The Cumby Rustler. (Cumby, Tex.), Vol. 23, No. 17, Ed. 1 Friday, July 24, 1914 Page: 2 of 8
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THE CUMBY RUSTLER
HUERTA A PROTEGE OF GENERAL DIAZ
Former President of Mexican Republic Early Recognized Possi-
bilities of Man Who Practically Succeeded Him
Mas Seen Hard Service, and From the First Has Been Recognized
as a Ruthless and Determined Man—Seemingly
Knows No Quality of Mercy.
Once intended by old Porfirio to be
A second Diaz in Mexico, now, like
bis former chief, a fugitive from the
wrath of his compatriots, Victoriano
Huerta sees himself at sixty forced to
resign the presidency of his country.
H* will, it is believed, go to Europe,
where, like other Latin American
presidents, he will end his days with
little enjoyment save-^hat of reminis-
Huerta wras born to wealth. Unlike
Diaz, who is of plebeian origin, a
mongrel, mostly Indian, Huerta comes
of one- of the most aristocratic fami-
lies la Mexico.
He was born in Chihuahua, with
which state the Huertas have long
been identified, in 1854, or 1857, re-
ports differ. At $he age of seventeen
the aristocrat was appointed by Diaz,
then ruling Mexico with an iron hand,
to the military school of Chapultepee.
Huerta served his four school years
passably well. He was neither at the
head nor the foot of his class. He
was graduated with honors, being
about the tenth in a class of nearly a
hundred, and immediately went to join
a regiment on the west coast as a sec-
ond lieutenant of engineers.
When President Diaz began his re-
organization of the Mexican army
Huerta was promoted captain of engi-
neers, and while holding this rank de-
vised the plan for a Mexican general
staff corps. He was an active member
of the military map commission creat-
ed to draft a staff map of Mexico on
a large scale, and he had charge of all
the topographical work of the commis-
sion, leading exploring and surveying
parties over the wildest regions of the
President Diaz soon after began to
place confidence in Huerta. He be-
lieved he saw In the lieutenant colonel
of engineers, to which rank the sol-'
dler had succeeded, traits which would
make him a ^worthy successor In the
executive chair. Huerta was placed in
charge of a station in Matanzas, far
removed from the capital. There plots
could be easily hatched, and Diaz was
loath to leave in charge any officer
In whom he had not implicit trust.
Huerta was barely thirty-five when
this incident occurred. One afternoon
while he was riding with an escort of
but three men through a mountain
pass in the vicinity of his station, six
or seven masked men stepped from
the roadside and covered his little par-
ty. Naturally they threw up their
The highwaymen proved to be mem-
bers of the band of Fiores Zegaza, the
bandit who kept the community on
the feather edge. It was his habit to
descend on the towns along the coast
and levy toll whenever hunger or
eaprlce impelled him to do so. Huerta
soon stood in front of Zegaza’8 hut,
an adobe'dwelling, much dilapidated,
far up the mountain.
There Zegaza made the proposition
which was not at all unusual in Mex-
ico then, and which is, in fact, quite
the vogue today. He proposed that
Huerta should keep him informed as
to the days when the military force
would be marching in & direction op-
posite from the town.
On such days Zegaza would make It
a point to call, with his followers, and
collect from the natives such stores
of money and clothes and food and
wine and tobacco as bad accumulated
since the last visit.
Zegaza was not at all surprised to
have Huerta accept his proposition to
receive in return for the promised In-
formation a share of whatever loot fell
to the bandits.
Ten days later Huerta sent word to
Zegaza that he would be away from
the station on the following Thursday,
Promptly on Thursday the bandits
rode into Matanzas, confident there
would be no opposition except from
the sporadic popguns of the overfright-
ened storekeepers. As they turned
Into the main street, discharging their
revolvers to frighten every one away,
& squad of Huerta’s soldiers closed in
on their rear and another squad ap-
peared In their front.
A number of Zegaza'* men were
killed in the street. The remainder,
with the bandit chief himself, surren-
dered. A week later Zegaza was shot
In the cuartel of the prison attached
to the station.
Huerta is no drawing room soldier.
He has seen much active service. In
1901 he took command of the infantry
In the campaign against the Yaqui
Fight Fog by Wireless.
Clearing away fogs by hurling into
the mist great bolts from a wireless
apparatus has been demonstrated to
be feasible by the North Railroad
company of F'rance. The electric
waves dissolve the water particles
‘which constitute the fog.
As much as 600 feet can be cleared
In front of the antennae. With im-
proved machinery it Is confidently
believed that the discovery will prove
of great benefit to ships at sea and
will do much to prevent such acci-
Indians. After this campaign lie was
again put in charge of the general
staff's topographical wrork in Sonora.
He participated In subsequent Yaqui
campaigns and also in the campaign
in Yucatan against the Maya Indians.
Huerta commanded all the detached
government forces in the state of
Guerrero at the beginning of the Ma-
dero revolution. When Madero suc-
ceded to the presidency, Ge^ral
Huerta was sent back into Morelos
with a force to put down the Zapata
rebellion. As a result of ill feeling
growing out of this campaign. Huerta
was recalled. Subsequently he led the
army sent against Orozco, and was in
command at the battle of Bachimba.
For this service he was promoted to
In the second Felix Diaz revolution,
wrhich resulted In the overthrow of the
Madero government. Huerta was im-
mediately called to active command as
the senior ranking general then
in the capital. He escorted Ma-
dero from Chapultepec castle to the
palace on the first of the ten days’
fighting and was placed in entire com-
mand of the forces of the government.
He directed the government troops
during all the subsequent fighting, and
the conduct of these Operations led to
severe criticism on the part of Made-
It was charged that he did not carry
out the operations with any spirit and
that he disobeyed the commands of
President Madero. Tt is said that be-
fore Blanquet entered the city the
generals had a conference at wrhich
the fate of the Maderos was sealed.
Huerta wras the moving spirit in the
consummation of the plot that result-
ed in the seizure of the person of
President Madero. his brother, Gus-
tave, and Vice President Jose Pino
Saurez. The assassinations of the
Maderos and Saurez follow-ed, and in
the meantime Huerta, with the mili-
tary behind him. had been recognized
as the provisional president.
Huerta at once sought recognition of
the United States, for it is understood
in Latin-American countries that none
of their presidents can hold office long
without being recognized by the Amer-
ican government. President Wif^on,
however, refused to treat Huerta as
chief executive of Mexico.
IiF the meantime, General Carranza,
the successor of Madero in the dream
of a justly governed Mexico, was win-
ning over the North. His military
commander, General Villa, repeatedly
defeated the federal forces. Practical-
ly all of the North came under the
constitutionalist sway. In ihe South
Zapata held out against Huerta.
Then the United States came down
upon him, seizing the city of Vera
Cruz as a result of an affront to the
Stars and Stripes. Mediation at the
Instance of Argentina, Brazil and Chii*
followed with no satisfactory resulta.
HAVE FAITH IN CARBAJAL
Huerta’s Successor a Civilian and a
Man of Acknowledged Probity—
His Honorable Career.
Mexico City.—Francisco Carbajal
is forty-four years old, a native o£
the state of Campeche, and a lawyer.
Almost ever since the start. Aof hi*
career he has occupied posts in tbs
judiciary. In the Madero admlnistrv
tion he was a senator, but relin-
quished his post to re-enter the su-
preme court, of which he whs chief
justice at the time General Huerta ap-
pointed him minister of foreign rela-
When General Porfirio Diaz deter-
mined in 1911 to treat with the Mudo-
ro revolutionists, Senor Carbajal pro-
ceeded to Juarez as his commissioner.
Senor Carbajal has a reputation for
possessing considerable intellectual
force and independence of character.
His demeanor is quiet. He shuns th#
exuberance in verbiage and gesticu-
lation to which I^tln-Arrmricans art
prone. Ho is courteous, but. a man
of few words and little given to elabo-
Besides, he is neat and well
groomed in appearance. His features
indicate pure European descent, with-
out any admixture of Indian blood.
Altogether he is a man who con-
veys an impression of reserve power.
He Is a good man of business.
His probity has never been ques-
tioned. He has been sagacious and
successful in investments and. while
not rich, is a man of independent
means. He is a man of family.
dents as the ramming of the Empres*
of Ireland and the drowning of hun-
“I e'pose John is still fakin' Ufa
easy?” said the woman in the tram.
“Yes,” answered the woman who
was carrying a bundle of clothe*
"John has only got two regrets in life.
One is that he has to wake up and eat,
an’ the other is that he has to give up
eatin’ to sleep.”—Pearson's (London)
HERE is a man in Chicago who
can measure one-flve-miilionth
of an inch—a distance amount-
ing to one-fiftieth of the small-
est distance revealed by a
theoretically perfect micro-
scope. He can rule on a piece
of polished glass, one inch
wide, 50,000 straight/ parallel
4 lines, equally spaced.
He has determined the length of the standard
meter so accurately that his figures cannot be
subject to a fault exceeding more than one part In
2,000,000. He has measured the rate at which
light travels with a possibility of error not more
than one-fortieth of one per cent of the quantity
measured—and light flies 186,330 miles a second
—and, as a crow-ning achievement, he has de-
termined the rigidity of the earth.
This man 1* the first American to receive the
Nobel prize in science and the only American
who has ever received the Copley medal of the
Royal Society of London. Despite achievements
that are staggering in their significance, this
man’s name Is little known outside of scientific
circles. He is Albert Abraham MIehelson, Ph. D.,
Sc. D., LL.D., professor and head of the depart-
ment of physics at the University of Chicago.
Professor Michelson’s experiments to deter-
mine the rigidity of the earth are Intensely Inter- The maximum tides in these pipes did not ex-
esting. Science has long needed to. know the ceed one-thousandth of an Inch; but so perfect
physical properties of this globe. It Is impossl- was the apparatus and so accurate the readings
ble to learn this directly, as the deepest mines by Professor Michelson that all the variations in
yet sunk penetrate less than two miles below the the tides were accurately determined. Tides are
surface, a distance proportionately no greater complex things. Their height varies with the
than the thickness of the varnish on a tw’o-foot
globe. The interior of the earth is believed to
be Intensely hot. This theory is based on the
fact that molten lava Is thrown forth by erupting
volcanoes. Also, In descending a mine, there is a
rise in temperature, amounting to 50 degrees per
mile of descent. If this rate of Increase is con-
stant, the temperature at only 100 miles down Is
above the melting point of all substances under
conditions as they exist on the surface of the
earth. However, despite the high temperature,
the interior of the earth may be held In solid
state by the tremendous pressure to which it is
Under the now accepted theory of the celestial
mechanics, scientists assume that a heavenly
body is held in its course by the attractive force
exerted by the other heavenly bodies on all sides
of it. In this way is determined the earth’s
course around the sun and the motion of the
entire solar system through space. Assuming
that the earth is not a solid mass, scientists have
long struggled to discover how it resisted the at-
tractive forces exerted by other planets and stars
—whether as a viscous mass or as a perfectly
They have long known that the earth did re-
sist these forces in some degree. The ocean
tides which sweep our shores twice daily are
proof of this. It has long been known that the
tides are caused by the attraction of the sun and
the moon. If the earth offered no resistance to
this attraction, the whole earth would respond
quickly to it and there would be no tides. On
the other hand, If the earth were a perfectly rigid
body, it would resist this attraction completely;
and the tides would reach their maximum height.
The amount that the tides fall short of their
theoretical maximum height would measure the
degree of rigidity which the earth possesses.
The next step was to determine the actual
height of the tides. This long proved the stum-
bling block. If shore lines were perfectly straight
and the floor of the ocean perfectly level, the
height of the tides could he measured directly;
but crooked shore lines and shelving beaches re-
sist the motion of the tides and make It impos-
sible to determine their height with the accuracy
demanded by science.
Sir George Darwin made elaborate experiments
to determine the height of the tides, but was
obliged to give up the problem in despair. Pro-
fessor Michelson solved this difficulty by laying
two lengths of pipe, each five hundred feet long,
and measuring the rise and fall of the water in
them. One length of pipe was laid north and
south, and the other length east' and west, in
order to measure the tides In both directions.
7110 pipes were buried six feet under ground to
obtain a uniform temperature.
At both ends of the pipes tees were Inserted
having glass windows for observatory purposes
The pipes were half filled with water; and tin*
changes in the height of the water were obtained
by measuring through a microscope the distance
between a pointer inserted just under the surface
of the water And the image of the pointer reflect-
ed abpv<* ‘Lte vater.
position and distance of both the sun and the
moon and,v therefore, is never the same two days
Professor Michelson’s experiments revealed 30
of these variations, which corresponded almost
exactly with the variations obtained theoretically
by computing the variations In the attractive
forces exerted by the sun and the moon. The
practical correspondence of the actual height of
the tides with the theoretical height proved that
the earth through and through is as rigid as steel
and that It yields to outside forces as a perfectly
elastic body and not as a viscous mass.
This experiment reveals the imagination and
the striking originality of Professor Michelson.
The first achievement to bring his name to the
attention of the scientific world was his accurate
determination of the velocity of light, accom-
plished also after overcoming tremendous experi-
mental difficulties. Light is the fastest thing in
nature; it represents the absolute limit of speed.
After four years of work and study. Professor
Michelson announced that light travels with a
velocity of 186,330 miles per second. The maxi-
mum error In this figure does not exceed one-
foitleth of one per cent.
On the subject of spectrum analysis. Professor
Michelson has devoted many of the best years of
his life. Spectrum analyses are obtained by
means of the spectroscope. Every substance
when heated emits a characteristic light. By
means of the spectroscope this light Is analyzed
and the elements giving off the light are thereby
revealed.^ The spectroscope has enabled sci-
entists to determine the elements In far distant
stars. It has made possible tremendously Impor-
tant discoveries concerning the nature of atoms,
the minute particles of which all matter is com-
The difficulties of spectrum analysis will be
realized when it is learned that a single atom of
sodium emits 800,000.000,000 vibrations per sec-
ond of two slightly different kinds of light. Pro-
fessor Michelson was engaged in spectrum
analysis very long before he Improved the spec-
troscope, calling the improved type an echelon
spectroscope. This wonderful machine divides
light into Its various constituents and makes pos-
sible their separate analysis
The echelon spectroscope uses a glass grating
-—a piece of highly polished glass on which Is
ruled from 15.000 to 50,000 straight equally-spaced
lines to the inch. To make these gratings Pro-
fessor Michelson invented a ruling engine that is
the most accurately constructed mechanical de-
vice in the world. It is operated in a room the
temperature of which is kept constant to within
one-hundredth of a degree.
To assist In analyzing the lines of the spectrum
into their fundamental constituents. Professor
Michelson invented the "harmonic analyzer,” a
machine as complicated and as delicate as the
linotype machine. By its vise an assistant can In
a few minutes make calculations that would take
n skilled computer weeks to accomplish
Scientists'have long endeavored to determine
the absolute motion of the earth through space.
It is known that the earth swings around the sun
and that the entire solar system is moving toward
the constellation Hercules at the rate of 12 mile*
per second, or 400,000,000 miles per year. How-
ever, as scientists have not yet been sfcle to
measure the motion of Hercules, they still do not
know the absolute motion of the earth. In 1880
Professor Michelson attacked the problem of de-
termining the motion of the earth with reference
to the ether, the all-pervading medium that fills
All of us have noticed that, when walking
through the rain, although It is actually falling
vertically. It seems to be falling at an angle, the
degree of this apparent deflection depending upon
the speed with which wre have moved. Looking
out the window of a fast-moving train, scientists
have noticed a similar deflection in the angle of
the light coming to the earth from some far dis-
tant star. As the medium that carries the light
between heavenly bodies is the ether, scientists
argue that the deflection is due to the relative
motion of the earth through the ether.
Professor Michelson eventually overcame the
tremendous experimental difficulties in connec-
tion with this problem: but no motion of the
earth with respect to the ether was found. This
result came as a profound surprise to the entire
In order to solve this problem Professor Mich-
elson invented a most marvelous instrument,
which he called the "interferometer.” This in-
strument is 50 times more powerful than an ab-
solutely perfect microscope would be. The micro-
scope’s power is limited bv the length of a light
wave; and the smallest distance It can reveal is
one half a wave length, or one hundred-thou-
sandths of an inch. Pv utilizing the properties of
light in another manner, the interferometer can
reveal distances equivalent to one five-millionth
of an inch. The microscope has been of Immense
value both In scientific work and in practical life;
and the Invention of the interferometer, an in-
strument 50 times more powerful. Is in Itself an
achievement that should win for Professor Mich-
elson undying fame.
He used this Instrument to aid him in measur-
ing the standard meter, the foundation of the
metric system, in terms of infinite exactitude and
in a manner that will make this unit perpetual.
The original meter length is carefully preserved
at Paris; hut scientists have long worried over
the possibility of Its destruction. In 1893 an in-
ternational commission on weights and measures
asked Professor Michelson to devise some method
by which the meter length could be accurately
reproduced. The meter is theoretically one forty-
millionth of the earth’s circumference; but this
definition Is not accurate enough for scientific
purposes. Profeseor Michelson announced the
length of the meter in terms of cadmium light
waves, with a maximum error of one part In two
million. This definition will always enable sci-
entists to reproduce the meter accurately, as
long as the earth exists.
These are the most striking achievements of
America’s greatest scientist. Any one of them
is sufficient to perpetuate a man’s name In the
annals of science. The result of Professor Michel-
son’s experiments with reference to the motion
of the earth has raised questions that it will
take science many years to answer satisfactorily:
and his determination of the rigidity of the earth
has made possible further and more w'onderfui
progress In the sphere of celestial mechanics.
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Morton, George M. The Cumby Rustler. (Cumby, Tex.), Vol. 23, No. 17, Ed. 1 Friday, July 24, 1914, newspaper, July 24, 1914; Cumby, Texas. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth769999/m1/2/: accessed October 16, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Hopkins County Genealogical Society.