuius and valor, she moved
steadily onward almost without men aud means, con-
quering and lo conquer, with an energy that defied all
miofortuue, and an indomitable courage almost super-
natural uutil her ono-starred burner waved iu tri-
umph at eyry point where her enemies darod present
What arf anomaly in the progress of human frac-
dovi does"!! present, that this "forlorn hope" should iu
a few year- assert, and actually establish a right over
a territory of such magnitude and importance as to
attract tin- attention, aud excito the cupidity of mon-
archical Europe. Our father-land, too, an inactive
spectator of the struggle, w-'(h something of sympa-
thy, and more of interest, tue:?hig Texas dash from
her lips the poisoned cha"' wh'ch haughty Mexico
presented, aroused by a deling s'igiifly imbued with
jealonAy towards a power, not American, opened at
last the door of alliance. In this inauspicious hour,
(I hpe it was auspicious,) Texts, w.th an m ich dip-
lomatic adroitness in the cabinet assh had displayed -valor
in the field, moved gracefully, and by a sudden
traiiiit, within the folds of the Star-sjinig-d banner
j'ifd there, lellovy citizens, we uow have the happi-
ness lo find her. The picture, though poorly drawn,
blrue to the life; and affords cou-ioiation, to those
a le:.sl, who found her in her weakness tottering to
tfie fall, and who now behold her in b.Mtity and
strength. Her brightness may he dimmed, for a time,
$y the superior constellation which s jrrounds her, but
it needs not the a.d of prescience to di-termiue that,
hi afrvvyeirs, we shall behold our State, with tho
pen inuutics natcro lias hestoweu wi'n aproaigat
fiani, suicided hv a cood constitution and laws, as a
bu-fV.i iihl. and a hopo attracting to her bosom tho
oppressed of overy laud. That God, in his mercies,
iiuy gr-.nt tills consummation, is tit wish of every
triu patrio. '
Feliow-cilizens, when coutemplntii.g the pDs;iion
we ccipy, and so latu assumed, every consideration
of relf-'csps-it anJ national duly re ;tcs that wo
should be dehbera'ive and cautious in th measures vc
adopt, or the laws -vo enact, local orj,e.icral, for tho
purposes of jatticf 'i he youngest member of the
Union aud Imayatld, tho "fairet :.ul tho freedt,"
Vc shall hi daily and hourly subject lo iho animadver-
s:ou3 aud criticisms of the jcrtlous mm malignant.
There vi no defence ag.iiunt such attach, except faiich
as U to hi found i.ndtjr the panoply m jjlice and
troth with Ihti wc shall be thrice arnd, andean
march forward u.ih confidence to tho goal of our
prop?r destiny. The character which i.tir Suite will
heieaftpr bf.ir, is now to 1h- formed; nd from the
aggregate act of hfr Government, and g-.nTil be-ir-ing
of ht-r citizen-., her reputation anioagrft hi-r s'-siur ,
Stated, will be jirnjiorJloujbly elevated r depressed.
From this consider atton, then, how strong is the ap-
peal to those of her public servants to whom Iho most
responsible agencies are intrusted, toiook with a clear
perspective to those measures which aro most likely
to smWrve her present interests and fiture advance-
ment aud to hrr citizens for their prompt acquies-
cence in Jf that contributes to the c-tablshmciit of law
aud o'v!- r-
That oar Government is well adapted to per-
form nil its fanct'Ons harmoniously, and to an-
svr the end originally intended by its framers,
is ! aily demoiisiruide by the increase of popu-
lation tho manifest improvement in morals and
fcocial bearing, and the univer-al di.po.-it:on to
resp?ct the laws. Time and olier.ii:on will
sugge.it many alterations and jinprovements,
and from experience .in our leg" dation. they
will, no doubt, be readily adopted Did the ou-'
casion allow,. I cuild with pleaitrc, run the
parallel betweenfe-hat Texas was. what she is,
and what, with tnc ftt-.or of Heaven, she is des-
tined to become.
In her contest Tor froedom, she conducted her
war on the most j humane j)riuciplen, known to
civilized nations-j-alwnys meeting her enemy
upon'honorablc tronnd. and beating them only
by superior valol alleviating bv kindness the
miseries ofthe infortunate. shedook from the
battle its Crime. Ind inmnspd nn fthftina hr lior
i conquests, Lirty unsheathed her sword
necessity stained it victory returned it to its
seaboard. Having been a participator in her
struggles, from the dawn ot her revolution, 1
ean lay my hand upon my heart and say, I ne-
ver yet felt dishonored by the association. A
people, whose conduct has been thus marked
!-v nil the characteristics which woald do hon-
or to rhe oldest and most enlightened' nations,
ha- claims to the admiration of mankind, for
having exCended the area of human rights. And
we find the same people, who in war could ex-
ert the most exalted clemency, on the restora-
tion of peace maintaining her national ' charac-
ter and consistency, by pursuing the admoni-
tions of virtue, wisdom and moderation in the
conduct of her civil affairs. What a field is
herj presented for the philanthropic mind to
dwell upon ! e behold a nation, which had
declared and maintained its iadepsndence thro'
innumerable disadvantages, suddenly merging
her nationality not through the U3tial agencies
the heat and buttle of revolutions, but making
a dignified and peaceable transfer of power, by
the more potent influences, to eaiightencd
hiiiml-,, of reason and virtue. Here, then, is a
.beautiful political horizon before us ; after hav-
ing triumphantly solved the problem, whether
or -nofc we wore capable of governing ourselves.
JNor is tSerjrott!5ctr:tiarie3rbr ignorance or-su-
nerstition : and wo havo no rankling, estab
lished prejudices to lead us into the mists of
error. All is plain and auspicious; and our
country is as a blank, prepared io receive good
impressions or bad
Hove. too. is an ample field for the highest as-
; pirations of genius and enterprise, and Provi-
dence, in bestowing so rich a boon, has impos-
ed on those who enjoy it, the responsibility of
watching, with jealous care, the benfits it con-
fers. Itis an inheritance confided to us, to be
transferred with interest to posterity. The
nevv and delicate relation to tho American Con-
federacy, voluntarily assumed by Texas, was
the result of a policy on the part of that power
to enlarge the scope of free principles, and to
strengthen the bonds of union. In this we will go
with her hand in hand, and so long as her coun-
sels arc administered with justice and equality,
and with due deference to the rights reserved
by our common character, we will hail with plea-
sure and pridi1 the day of our alliance.
There is no want of" patriotic fooling and de-
voted kindness amongst us for tho Union as it
is. Support cf our Slate Constitution and the
Constitution of the L'mted states, becomes our
highest duty. It is the surest bas for the se-
curity rf peace and the safety of our institu-
tions! But, fellow-citizens, whilst inculcating
"vvilh zeal this wholesome doctrine, it is necessa-
ry, in our internal organisation, that we should
throw rite proper guards around our own pecu-
liar rights. The day of her declaration was
for Texaj rhe unequivocal assertion of her ma-
turity, and nobly haj ohe given tho proof. The
day o: annexation was her wedding-day. She
will yVid all to the Union which bridal modes-
ty doth vvairaat, but can never forget her re-
s "rved rights. We will always endeavor to do
oar duty to the Union. 'J his is an ..obligation,
and implies reciprocity. " Too just to invade
the rights of o'.hers." Vc will be too "proud to
surrender to our own.'
In ration to our o.va State, fol low-citizens,
to maintain our natioaal faith and standing by
a rigid compliance with all our obligations to
ascertain and relieve our public resources by a
prompt ascertainment, and honorable adjust-
ment of our liabilities-iu protect all personal
and private rights by enacting, and promptly
cntorctng salutary l.ivrs, are principles which
should be at an early day engrafted upon our
htatute, uqoxs. in tne legislative nans or our
country, a spirit of cor.ce.-sion and compromise
sitouldbe invoked preferring amicable disens-
sionand ajust accommodation of ail difficulties,
to anv other mode. Ail sectional and local pre
judices, as far as possible, should be banished
from the publi.s counsels. The distinction of
1 exas hast and est. should, not be Known,
exef-pt geographically. Patriot sacrifices were
finimoii to luth, in times that tried men's
.-oul's," and in the day3 of her prosperity, kind
ness, friendship, and a common interest should
bind ail Texians. llemembor ! that the hloo'd
of patriots, from East and West, consecrated the
land we this day enjoy.
Fellow-citizens! it Cv mid he no difficult task
for me to detain von with an extended enume
ration of what I "deem to b-j the great and es-
sential principles which should guide us in our
civil policv-. It would, however, I know.- full
well, be considered a work of' supererogation in
one so humble in pretensions to wisdom as my-
self. Fortunately for our country, those who
entrust power, are in the aggregate as watch-
ful of the country's interest and a3 enlight-
ened too, as their agents. The channels of in-
telligence are open to all and closed to none,
except those of tho number, -who, having eyes,
see not, and having ears, hear not tho things
which ir.Oit concern them."'
I enter upon the duties, assigued me by my
fellow-ciHzens. trusting rather to a just and en-
lightened vcrdiet at the- hands, after an honest
and faithful effort; to.divharge tho. duties, ra-
ther than attempt to elicit go d opinions in ad-
vance, by an imposing declaration of principles.
With tho Constitution and laws as my guide,
backed by an honorable determination to do
what is right, I shall. 1 trust, be able to accom-
plish the duties which may devolve upon me.
To recommond such measures as may seem
necessary and proper, and to see that the laws
are faithfully executed, will be my constitution-
al duly. From this 1 shall never shrink.
But, fellow-citizen;-, with a firm determina-
tion to do my duty. I know fall well the many
embarrassments 1 nnit encounter. Unprac-
tised in the duties of civil life, aud conscious of
my great ucnc:encte?. my position is wen caicu
Iated to awaken distrust and presentiments, na
turally inspired by a disproportion of ability to
the magnitude 'fury duties.
TivTir.teliiir. .-,:o of mv countrymen, and a
charitable construction of my acts together with
'he councils of those whom the Constitution has
le?ig!iated as my auxiliaries in the civil admin
istration, will, 1 am confident, great ty supply
my defeera. With these, and aided by tire hon-
orable representatives of the people, amongst
whom I shall look for examples of wisdom and
ripene 1 experience. I may hope for success.
And to yon. g e.tlcmen of .the Legislature, com-
ing as you do from every part of our growing
State "vi'igtng with you sentiments and intel-
ligence of a local clmi.- ter and possessing as
a body, a broad and comprehensive view of na
tional concerns to yo. i. I shall anxiously Iook,
to ghvaueh an impress an 1 direction to our pub-
lic affair., as will plae-'- upon vour acts the seal
of wisdom and tho approbation of our common
consume :ts. P. II. HELL.
Aiti. Dec. -21, IS 19.
S:i v.toh Cass. Mr. Cass has written the
following Iftter in answer tr au invitation to
a p'sViv, darter at Nw York:
Nnv Yohk. Xov. 2G. 1849.
Gentlemen I thaiih yon lor the honor you
have. cntiieiTeil upin m, by the ofilrofa pub-
lic dinner: and while I deilin-i tin- invitation,
which I tniat you wiil octi?e use- fur doing, I
cannot withhold tin; t,.ptessin of my foldings
for such a tesiimmiial of regard from the de-
mocracy f this great city. 1 shall cherish it
with grateful n roiieUi.ra dming life.
1 thank you, also, fin the litvorablo terms in
which you have been pleased to allude to my
piisition aud ervii-.es. These, I am very sen-
sible, have few claims l consideration but
such as are derived from your kind partiality.
JAiNUAEY 3, 1850.
An emigrant to the West in early youth, tho
better portion of mv life has been passed in
that great contest with nature in which the for-
est has given way and an empire has arisen
already among the most magnficent creations
of human industry and enterprise. Placed in
a geographical position to exert a powerful in-
fluence upon the duration of this confederacy
of republics, attached In the Union and to the
whole Union, and attached equally to the prin-
ciples of freedom and to the constitution by
which these are guatded and secured, should
the time ever come as I trust it will not
and come whence and why it may, when dis-
solution shall find advocates, and the hand of
violence shall attempt to sever the bond that
holds us together, the West will rise up as one
man to stay a deed go fatal to the cause of lib-
eity here and throughout the world ay, and
it will be stayed. Success can never hallow
the effort. If we are not struck by judicial
blindness, we shall hold on lo the constitu-
tion with a tenacity defying time and accident,
thanking' the God ol our iathers and our own
God for political institutions which have se-
"baredto us trgreatef riioat.;ignnfir.ifitnal prQ3
perity than it has ever been the lot of any peo
pie before us to enjoy.
Wc have but one danger to fear. As to
military power and the ge.neral corruption of
manners and morals causes to which history
attributes the fall of many republics in ancient
and in modern days I beheve, if they are
not the last, they are among the last nf the e-
vils we have to apprehend. Our future would
be all the patriqt could desire, if that future
contained no other seeds of danger than these.
The prophetic sagacity of Washington foresaw
and foretold the true danger which threatens
us ;the danger of sectional interests and pas-
sions arraying one portion of the Union against
another. A spirit of compromise was neces-
sary to create this confederation, and it is e-
qually necessary to preserve it in its integrity
and efficiency. When questions come deep-
ly affecting the country, and dividing it by ge-
ographical lines, then comes the time of tria ,
which no true Ameican can contemplate with
out anxiety. It is seldom that such issues can
be presented when mutual forbearance is not
dictated alike by duty and by wisdom. If one-
half of a great country, abandoning all other
differences of opinion, is unanimous in its seu-
timenls upon any measure of internal policy,
locally affecting itself, its citizens should meet
from their countrymen of the other section
kindness and not. denunciation ; argument
and not recrimination ; and a desire to recon-
cile conflicting opinjons, as harmoniously as
is compatible with the nature of the contro-
versy. No such views respecting their rights
or their position can be so held by an exten-
sive community without the existence of forci-
ble considerations, which call for careful in-
quiry and for a wise as well as a kind deci-
sion. In this spirit should sectional questions
be discussed; and if they are so, they will
bring with them no danger, but will furnish
additional motives for union, and will contrib-
ute powerfully to our strength and prosperity
I am, gentlemen, with great regard, you
obedient servant, Lewis Cass.
Mr. Clay at Baltimore. Mr. Clay has had
an enthusiastic reeeption at Baltimore, on his
return from Philadelphia on his way to Wash-
ington. We take the following judicious .and
highly commendable remarks from a speech he
delivered on his arrival:
"You have been pleased, gentlemen, to allude
to my return to' the Senate. I fear you enter-
tain hopes in that connection which can never
be realized I feel, it is true, the same devotion
to the public interests, but I feel also the hand
of time weighing heavily upon me. Solemn and
grave questions will arise during the approach-
ing session of Congress questions which have
already deeply agitaced the public mind.
You all know that out of the late acquisition
of large territories in the West and South-west,
there has arisen a question which has caused
much excited discussion I allude to the ques-
tion of slavery. In my humble judgment, gen-
tlemen, both parties who are so clamorous upon
that question are in error. One contends that,
without an enactment of Congress prohibiting
slavery, the institution will take root in those
territories; the other contends against the con-
stitutionally of such an act, as depriving them
of the right of moving their slaves thither.
In my opinion both are practically wrong, inas-
much as the question evidently settles itself.
Slavery can never exist in II1033 territories.
The climate, the soil and the industrial pur-
suits of the people all forbid it.
"lam, perhaps, going too for, gentlemen, in
expressing myself so freely upon public affairs
on an occasion like this. But for your alluding
to them in your letter to me, I should probably
not have done so. My views on these questions
an altogether conservative.
'There is ene point, however, on which I feelnt
liberty to express myself fully; I allude to the
union of the States. This question is, in my
view, paramount to all others. There is none of
sufficient importance to be considered in con-
nexion with it. Under all circumstances, and
in every event, I shall labor for its perputuity.
Let the storm come from what quarter it may,
i shall be prepared to meet it, and stand by our
glorious confederacy. I look upon the dissolu-
tion of the Union as being productive of every
possible evil that could befall us as a nation.
Our country would need "no historian. The
history of Greece would be her history. En-
tangling foreign alliances, internal commotions
of every character, would speedily follow.
Some daring military chieftains would arise and
play the part of a Phillip or an Alexander.
We should gbe involved in wars, wars, wars!
Wars most bloody and devastating, would be
entailed upon us. I trust in God, gentlemen,
that such a time may never arrive, and my
untiring effort shall be directed against it."
AN AWAKWARD ANNOUNCEMENT.
Lady A. and her daughter havingbeen much
annoyed by thenccr;t'5 of a country booby of
a servant, who would pcrservere in giving their
namcf as the flight Hon. Lady A. and the Hon.
Miss A., at length took him seriously to task,
and desired that in future he would mention
them as simple I.ady A and plain Miss A.
Their astonishment may be conceived when they
found themselves obeyed to the latter, and De-
vonshire House was electrified by the intelli
gence that umplc Lady A.
were -'coming up "
and plain Miss A.
BULBS IS GLASS. There are several
kinds of Bulbs that grow and bloom beauti-
fully in water, without earth. Among the
most beautiful, are the diH'erent coloted Hya-
cinths. There ate, also, some varieties of
the Aniarslas. the Tulip, the Polyanthus, and
Crocus, which bloom fteely in water. The
glasses designed for bulbs, should he filled,
just so that the water may touch the bottom
of the. bulb and then placodMn a dark place
for eight or ten days, w'.en tho roots will have
commenced sprowting place ikera then iu j
the light, and occasionally give tliem a little
sun, but .their colors are more vivid, when
they get the sun's rays. Change the water
as often as it becomes impure, but in chan-
ging, be careful not to breakthe roots, as they
are very brittle.
Another very pretty method of bloom-
ing the Hyacinth in the winter, is to fill a
dih, or any vessel you" may fancy, with moss,
which is found plentifully in our swamps, pack
the moss in, compactly, and place the bulb on
the top, about hall hu-ied in the moss. Keep
the moss zcell icalersd, and you have a pleas-
iag and beautiful sight, in the bright green
foilage, and the flower stem, shooting from
out of the mossy bed. Where' a dish of any
size is used several colors can be blendedjo-
gether making a most splendid ornament for J
the parlor. Where crockery or glass ware
is scarce, a well formed gourd makes a good
substitute. Saw the gourd half in two, and
fill with moss. leaving the pendant ends hang-
ing over the sides. Place thejbulbjn the cen-
tre, and you have, at once, a cheap-and beau-
tiful flower basket. la planting bulbs in pots, -r
passes, for winter blooming great care
uulu Lit. Ullm. U feuiecr uuij ihoutMsbish
bloom early. There is no flower which soon- i
er repays, for the care bestowed upon it, than
the Hyacinth. Its certainty of bloom, with
its delicate tints and rich perfume, rank it
first among all bulbs, and second to no flower
in cultivation. Muscogee (Ga.) Democrat.
FORGIVE AND FORGET.
BV MARTIN FARUUAR TUTPEU.
When streams of unkindness, as bitter as gall,
Bubble up from the heart to the tongue,
And meekness is writhing in torment and thrall,
By tho hands of ingratitude wrung
In tho heat of injustice, unwept and unfair,
While tho anguish is festering yet, -"'
None but anaugel of God can declare
"1 now can forgive and forget."
But if the bad spirit is chased from die heart,
And tho lips aro in penitence stepp'd,
With tho wrong so repented the wrath will depart,
Though scorn on injustice were heaped ;
For the bobt compensation is paid for all ill,
When the cheek with coutritious is wet,
And overy one feels it is possible still,
At once to forgive and forget.
1 o forget It is hard for a man with a mind,
However hishcait may forgive,
To blot out all perils and dangers behind, '
And but for the future to live :
Then how shall it be7 for' at every turn
Recollection the spirit will frot
And the ashes of injury smoulder and bum,
Though wo strive to forgive and forget.
Oh, hearken ! my tongue shall the riddle unseal,
Aud mind shall be partner with heart,
While thee to thyself I bid conscious revealj
And show thee how evil thou art:
Remember thy follies, thy sins and thy crimes,
Hov vast is thy infinite debt !
Yet mercy hath sevou by seventy times
Been swift to forgive and-forget.
Brood not on insults or injuries old,
For thou art iujurious too ,
Count not their sum till the total is told, 3
For thon art unkind and uulruo ;
And if all thy harms are forgotten, forgiven,
Now mercy with justice .is met.
Oh, who would not gladly tako lessons of Heaven,
And learn to forgive und forgot ! -
Yes, yes, M a mau when his enemy weeps,
Be quick lo rccoive him a friend ;
For thus on his hend in kindties he heap3
Hot coals 1"3 refine aud ameud r
And hearts that aro Christian mora eagerly yearn,
As a nurse on hor innocent yot,
Over lips that, onco bitter, penitence turn
Aud whisper "forgive aud forget."
News by the Nokthehx Mail.
(Correspondence of the Baltimore Sun.)
Wasahingtox, Oct. 30. The Nicaragua
Canal Terms of its Navigation The En-
glish Treasury Speculations of War, &c.
It appears that the contract negotiated for
the construction of the oceanic canal, has in
it a singular and pregnant condition, which
may bring us into immediate collision with
Great Britian. AU nations are to have the
use of the canal on equal terms with the Uni-
ted States, provided, they shall unite in the
same guarantees which may, hereafter, be
entered into between Nicaragua andtheJJ-
nited States. The meaning of this is, that
we may go on and construct the-canal and
use it, provided we guarantee to Nicaragua
the right of sovereignty in the territory over
which the canal may pa3s, and its neutrality
and the ficedom of'-transit; and that Great
Britian shall not use it unless she enters into
the same guarantees. Again, the coutract
grants'certain lands on the St. Johns river, in
the limits of the Mosquito country, to the Com-
pauy, on condition that the sovereignty over
them shall never be aiiented from Nicaragua;
or, in other woids, that the United States
shall wrest them from the actual occupancy
jif Great Britiau. The treaties, either of Mr.
Hizc!s or that of Mr. Squires', with Nicara-
gua and Guatemala, with all "ihese guaran-
tees, will be laid before the Senate, and one
ofthem will be probablyconfirmed. We
can now-so.cwhere we are on this question.
At tha same time, we are enabled to under-
f.tand, with ptecision, tho position of Great
Britian in this matter. The Times, of the
43th inst., fully explains iff Lord Palmers-
ton has laid down the limits of the Mosquito
region, and the nature of the relations ot Great
jiritiati to its King, and declared that no en-
croachment upon his rights and territory
shall be permitted. The Times asserts that
Great Britian will promote a canal for the
benefit of the world, and that, if it is to be -made,
it may be the subject of a treaty be-
ivveeu the ditlerent States through whose ter-
ritories it may pass i. e. Nicaragua, Mos-
quito and Guatemala the terms of the trea-
ty being of the most liberal kind. But it em-
phatically declares that if the United States
fake up the exclusive pretention? of Nicara-
gua, instead of promoting an aimcable com-
'uinalion for a great pactic object, "the two
countries most interested in the undertaking"
i. e. tho United S'ates und Greal Britain
may be exposed to a serious misunder-
standing." . '
We can undoubtedly effect ihe object iu
View by a war, and it may be preferred to
jmicabic means. If we adopt the exclusive,
kuode, v.-c shall have something to do. We
mist begin the war before wo begin the ca-
.al. We mu?,t'ijrst dispossess Great Britain
j f the prenafjesflii dispute, and maintain &uch
t. force, nrfval and military, on the Sau Juau
iind otitnc Pacific shore, as well as on tho
iA.ttux.ic, as will enable us to keep quiet pos.
saaiuu of th rj;ioii,- As the British may
NO, 2.-WHOLE NO. 732-
bave some means of annoyance, through1 na
val and military stations, at Jamaica, Bermu-
da, and Halifax, we must begin by biocka-
dinjr those places. Perhaps we had better
take them at once. Thisis a favorable time
for the enterprise, because, according to Mr.
Gurncy's statement in the Peace Congress, ,
which ihe "Times" contains, Great Britain z,
cannot spare lrom her revenue morelhan a',
hundred million? of pounds sterling-a, year fob' ,
her navaRand miiitar). establishments. If we
can put her up to an expenditure of two bun-
dred millions annually, we can bankrupt herj '
and give Russia a chance to conquer and ao-.. ".
uex Turkey and the British Beast IncHa pos- -vv
sessions all which will g6 toshow that wc ' ? -are
a great nation.
I notice that some of the whigpaperswhichV
discard the idea of our, supreme arbitershlp,'
are willing to take the right of way by force,
in preference to.obtaining it by amicable ar- ;
rangement. Those who approve the arbi -
tership have a priuciple to act upon: but those
who discard that, prosecute war, and are gra
tuitoua enemies of the human race. ION.i
' t. -r 5S
&Z 'CUui'Ouk uJiuflj5riAr::.. -:Ma
The following communication to"Char!es CfetlJSsn
editor of the Cincinnati Advertiser, h entitled to at-
Cincinnati, February 10, 1849.
Dear Sir : At your request, I now eiv you the
mode adopted by myself, and some others in this vi- -cinity,
in cultivating tha vine for wine-making.
At tho same time, I feel that it would coma with
greaterpropriety from Mr. Longworth, to whom, more
than any other man in the west, we axe all indeEted
for our knowledge in grape culture. - ,
Selecting and preparing the Ground A hillf
side, with a southern aspect, is preferred. If the de
clivity ii gentle, it can be drained by sodded, concave
avenues; but if too stoep for that, it must be benched '
or tcrrated, which is mere xpensive.
In the autumn and winter, dig or trench the ground
with a spado all over, two feet deep, turning thesur
face under. Tho ground will be mellowed by the
trosts ol winter.
Planting. Lay o.T tho gronnd in rows, 3 by G,feet ;
put down a stick twelvo or fifteen inches-long where'
each vino is to grow.
The aveuaes should be 10 feet wide, dividing tho
vineyards into squares of 120 feet. Plant each stick
two .cuttings, separated 5 or 8 inches at the bottcm'of
tho hole, but joined at the top. Throw a spadeful of
rich vegetable mould into each hole, and let tha top
eye of the cutting be even with the surface of the
ground, and if tho matter is dry, cover with half an.
inch of light earth.
The cuttings should bo prepared for planting by bu
rying-themiii the earlh immediately afterprnned from
the vines in the spring; and by thejatter end of March
or early in April, which is the right time for planting,
the buds will be swelled so as to make them strike root
with great certainty. Cut off cloe to the joint at the-
Iower end, andabout an inch in all above tbe up-
1NG. Tho first year afler planting, cnt thavine 4
to a single eye, (some leave two :) the second. - '
leave two or mree :ana ine unru, inree or ionr, Alter v
the first year, a stake CJ or"7 feet long must be driveiSL -firmly
down by each plant, to which the vines muster
bo kept neatly tied with willow or straw as thoy j" ,
grow. Late in, February, or early in March is tho -wf .
right time for pruning in this climate. -f;,
Summer pruning consists in breakfng off Ihe Iate---ral
sprouts and shoots, so as to leave two strong and
thrifty canes or vines one of which is io bear fruit the
ensuiug season, and the other to be cut down In J
spring prnuing to a spur to produce new shoots.
lheso may ba let run' to the top of the stakes, and
trained from one to the othsrviintilI the wood is ma-
tured, say in August or fcopleuiber, when tho green
end3 may be broken off. One of these vines is select-
ed next spring for bearing fruit, and cut dowri"lo four
or six joints, aud bent over and fastened to the stake
in the form of a bow. The ether is cut away, as well
as the fruit-bearing wood of the last year, leaving
spars to throw out now wood for the next, 'and thus
keeping the vine down to within" 1J or 2 feet of" the mr
ground. Nip ofithe ends of the fruit-bearing branch- 9
es two or three joints beyond the Lunches of grapes
but do not take off any leaves. " .
If both the cuttings grow, take one nn, or. cut it
off under gtouud, as but oue vine skcld be left loeach
Cultcru. The vineyard must be kept, perfectjyj -
u.tiiu uuui ncsua mm gvosa, iiuu uucu wu ui luua
times during tha season. Keep tho grass in the ave-
nues aronnd down close. About every third year put!
in manure, by a trench the widlh of.a spade, and three
or four inches deep, just above and near each "rowj fill!
iu with two or three inches of manure4" and cover ng-
with earth. .
Wlne-Making. Gather the grapes when vory
ripe, pick off" the unsound and unnpe berries. The
bunches are then washed in a mashing tub, or passed
through a small mill, breaking the skin but not tbe -seed,
aud 4ferpwn into tho press, and the screw ap-
plied until tiie skins aud seed are pressed dry.
FcRimxTATioN. the process is very simple. The
juice is'put into clean casks in a cool cellar, and the
casks fined within about four or firo inches ofthq
bang, aud tho bung put on loosely. The gas escapes, "
but the wine does not run over. In from two to four
weeks, generally, the fermentation ceases, and lh-
wine clears; then fill up the casks aud "tighten the.
bung3. In Febrnary or Marcb,Tack off into clearr?
casks. Iu the spring, a moderate" fermentation will' - P
again take place.'after that tbe wine fines itself, and is
ready for bottling or barreling. Use no brandy or su-
gar, if the grapes are sound and well ripened. Keep
bunged or corked tight, aud in a cool cellar, and tho c
wine will improve by age for many years.
Statistics- Cost of my vineyard of six acres-;-fonrtcen
thousand four hundred vines ; Trenching, 2,
feet deep, $65 per acre, 390 00
Sodding avenues, 60 00
Coat of 30 GOO cuttings, at $2 50 per thon-
saud, . 75150 "
Planting, ' 70 00 - T
Fourteen thousand-five hundred locust stakes W .m .
at S3 per 100. ' - I - 43500 -
Setting 14,500 btakesj ' 5500
f. 1,085 00
Cost of attending the first year vine dress- - ,
er, 216, and a hand for oue mouth
Second year vine dresser, 216t,n hand for
two mouths, at 15 per month, 216 09
Cuttings after first year, to replace failures, say 20 00
Hauling, carting, &c, 6? 00-
Contiugencics, &c, 150 Of
Average cost, say 300 per acre, 1)
The third-year.tho vines will-produce grapes ecSj
to pay the expenses of that year generally raorcji
For the fourth year, aud a series of eight or tea years
in succession, the experience of the pagUwonld indi-
cate the following calculation to be something Hko-a
fair one : " . ?
Say, six acres, average 250 gallons, at rates
heretofore, 1 per gallon, 1,500. 00" -
Deduct cost of vine dresser per
annum, 240 " -
Assistance, hoeing," &c ' COT
Gathering grapes and pressing, 150
rfct profit per annum, . - 1.05.0 00
To attaiu this tho vineyard must be favorablyjsilu- -c'"
ated, and well attended by a competent vine dresser
and freo from disastrous vlsitatioirjsff the ret- -
Vink Culture in tuis ViciNrrr. It is Estimated
that over three hupdrod acres are now planted with' tho
vino, within a circuit of twelvo miles round Cincinna-
ti, nearly two thirds of which were in be'ariiig last -
year, producinj, notwithstanding the rot, so injurious -t
to many, about" 50,003 to 60,000 gallons wine.
The Catawba is onr great wine grape, and prnici- (
pally cultivated. The Capeis next, though bat few
aro planted. The Isabella is" not profitable for wine,
and is only raised for table use. t
Air. Lougworth, with unwearied Zealand liberality,
is still experimenting with nfew -varieties, anil may
yot find a rival for the Catawba. ' r
R. Buchanan. ., V
Jf. B. Soma vineyards, in good seasons, have piagrJ
duced at the rate of 600 to 8G0 gallons to the acre ; Jr
t tltlara'rnrn. Tha usual vlft!d3& 3C0 to 400 TsVWT.
j when there is butlittU rot. A bueheTBf grapesjlfwoll
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Moore, Francis, Jr. Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 15, No. 2, Ed. 1, Thursday, January 3, 1850, newspaper, January 3, 1850; Houston, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth48571/m1/1/: accessed May 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.