State Gazette. (Austin, Tex.), Vol. 8, No. 18, Ed. 1, Saturday, December 20, 1856 Page: 1 of 4

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' I
&zms State alette
JOHS BflRSIIALL & W. S. OLDHAM.
wnwaamosxi adtami)-
KIISOEIPIIOSHhs- a Jin-Axe
3.00
4.00
Olnba and Democratic Association
f izroltbed bS liberal Cash rnle.
GAZETTE B OK AS JOB OFFICE
W kare ssd aod at taiMa cxteasire addittaas to
aJB met aaj we are sr preparni to esetatt
cr7 raftctr Oraaaaeatal Blc aod J Priotfor.
r rvcr Fmi fen hti erected a4 In teeufal
cubs r-jxrrnre. bills of laimn dux- op ex-
JHaJE brews . Lao- BUski etc etc cxteatcd with
pr wttpatcfc tsrf mm la aaj- part f tbt fiate at oar
wscifcstc
JOB BINDERY
ASH
BlAitl BOOK HAHUFACTORY
Bert Etccs: tsasj iM a first dais Under alwsji at
ss pott fiat TtlMs it pesrer f wry body 1b vast of
Mask botis. txdi as 13 ren Jasrsals llaj- Books Ceart
terti r Itockcu. to hare item isade rifbt here in
Abttte at prices fcatTery Httleabere that ef New Terk.
i i
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.
FtH0itCitizcns of the Smatr ami of the
IToutc of Rejtrc&CHlatives :
The confutation requires that tlte Presi-
dent sttaM from time to time not only rc-c-8aeBd
to the consideration of Congress
tuts Measures aa he may judge necessary
iad expedient bat also that he shall 'give
lBfemattOB to them of the Ftate of the Un
lets. Te do this fully involves exposition
of all nutters in the actual condition of the
ceuatry domestic or foreign which essen-
tially concern the general wolfare. While
performing his constitutional duty iu this
respect the President does not speak merely
ts express personal convictions but as the
executive minister of the government en-
Wed by his position and called upon by
bis official obligations to scan with an im-
partial eye the interests of the whole and of
every part of the United States.
Of the condition of the domestic inter
este of the Union its agriculture mines
manufactures navigation and commerce
it is necessary only to say that the iuternal
prosperity of the country its continuous
and steady advancement iu wealth and pop.
illation and in private an woll as public
well-being attest the wisdom of our inntitu-
tions and the predominant spirit of intel-
ligence and patriotism which notwithstand-
ing occasional irrogularition of opinion or
action resulting from popular freedom has
distinguished and characterized the people
of America.
In the brief interval betwoon tho termi-
nation of tlio last and tho oommonooment
of the present aowion ofOongrons tho pub-
lic mind has boon ocoupiod with tho tiara
of selecting for miothor constitutional term
the I'renldout and Vice l'roldont of tho
United States.
The detei initiation of tho pornoim who
tro of right or WHitlngently to preside
over the administration of tho government
is under our ayHtuiii committed to lliu
State and people Wu upturnl lo them by
their voice pronounced hi tin) foriiis of law
to oall whomsoever they will to tho high
post of Chief MnglHtriito.
And thus It U ihnt m tlio Hoiiutorn rop-
resent the ronpootivo Blntwi of thu Uiilnii
and tho iiiuinbura of tho lloimu of llopro-
Bontallvot tho novortd (lOiiHtltuunuius ot wtuh
State so tlio I'msldunl runrowonln (liu mj;.
gregato populntlon of tho Uitltud Hlntort.
i'helr nlwatiott of him in tho oxplloll mill
solemn sat of tho nolo sovoroln tuithorlly
of tho Union.
It isimiKMhiblo to mlwinproliuiid thu uronl
j.riiittljilg whluli bv thiiir rouoiiL polhliml
iutioii lh pooplo or tho Unltoil titntoM huvo
-wtuslloiiwl and altiioiinuod.
Tliuv huvo iiMi'rlod tho UOIlNtltlltloiltll
uallty o! oaohnnd till of tho Stnton of tlio
tilon as Htittos : thuv Imvo ulllriuoil thu
floustltutlouaoiiuitllty of onuh and nil of tlio
oitireni of tho United Htntos im oltlxoiis
whatever tliwir r-llKi'.'i whorovor tho'r birth
or thwr rlduiiiH) : limy huvo niitliilulniiil
the JtirWHljillty of th ooiistllutloinil illi's
of thwdiffur.ijtM' tioim of tin Union j ami
they lwvt jinwlHlmwl thulr dm'nlt'il mid mi-
altfHWe ututeliiiioot to tho Union ittiil tho
wwUsiituUtiii h obliNits of Intorwt Hiiporlor
to all MibjwtttH of I'KMil or ttootlomil ootro
vrsy as tin? iwfgurd of tho rlahtMuf ullj
bn th irit nttd thu utuo of thu llhorty
oim Ntid grtwtnuM uf thu rojiubllo.
In dolti: thin limy imvo nt thu muiio
tdno (HHphnUiwIly oondomnod tho hlott of
orgaultlnic in thtw Unltud Htotox inmo tm.
grsjihlo-l pnrtitM j of luitrtlitlliot? In lioxtllo
array towanU oooii oLkortlu dllfprunt i:irli
of tho oouulry North or South I'lunt or
S5olimw of this iiutuid fnuhl with In
oalauhiblw tiiimriiiuf mid whloh tho ooiinhb
cntto mhm of (ho pw)lc )iaijMttnluoulil
httve Und txitiiilitnniiiHi In no imtt of tho
oountry. hud thoy not liwin dlHKiilvoil by
suggwtluim nUiiimblo iu npiimrnlUHt uolliik'
uoii on Bxeltod statu of thu imlillo inlmli
ltiduewl bywiiswi Umiporrtry In tholr ohiiiv
actor and it U tobo liuitHltrniiloiitlii tliuil'
Influence.
l'orfeut liberty of nssoointtoii foi' jiolltloid
.objoot and tho widost suopo of (lUousston
arc tho roccivod mul urdinnry conditions of
cororiimout In otir country. Our iiistitu
"'fiotis frainod iu tho spirit of conltdonco iu
tho Intolligonco otid integrity of tho people
do not forbid cititchs olthorindlviduully or
assooiatod together to attack by writing
speech or any other methods short of phys-
ical forco tho constitution and tho very ex-
istence of tho Union. Under tho shelter of
this great liberty and protected by tho 1 twi
and usages of tho government they assail
associations Uavo bcou formed in sotno of
the States of individuals who pretending
toacck only to prevent tho spread of tho
1 institution of slavery into tho present or
future inchoate States of the Union nro
really inflamed with desiro to ohnngo tho
domestic institutions of existing States. To
accomplish their objects they dedicate them
aelvcs to tho odiousasf deprecating tho
government orgtujHfchich stands iu
itheir way and oiHBitig with itidls-
criminate iuvocuvPRuly tho cititons
of particular States with whoso laws they
find fault but all others of their follow-cit-uecs
throucbout the couutry who do not
participate with thorn iu thoirassaulbsupon
the constitution framed and adoptcdjby our
fathers and claiming for tho privileges it
.has secured and tho blessings it has con-
ferred the steady -upport and grateful rev-
erence of their children. They beck an ob-
ject -rhieh. they well Iwow to be a revolu-
tionary one. They are perfectly awiro that
the change in tho relative condition of the
white and black races in tho slavcholding
States wbich they would promote is beyond
their lawful authority j that to them it is a
foreign object j that it cannot bo effected
by any peaceful instrumentality of theirs j
that for them and tho States of which thoy
are citizens tho only path to its accomplish
ment is through burning citiesand ravaged
fields and slaughtered populations and all
there is most tcrriblein foreign complicated
xrith civil and servile war ; and that the
first step in the attempt is the forcible dis-
ruption of a country embracing in its broad
bosom a degree ofUiberty affd an amount of
individual and public prosperity to which
there is no parallel in history and substi-
tuting in its placn hostile governments driv-
en at once and inevitably into mutual ds-
Mtiatioa and fratricidal carnfice transform-
iDgthe now peaceful and felicitous brothcr-
.uiT.ln ftef nprmancnt camb of armed
men like the rival monarchies of 'uropo
--"-- I-.
vol. yjn.
and Asia. Well knowing that such and
such only are the imans and the conse-
quences of their plans and purposes they
endeavor to prepare the people of the United
States for civil war by doing everything in
their power to deprive the constitution and
the laws of moral authority and to under-
mine the fabric of the Union by appeals to
passion and sectional prejudice by indoc-
trinatiug its pcoplo with reciprocal hatred
and by educating them to stand face to faco
as enemies rather than shoulder to shoul-
der as friends.
It is bj'thc agencj'of such unwarranta-
ble interference foreign and domestic that
the minds of many otherwise good citizens
have been so inflamed iut ' ' passionate
condemnation of the Join institutions
of the southern States as a v. gth to pass
insensibly to almost equally passionate hos-
tility towards their fellow-citizens of .those
States and thus finally to fall into tempo-
rary fellowship with the avowed aud activo
enemies of the constitution. Ardently at-
tachod to liberty in the abstract they do not
stop to consider practically how tho objects
they would attain can bo accomplished nor
to reflect that oven if tho ovil were us great
as thoy doom it thoy hnyo up remedy to ap.
ply r.nd that it can bo only aggravated by
their violanoa and unconstitutional auttou
A question irhiah is ouo of the most diffi-
cult of all tho problems of social institution
political economy and stitesiuiiuship thoy
trout with uuronsoning inteinporanoo of
thought and language. Kxtremes begot
extremes. Violent nttaok from tho North
finds its inevitable oousoquonoo iu the growth
of n Hplrit of nngry doflnnoo it tho South
Thus Iu the progress of ovonfa wo luul
ronohod tlmtoouNuiuinittlon whloh tho voicio
of tho pflppb lnK now so polntodly rtihukod
of tho nttumpl of n portion of tlio HUiton
by u Niotloniu urgnuUutloii nnd movement
to usurp tho vfliitrol of tho govornmont of
tho United Htntos.
1 oonlhloutlv bollovu thut tho grout body
of thono who iiiooiiNldonitoly took thin futul
top tiro Muooroly iittnohud to tho oonutltu.
lion nntl tho Union. Thoy would upon do
liberation shrink with unnfTootod honor
from nny uouhoIouh not of dlHunlon or olvil
war. llul thoy huvo ontorod Into n path
whloh load nowlmro )iuloni It bo to olfll
wur nnd dUunlou mid whloh Iihh do other
poMlbhi outlet. Thoy huvo prooeoded tluiM
i'ai' lu thut direction in eotmoiinoimo of tho
duooowlvo Htnges of tholr pronoun IiuvIuk
ooimlMtudof it Hoiltvfi of noondury insuon ouoh
of whluli prolVitKod to hooiiulinod within eon-
slttutlouitl and ptmooful limits but. whlehnt-
tomptod Indliootly whnt fow mou worowll-
Hug to do dlreotly Hint In to not njtgrenH-
Ivoly ngitliist tho ootiMltutlntml ilghtn of
nearly ono'half of the thirty. oim SatOH.
lu tho long porlon of aotH of iudtroot iig-
(reMlon tho tlrHi wart tho wIvouuoun nyltn.
tatlon by oUIkoiim of tho uorthorn Htnttm
In UongreM nnd out of It of tho question
of negro oiuttiielputlon in tho nouthoru
HtlttOH.
Tho Htiond step lu tliU imlli of ovl eon.
nUtcd of uotH of tho people of tho northern
Siaton and in Noveral unttiiueeK of their
ovornuiuutx alined to feollltuto tho uHeapo
of persons held to Hervlun lu the nouthont
Stnten nnd to prevent their extradition when
leelnlmed muHinllug to law and lu virtue of
oxptom provldoiiN of tho ooiitftltutlon. To
promote thin object lotfltdatlvo iinaetmeutH
iitnl other ineaiiH wore mlopted to tnlco uwnV
or defeat rights whloh thououfUltutlnn sou
omnlyguurnntled. In order to nullify tho
thou exiting net of OongroM eoinHirnlii
tho extradition of fugitives I'ihiui xorvluo
law were euiiuted lu many Hlnton foilildiltiifj
their nmecrri under tho HovoroKt ponultlen
to piti'tlclniito hi thu oxooullou of nny nut
of UongreM whalovor. In thlw viy that
hvhIoui of harmonious" oo-oporutlon between
thu iiuthorlileit of thu United Stto nnd of
tho Novoral St.ttot for tho miiliitoimnoo of
their eoinnion liislllutloiiH whloh oxlHtod
lu tho envly years or thu ropubllo whs do
stroyod eonflloti of Jurisdiction ouuto to
bo freiueut ; and Oougi's found Itnolt
compelled for the Support of IhooonsllUn
tiou and tho vindlentlou of lu power to
nuthoHxo tho unpolntuiont of new oflleort
olmrgod with tho nxcoutlon of ltd aotn as
if thov nnd tho ollloors ol the Staton wont
tho infulptorn rospoottvoly of foreign gov-
ernment iu n slate of mutual hostility
rather than follow magistrates of u common
country pcnoofully subsisting undor tho
protection of one wolbconulltulod Union.
Thus bore nlso aggression wns followed by
reaction ; nnd the attacks upon tho 'consti-
tution nt this po1 lit did but sorvo to uilso
up now barriers for lis dofonco nnd se-
curity. Tho third stngoof this unhappy sectional
controvowy was in connexion with tho or-
gtiMHition of torritorinl govornments nnd
tho admission ot new States into tho U. n-
ion. When it was proposed lo admit tliq
Stato of Maine by separation of territory
from that of Massachusetts nnd tho Statq
of Jlissouri formed of a portion of tho:
territory ceded by Franco to tho United
States representatives in Congress objoclod
to tho admission of tho latter" unless with
conditions suited to particular views ofpub
Ho policy. The imposition of such a eon-
ditiou was successfully resisted. But nt
tho aamo period tlio question was presented
oi imposing restrictions upon ttio residue
of tho territory ceded by France. That ques-
tion was for tho titrio disposed of by tho
adoptiou of a geographical lino qf limita-
tion. In this connection it should not bo for-
gotten that when France of her own accord
resolved for considerations of the mpst far-
sighted sagacity to cede 'Louisiana to tho
United States and that accession was ac-
cepted by the United States the latter ex-
pressly engaged that "the inhabitants of the
ceded territory shall be incorporated in the
Union of the United States and admitted
as soon as possible according to tho princi-
ples of the federal constitution to tho en-
joyment of all the rights advantages and
immunities of the citizens of tho United
States; and in the meau time they shall bo
maintained and protected in the free enjoy-
ment of their liberty properfy and the
religion which they profess that is to say
while it remains in a territorial condition
its inhabitants are maintained and protected
in the free enjoyment of their liberty and
property with a right then to pass into tho
condition of States on a footing of perfect
equality with the original States.
The cnactm'ent'whlch. established" the
restrictive geographical line was acquiesced
jUAU.' Ir - w-i. - r "i
1 K i l
SEAT Of GOYERNMENT. AUSTIN. TEXAS. SATURDAY DECEMBER 20 1856.
in rather th&u approved by the Statct of tho
Union. It stood on the statute-book how-
ever for a number of years ; and the peo-
ple of the respective States acouie?ced in
the re-enactment of the principle ad applied
to the State of Texas ; a:. J it was proposed
to acquiesce in its further applies. Ion to the
Territory acquired bj- thu United States
from Mexico. Hut this proposition was
successively resisted by tho representatives
from the northern States who rcgardles
of the fitatuto line insisted upon applying
restrictions to tho new territory generally
whether Iving north or south of it thereby
repealing it as a legislative compromise aud
on tho part of the North persistently violat-
ing the compact if compact there was.
Thereupon this enactment ceased to hav-
ing binding virtue in any sense whether
as respoots tho North or the South ; and so
in effect it was treated on the occasion of
the admission of tho Statu of California and
tho organization of the Territories of New
Mexico Utah nnd Washington.
Suoh was tho state of this question when
tho timo arrived for tho organization of tho
Territories of Kansas' and Nebraska. In
the progress of constitutional inquiry und
reflection it had now nt length como to ho
scon clearly that Congress does not possess
constitutional power to impose restrictions
of this character upon any present or future
Stato of tho Union. In a long series of do-
oimons on tho fullest argumout aud after
tho most dalihornto oouflidorutiou tho Su-
premo Court of tho United Status hud final-
ly determined this point iu ovory form
under whloh tho question could nrise
whothor iw uflouting public- or private rights
III quojitjpnii of publio domain of religion
of navigation mul of Horvitudo.
Tho wovoral nttus of tho Union nro by
forou of tho constitution eooqaul iu dome'
tio logtobttlvo powQr. Unngrosa eannot
change 'it law uf donuwtlo relation in tho
State of Maine j no more eiui it iu thu Stato
of Mtwourl. Any hlatuto whloh proposes
to do thlH in tv moro nullity i it tokos away
no right It eonfer.s uono. If it remains on
tho statute-book unrepealed it vomidu
there only im a monument of emu nnd a
betieou ot warning tp the logitdntoi' nnd tho
Ntutoninuu. 'J'o renoul It will liu only to ve
move Imperfection from lhoitotuo.s without
unvoting cither In tho umino of pormliodou
or of prohibition the notion of tlio States
or of tholr ultlMoin).
Htll when thu nominal rustrlollou of
Oils nature already a doml letter lu law
wioi in tonus repealed by tho hint Ooiujnw
In a elauso of tho not organising tho Terri-
tories of KiitiHiiH mid Nobi'iislm that repeal
was made tlo.oeuusiou of iv widespread and
dangerous agitation. - t
It was nlledged that the original onuot-
moot being a oompnut. of iiorpotuiil mum)
obligation ttN repeal eouMHutqd (in odlouu
broach of lliltlj
An net of Qougroiu while It reuutlim un-
repealed moro especially if It bo ooinMltu-
tlonnlly valid in thejjudjjoinnnt of those pub-
lic funotlonnrloH vyhoNu duty H Is to w-
noumw on llmt point l umlouhtodly luiid-
lug un tlio oousohmoo of oaoh good oliWon
of tho ropublle. Hut In whnt minno cnu It
bo aborted tlmt tho onnottnont In nuostlau
wM invtvioil with perpetuity nnd entitled
hi' tho rwtpoot of u nolomn eouipaet)1 lie.
twoon vhotu wns tho eomtmet r No dln
1 1 not ooutendlng powers ot tho government
no Nepitrnto imet join ut'Mio Union treating
tm nuuIi outoroil into treaty Httmilatlotm on
thuhulileut It was' n mere oIouho of in
not of Oongress nnd llko nny other eontro-
verted mutter ofle(jlsln(lou received liu llnal
sluipti und wivh piiNsod by compromise of thu
eonlllutlug opinion or aeuttmouts of thu
inoinbgrn uf Uonglens.
Hut If It hud moral authority over mou'tt
ooiihoIoiiooh to whom did tltl authority at-
tnolt 1 Not to those of the Noith who had
repeatedly vorusod to eon form It by oxten
(don. nnd who hud roalously M riven to es
tablfsl. other uud .luuompotiblo. rogulatloim
upon thu Hubjoot. And If on it thuu'np-
poaiH thu suppoHO uoupaut. hud no obllga-
tory (orcu ut to tho North of couvho It
oAvilil not Imvo hud nny ni to tho Houth
for nil huoI. oompnotHmUht'be mutual nnd of
reciprocal uhllgntlliu
It has nut iiufreiiuuntly happened
thut luw-giveri" with undue estimation of
tho valuo of tho law they give or in thu
vioWo'finipiivtlng to it pObuliar strength'
innlto It perpetual in terms 5 hut thoy can.
not thus bind tho couHoiuuco tho judge
ment nnd wilt of thoso who may nucccud
them iuvestud vth uiutUttr responsibilities
and clothed with equal nutlioritv. Moru
enroful investlgntion nmy prove thu law to
bo unsound in principle KxpOriolico may
show it to bo ijnporfect in dotail and tin-
prittlcnblO' in execution; And then both
reason and right combine not merely to jus-
tify but to require its repeal
Tho constitution supremo as it is over
all the doparttucuto pf thegovornment leg-
islative executivo und judicial is upon to
amendment by its very termsj mid Con-
gross or tho States tnay In tholr discretion
propose amondmrnt to it solemn compact
though it in truth h.botwccu tho sovereign
States of the Union. In tho present in-
Rtance. a nolitical enactment which had
ceased td'haVe legal power or authority of
any kind; was repealed. The position as-
sumed that Congress had no moral right to
enact such repeal was strange enough and
Bingularly'BO 111 view of tho fact that tho
argument came from those who openly ie-
fused obedienco to existing laws of the
land having tho eamo popular designation
and tiuality -as compromise acts nay more
who unequivocally . disregarded and con-
demned thoHnostposiftvotiiHl obligatory in-
junctions of 'the constitution itself and
sought byovory means "within their reach
to deprive a portion of their fullow-oitizens
of the equal enjoyment of those rights aud
Srivileged guarantied alike to all by thefun-
amental compact of our Union.
This argument against the repeal of the
staute lino Iq question was accompanied
c-y anotner ot congenial character ana equal-
ly with the former destitute of foundation
in reason amj truth. It was imputed that
the measure originated in the conception tf
extending the limits of slave labor bcyoud
those previously assigned to it and that
such was its natural as w.el! as intended ef-
fect j aud these "baseless assumptions were
made in the northern States tho ground of
nnceasing assault upon constitutional right.
constfFutionahJuIdThaYff
was already obsolete and also rfnll'frii- ;.n.
t iajHi3.-cssi
obstruct or to promote the propagation of
conflicting views of political or social insti-
tution. When the act orgeniziugthe Ter-
ritories of Kansas and Nebraska was passed
the inherent effect upon that portion of the
public domain thus opened t legal settle-
ment was to ndmit settlers from all the
States of the Union alike each with his
convictions of public policy and private in-
terest thereto found in their discretion
subject to such limitations as the constitu-
tion and acts of Congress might prescribe
new States hereafter to be admitted into
the Union. It was a tree field open alike
to all whether the statute line of assumed
restriction were repealed or not. That re-
peal did not open to free competition of the
diverse opinions and domestic institutions a
field which without such repeal would
have been closed against them ; it found
that Hold of competition already opened in
fact and in law. All tho repeal did was to
relieve tho statute-book of an objectionable
enactment unconstitutional in cfi'uet and
injurious in tonus to 11 largo portion of tho
States.
Is it tho fact that iu all tho uiibcttlcd
regions of tho United States if emigration
bo left free to act in this respect lor itAolf
without legal prohibitions on either sido
sluvo labor will spontaneously go ovory whore
in preference to free labor? 1? it tlio fact
that tho peculiar doiucsliu institutions of the
southorn States postman relatively so much
of vigor that whorosoovor an nvouuo is
frooly open to all tho world thoy will pone-
trato to tho exclusion of tho.so of tho north-
ern States ? la it tho fact that tho forinor
enjoy compared with tho latter mioh ir-
resistibly superior vitality independent of
climate noil und all other aeeideutal tuv-
cumstaueos as to be able to produce the
mippoNod result iu spite of tlio assumed
moral uud natural obstaele- to its ueeoin-
plishmeiit uud of tho more numerous pop-
ulation of tho northern States t
The argument of thoso who ndvoeuto tho
euuetiuoutof now laws of restriction and
condemn tho repeal of old ones in elleet
avers thut tholr particular views of govern-
ment have no self-extending or self-sustaining
power of their own und will go no-
where unless loreod by not of Congress.
And if Congress do but pause font moment
lu the policy ofiilern oooreion ; if it venture
to try the experiment of leaving iiieu to
I nil ire fur themselves what institutions will
Vest suit them ; If it lie not strained up to
lernetual legislative exertion on this point j
f Congress nroeeed thus to act iu tho very
spirit of liberty it is ut oueo charged with
aiming to oxtoud hIiivo labor Into all the
now Territories of the United States.
Uf course these imputations on thu inten-
tions of CongrtMS lu this respect conceived
us thoy Were In prejudice and disseiniuuted
lu passion uro utterly destitute ofuuy Justl-
lleatiou In tho nature of things uud contra-
ry to all the fundamental doctrines and
principles of civil liberty and self-govern-moot.
While therefore lu general tin people
of the northern Slates have never at any
lime arrogated for the federal government
the power to interfere directly with the do-
mestio eondltiou of persons in the southern
Status hut on the eunliary huvo disavow-
ed nil nucIi IntenlioiiM and have shrunk
IVom oouspleuons alllliatlon with those few
who pursue their fiiiiat leal objects avowedly
through the eoutemplateil menus ol revo-
lutionary ohango of tho government uud
with acceptance of the necessary consequen-
ces a civil and soi vile war -yet mun oiti-
mens havesullered thoimolves' to he drawn
Into ouo evanescent political Issue of agita-
tion after another appertaining to the same
set of opinions und which subsided as rap-
Idlv ns thoyuiwo when It came to be seen
us It uniformity did that they were Inemn-
patlble with tho compacts of tho constitu-
tion nnd tho oxUloneo of the Union. Thus
when thu nets of some of the States to uul
Illy the existing cxtiaditimi law Imposed
upon Congress the duty of passing a new
one the country was invited by agitators
to cuter into party orgauiKiitiou for lis to-
peal i but that agitation Mioodlly ceased by
reason ol the impruetioability of lis object.
So when thu statute restriction upon tho
institutions of now Slates by a geographical
line had been renealed the country was urg-
ed to demand its restoration and that
project also died almost with its birth.-
Then followed tho cry of alarm from the
North against imputed southern encroach-
incuts 5 which ciy sprang in. icality from
tho spirit of revolutionary attack on the do-
mestic institutions of thu South and after a
troubled existence of a few months has
been rebuked by tho voice o-' patriotic
people.
Uf this last agitation one lamentable
feature wns that it was carried on ut tho
immediate expense of the peace and happi-
ness of tho people of tho territory of Kau-
nas. That was made the battle-field not
so much of opposing factious or interests
within itself as of tlio conflicting r.mo is
of tho whole pcoplo of tho United States.
Itovolutiouary disorder in Kansas had its
origin in projects uf intervention deliber-
ately arrauced by certain members of that
Congress which enacted the law for the or-
ganization of tho Territory. And when pro-
pagandist colonization of Kansas had thus
been undertaken in one section of the Union
for tho systematic promotion of its peouliar
views of policy there ensued as a matter of
course a counteraction with opposite views
iu other sections of the Union.
In consequence pf thoe aud other inci-
dents many acts of disorder it is undenia-
ble have been perpetrated in Kansas to the
occasional interruption rather than the per-
manent suspension of regular government.
Acgressivo and most reprehensible incur-
sions intq the Territory were undertaken
both in the North and the outh and cu-
tercd it ou its Northern border by the way
of Iowa as well as on the Eastern by way
of Missouri aud there has existed within
it a state of insurrection against the consti-
tuted authorities not without countenance
from inconsiderate persons in each of the
great sections of the Union. But the diffi-
culties in that Territory have been extrava-
gantly exaggerated for purposes of political
agitation elsewhere. The number and gra-
vity of the acta of violence have beeu mag-
nified partly by statements entirely untrue
and partly by reiterated accounts of the
same rumors of facts. Thus the Territory
has been seemingly filled with extreme vio-
lence when the whole amount of such acts
has not been greater than what occasionally
passes before us iu single cities to the regret
of all good citizens but without being re-
garded as of general or permanent political
consequence.
Imputed irregularities iu the elections
had in Kansas like occasional irregularities
of tho same description in the States were
beyond the sphere of action of the Execu-
tive. Hut incidents of actual violence or of
organized obstruction of law pertinaciously
renewed from time to time have been met
as they occurred by such meaus as were
available and as the circumstances required ;
and nothing of this character now remains
to affect the general peace of the Union.
The attempt of a part of the inhabitants of
the Territory to erect a revolutionary gov-
ernment though sedulously encouraged and
supplied with pecuniary aid from active
agents of disorder in some of the States has
completely failed. Bodies of armed men
forcigu to the Territory havo beeu prevent-
ed from cntoring or compelled to leave it.
Predatory bands engaged iu acts of rapine
undor covor of the existing political dis-
turbances havo boon arrested or disporscd.
And every well disposed person is now ena-
bled oueo moro to devote himself in peace
to the pursuits of prosperous industry for
tho prosecution of which" ho undertook to
participate iu tho settlement of thu Terri-
tory. It affords mo unmingled satisfaction thus
tounuounco the poaeoful condition of things
iu Kansas especially considering tho moans
to which it 'was uecc.ss.irv to l.uvo recourse
for tlio attainment of the cud uamoly the
employment of a part of tho military forco
of tho United States. Tho withdrawal of
that force from its propor duty of dafendiug
the country against foreign foes or tho sav-
ages of tho frontier to employ it for tho
Mijprossiou of domestio insurrection is
when the exigency occurs u matter of the
most earnest solicitude. On this occasion
of imperative necessity it has been done
with tho best results and my witisfaotion in
tho attainment of such results by such
means is greatly enhanced by the consider-
ation that through the wisdom and energy
of tlio present executive of Kansas and tlio
prudence llrmuuss uud vigilance of the
military ollleers on duly there trunquilllty
bus boon restored w ithout one drop of blood
having been shed iu its accomplishment by
the forces of the United States
The reiteration of ceinparuttvc tranquillity
iu that 'territory furnishes the means of ob-
serving calmly' and appreciating nt their
just value the events which huvo occurred
there nnd the discussions of which the gov-
lU'iiinoul of the Territory low been the sub-
ject. We perceive that controversy concerning
its future domestic institutions wns inevita-
ble; that no human prudence no form of
legislation no wisdom on the part of Con-
gross could have prevented it.
It is idle to suppose that the pailieular
provisions of their organic law Were the
cause of agitation. Those provisions were
but the occasion or the pretext of an ablu-
tion which was Inherent iu the nature of
things Congress legislated upon the sub-
ject in such terms as were most consonant
with the principle of popular sovereignty
which underlies our government. It could
not havo legislated otherwise without doing
violence to another great principle of our
institutions the imprescriptible right ol
equality of the several Slates
We 'perceive also that sectional Interests
nnd party passions huvo been the gteat Im-
pediment to the salutary pcration of the
organic principles adopted aud the chief
cause of the successive disturbances in
Kansas The assumption that because in
the organisation of the Territories of No-
hrasliuand Kansas fougros abstained from
iiuptvdiig restraints upon them to which
certain other territories had beeu subject
therefore disorders occurred iu the latter
Territory is emphatically contradicted by
the fatt that none have oceunod in the
former Those disorders were not tho eon-
MiUoneo in Kansas ef the freedom of self-
government conceded to that Territory by
Congress but of unjust intelVreneo on tho
part of persons not inhabitants of the Ter-
ritory. Such interference wherever it has
exhibited itself by acts of insurrectionary
character or ol olntruetion to process ol
aw lias neon rcpeiicit or suppres-ou ny an
tho menus which
laws nlacc iu the
tlio constitution ami (lie
muds of the I'Jxoeulivo.
In those n.irts of the United States where
by reason of the inflamed state of the public
mind fuNo rumors und misreprc-cntations
have the giealcst currency it lias been as-
suuicd that it was the duty of the Kxoeutivo
nut only to supptess insurrectionary move-
ments in Kansas but also to sec to tin reg-
ularity of local elections. It needs little
argument to show that the President has no
such power. Allgovcrinnentiu the United
Slates rests substantially upon popular elec-
tion. The freedom of "elections is liable to
lie impaired by the intrusion of unlawful
votes or the exclusion of lawful ones by
improper influences by violence or by
fraud. But the people of the United States
arc themselves tlio nll-suflicicnt guardians
of their own rights ; and to suppose that
thoy will not remedy in due season any
such incidents of civil freedom is to Mip-
pose them to have ceahcd to be capable of
self-government. The President of the
Unitud States has not power to interpose in
elections to fcou to their freedom to canvass
their votes or to pass upon their legality
in tho Territories any moro than in tho
States. If he had such power the govern-
ment might be republican in form but it
would be a monarchy iu fact; and if he
had undertaken to excrci.se it iu tho case of
Kausas ho would havo been justly subject
to tho charge of usurpation and of violation
of tho dearest rights of the people of the
United States.
Unwise laws equally with irregularities
at elections arc in periods of great excite-
ment the occasional incidents of even the
freest and best political institutions. But
all experience demonstrates that in a coun-
try like ours where the right of self-constitution
exists in the complctcst form Jhe
attempt to remedy unwise legislation by
resort to revolution is totally out of place
inasmuch as existing legal institutions afTord
more prompt and efficacious means for the
redress of wrong.
I confidently trust that now when the
peaceful condition of Kansas affords oppor-
tunity for calm reflection and wise legisla-
tion 'either the legislative assembly of tho
Territory or Cougress will sec that no act
shall remain on its statute-book violative of
the provisions of the constitution or tub-
versive of the gr at objecU for which that
was ordained and established and will take
all other necessary steps to assure to its in-
habitants the enjoyment without obstruc-
tion or abridgment of all the constitutional
rights privileges and immunities of citizens
ofthe United States as contemplated by
tho organic law of the Territory.
Full information in relation to recent
events in this Territorv will bt found in
the documents communicated herewith from
the Departments of State and War.
I relcr you to the report of the Secretary
of the Treasury for particular information
concerning the financial condition of the
Government and the various branches of
the public service couuected with the Trea-
sury Department.
During the lat fiscal year the receipts
from customs woro for tho first time more
than sixty-four million dollars and from all
sources sovoiity-thrco milliou nine hundred
and eighteen thousand ouo huudred and
forty-ono dollars ; which with the balance
on hand up to tho 1st of July 1855 made
tho total resources of tho year amount to
uinoty-two millions eight hundred and fifty
thousand one hundred and seventeen dol-
lars. Tho expenditures including three
million dollars iu execution of thu treaty
with Mexico und excluding sums paid on
account of tho publio debt amounted to
sixty million ouo hundred aud sevouty-two
thousand four hundred aud ouo dollars;
nnd including tho latter to seventy-two
million nine hundred und forty-eight thou-
Hand sovon hundred and ninety-two dollars
the payment ou this account having amount-
ed to twelve million seven hundred aud
seventy-six thousand three hundred nnd
ninety dollars.
(In the-lthof March S5!l Uie amount
of the publio debt was sixty-nine million
ouo hundred and twenty-nine' thousand nine
hundred nnd thirty-seven dollars. Thuro
was a subsequent increase of two millions
seven hundred and llfiy thousand dollars
for the debt of Texas making ft total of
seventy-one million eight hundred uud
seventy-nine thousind nine hundred nnd
thirty-seven dollars. Of this the sum of
forty-live million live hundred uud twenty-
llvo'lhoiKiud thiee hundred and nineteen
dollars including premium has been dis-
charged redueinir thodehtto thirty million
nine bundled uud sixty-throe thousand
nine hundred and nine dollars; all of which
mh'bt be imid within u year without em
barrassing the public service but being
not yet due and only redeemable ut the
option of the holder cannot he pressed to
payment by the government.
tin examining the expenditures of the
last live years it will he .soon that the aver-
age deducting payments on account of the
public debt and ten milliou dollars paid by
treaty to Meico has been but about lorty-
eight million dollars It is behoved that
under uu economical administration of the
of the government the uverage expenditure
for the ensuing live years will not exceed
that sum unions extraordinary occasion for
its increase should occur. Tho nets grant-
ing bounty lauds will soon havo been
executed while tho tAtonsioii of our fiou-
tier settlements will cause it continued de-
mand for lauds aud augmented receipts
probably from that souice. These consid-
erations' will justify a reduction of the rev-
enue I'ro'u customs so as not to exceed
forty-eight or llfiy million of dollars. I
thiol; tlio exigency lor such reduction is
imperative and again urge it upon the con-
sideration ol Congioss
The amount of reduction as well as the
manner of olleotiiig it are nucstious of
great and general interest j it being essen-
tial to industrial enterprise and the pub-
lie prosperity n well us the diolnteof obvi-
ous justice' that thu burden of taxation
may be made to rest as equally as possible
upon all classes and all sections and inter-
ests of thecouutry
I havo heretofoie recommended t't your
eousideiatiou the lovislou of the lovonuo
laws prepared under tho direction of the
Secretary of the Tieasury nnd also legisla
tion upon some special questions tilled nig
(lie business of that department uioreespe-
chilly the enactment of a law to punish the
abstraction of otlioial books or Miners from
the files of tho government and rcnuiring
all such boohs nnd lunois and nil other
public property to he turned over by the
out-going ollicer to his successor ; of a law
requiring disbursing olueors to deposit all
public money in the vaults of the treasury
or iu other legal depositories where the
same arc conveniently ucccsable ; and a
law to extend existing penal provisions to
all persons who may become possessed of
public money by duposito or otherwise and
who hIiiiII refuse or neglect on due demand
to pay the same into tlio treasury. 1 invite
your 'attention anew to each of these ob-
jects. The army during the past year has been
so constantly employed against hostile Indi-
ans in various quarters that it can scarcely
be said with propriety of language to have
been n peace establishment. Its duties have
been satisfactorily performed and wo have
reason to expect as a result of the year's
operations greater security to the frontier
inhabitants than has been hitherto enjoyed.
Extensive combinations among tho hostile
Indiana of the Territories of Washington
and Oregon at one time threatened the de-
vastation of the newly formed settlements
of that remote portion of the country. From
recent information we are permitted to
hope that the energetic and successful operation.-
conducted there will prevent such
combinations in future aud secure to tho.-c
territories an opportunity to make steady
progress in the development of their agri-
cultural and mineral resources.
Legislation has been recommended by
nic on previous occasions to cure defects
in the existing organization and to increase
the efficiency of the army and further ob-
servation has but served to confirm me in
the views then expressed and to enforce ou
ray mind the conviction that such measures
are not only proper but necessary.
I have in addition to invite the atten
tion of Congress to a cnange oi policy in
the distribution of troops and to the neces-
sity of providing a more rapid increase of
the military armamenL For details of
theso and other subjects relating to the ar-
NO. 18.
my I refer to the report of the Secretary
of War.
The condition of the navy is not merely
satisfactory but exhibits the most gratify-
ing evidences of increased vigor. s it is
comparatively small it is more important
that it should be as complete a possible in all
the elements of strength ; that it should be
efficient in the character of its officers in
the zeal and discipline of its men in the
leliability of its ordinance and in the capa-
city of its ships In all these various qual-
ities the navy has made great progress
within the last few years. The execution
of tho law of Congress of February 2S
1S55 "to promote the efficiency of the
navy" has been attended by the most ad-
vantageous results. Th- law for promoting
discipline among the mou is found conve-
nient and salutary. v ;
The system of granting an nonorablo dis
charge to faithful seamen on the expiration
of tho period of their enlistment and pcr-
mitting them to re-enlist after u leave of ab-
senco of a few mouths without cessation of
pay is highly beneficial in its lulluenec.
The apprentico system recently adopted is
evidently destined to incorporate into the
aorvico a largo number of our countrymen
hitherto so difficult to ; rocurc. Several
huudred American boys are now on a threo-
years cruiso in our national vessels aud
will return woll-traiucd seamen In tho
ordnance department thcro is a decided and
gintifying indication of progress creditable
to it and to tho country. The suggestions
of tho Secretary of tho Navy in regard to
further improvement in that brunch of tlio
sorvieo 1 comiuoud toyourfavorablo notion.
The now frigates ordered ly Congvoss arc
uowutloat and two of them in activo sur-
vieo. They are anterior models of naval
urchitcctvuc and with thoir forntidablo b.U
tury mid lnrgcly to public strength aud
security.
T concur in tlte views expressed by tho
Seuretury of tho Department in favor of
iv still ' further increase of our uuvul
force.
The report of the Secretary of the interior
presents facts and views in relation to in-
ternal nlfnirs over which the supervision of
Ids dupaitmcnt extends of much interest
and importance.
Tho au'gregute sides of tho publio lands
during the last fiscal year amount to nine
million two hundred nnd twenty-seven
thousand eight hundred unit sevonty-eigl
aiiron lor wiiiou nus noon rcceiveu iu
huiu of -.light million eight hundred unit
twenty-ono thousand four hundred mul four
teen dollar. During the same period thorn
have bcou located with military script
uud land wanuuts nnd for other purposes
thirty million ouo hundred thousmu two
hundred and thirty notes thus making n
total aggregate of thirty-nine million t hruo
hundred and twenty-eight thousand one
hundred uud eight norcs. On the JtOth of
September last surveys had beeu made of
sixteen million eight hundred and seventy-
three thousand six huudred nnd ninety-nine
acres a large pioporliou of which is lc.idy
for market.
The suggestions iu this report iu regard
to the complication nnd progressive expul-
sion of tho business of thouillcruut bureau
of thu department to tho pension system
to the colonisation of Indian tiihcs and to
the lecomnieudatioiis in relation to various
improvements iu the District of Columbia
nve especially commended to your consid-
eration '"he renort of the Postmaster tleneial
presents fully the condition of that depart-
ment of the government. Its expenditures
for the last fiscal year woro ten million four
hundred uud seven thousand eight hundred
uud sixty-eight dollars ; und its gros re-
ceipts seven million six hundred aud twenty
thousand eight hundred and one dollars ;
making uu excos of expenditure over re-
ceipts of two million seven bunded and
eighty-seven thousand und forty-six dollars.
The deficiency of this department is thus
seven hundred uud forty-lour thousand dol-
lars greater than for the vcar ending dune
510 I H r:t . Of this delietenev three hun-
dred uud thirty thousand doflars is to be
attributed to the ndditional compensation
allowed postmasters by the act of (uurros
.lline 'J'J IS.M. The mail facilities in
every part ot the country have been very
inucli increased in that period and the largo
addition of lailroud service amounting to
seven thousand nine hundred and eight
miles has added largely to thewnt of trans-
portation. Tho inconsiderable augmentation of the
income of the l'ost Office Department un-
der the reduced rates of postage and it
increasing expenditures must for tlio proa-
em make it dependent to sonic extent iiihiii
the treasury for support. The rociimmoit-
dations of the I'ostniasterOciiBRil in rela-
tion to the abolition of the franking privi-
lege and his views on the establishment 'f
mail steamship linos. oservc the considera-
tion of Conuross I also call the special
ntfnntinii tf Ciitnrrcvt to tho statement of
the Postmaster Genera! respecting the minis
now paitl for the transportation of mails to
the Panama Railroad Company and com-
mend to their early and favorable consider-
ation the suggestions of that officer in rela-
tion to new contracts for mail transportation
upon that route and also upon tbnTehuuu-
tepec and icaragua routes.
The United States continuu in theeujoy-
ment of amicable relation with all foreign
powers.
When my bust annual mes-age was trans-
mitted to Congress two subjects of contro-
versy onc relating to the enlistment of
soldiers in this country for foreign service
aud the other to Central America threat-
ened to disturb good understanding between
the United States and Great Britain. Of
the progress and termination of the forme r
question you were informed at the time ;
and the other is now in the way of satisfac-
tory adjustment.
The object of the convention between the
United States and Great Britain of the 19th
of April 1850 was to secure for the ben-
efit'of all nations the neutrality and the
common use of any transit way or inter-
oceanic communication across the isthmus
of Panama which might be opened within
the limits of Central America. xe in-
tension subsequently asserted by Great Bri-
tain to dominion or control over territories
in or near two of the routes those of Ni-
caragua and Honduras were deemed by the
United States not merely incompatible with
3mm-
UATES OF ABVZKTH0.
AJTcrtUesuaU will b laiirUd at 9a 38gr f& p"JJ
of djit Uses or lftJtiU rlM 177. tit flu f-J fw
too asd CAT ccala tor aaaa aiUa-3. Ct-tas
UteMeaargtswfflba sad t Usi ai tl"l67
tb year wit the prtTilef of tiaaris j aavr-
IJaslaess Cards of not raer tKaa oa wart rvS l
terted for Un dottart per aaasa.
Aaaeaaeeiotnti of Candidate! farOSteaj all psSfeaJ
personal and bniiatji coassaicatitai y. 'lie f
ia&TMaalinterjUwUlbcaarp4 is iitf -soot.
All JLirerUseaeaU t pabMsallaa at Ud ft m
bylaw most bo paid fir In aliases.
CITATION SOTICtS. The twntj-u4 snfws r fc
law reolatiBt; tees of oSce prarMu Hit li B tas
ware citation or ether preeets Is reciirr! - be sorrtd
by pabHeattoa la a newipapcr the crr wht d7
it may be to nat: inch isritcr ikaM Vs farattked wftb
ttMpri&ers feeferseelipobHeattoa rehre it ibH &
reared to kTe saca serrtee ad.
FUGITIVE SLAVES. The ftrst section ef te s.-t f Ti
xaxrr S. 1SU. renlaUnr the tale ef raar-sar liars-.
prostdes also that when any star is ssaltted t !
as a ranaway a notice of tk afprttesstwa and eea-
mlttwnt with a fall description of tnca line. aaH bo
psbUsbed w eil j in sm of tat papers atlht Seatat Oot-
eraacBt tr the space of su mail. i prtated ttfi
thereof Iftrakhed to the Clerk of Ike County C.srt tf
tho county where tha coaaitaent thaH hare been Bait
AdTerttsements net marked Khtk One fer Me tSty
aratobepsbHshed.sriHba ctnbsted astil rarbti and
chirred aeeordiDily.
Subscribers Adrertbers aad Agts say resit n3T at
our risk and expense. AH coeataoaicsUonj w e
addressed to the Editors.
the main object of the treaty but opposed
even to its express stipulations. Occasion
of controversy on this point has been re-
moved by an additional 'treaty which our
ruinister'at London has concluded and which
willbe immediately submitted to the Senate
for its consideration. Should the propped
supplemenal arrangement b cocrrd in by
all the parties to be affected by it Uw tl-
jeets coutemplatcd by the original eonvtu-
tion will have been fully attained-
The treaty between tha United Steus and
Ureat Britain of .the 5th of June. l-4
which went into effective oirtnk in 1 .
put an end to cau.-e of irritation between
the two (mum trios by secarim: lo the I n t 1
States the right of fishery on tlW cot of :he
British North Americtin provinces. with zi-
vantases equal to thost- enjoyed by British
subjects. Besides the signal WiMfto of tfa
treaty to a lsrje class of our citiiens engaged
in a pursuit uoiiHwCted to bo itwoostderablo
decree with our inttioal pro?iy
strength it hi. hiul a fkvonM eject upi 1
other interests in th provision it made for
reciprocal freedom of trade between tlte t nt
tetl States and tho British proxinct ir
in
America.
TheoxporfcordHHejtic articles U. thi-
provinces durincthe btr amounted '
more than twenty-two million dollar? ex.
in those of the preeediwtr year by "
seven million dollars ; d the impn; t
from during the same period ..
more than twenty-owe miiIIkh i' '
of six million upon lb of the pi
year.
The improved condition of thi brand
our commerce is mainly WrilnvWe to t-
above mentioned treaty.
Provision wns made in tho flrt Mtie'o
that treaty tor ciuwiin to destnMc tl.
mouths of rivers to which the common rnjLt
of hVhery ou tlio coast of tb Uuited State
nnd tho'llritish prov'uwes whs not uextnd
This cominissiimhas Imoii employed a part of
two i-etisons but without wuch pnwcrvs it
accomplishing theobjevt for which it wvs in
stitutcd iu consequence of m serious dirTi-r
oueo of opinion between the rotirot.iorur
not only tw to the precipe point whoro tl'
rivers t"armitwte but iw many intaeea . t -what
constitutes a river. The d.flku!ti
howpver may Iw overcome by rtiott t th
umpirage provided for by the trrM?
The otl'ort-s iterMivoriHtjlv tireenied movc
the tHimmuiiceuiHiit of my adwin tratiou t
relieve our trade to the lialtto ftv-.i the x.
tiou of Sound dues by lVeHMwrk have out v
been attended with muws Other v'tr
monts have wlo sought to lnM hko n!
to their oouiuieiee and Dennwrs: wts t!v
induced to propone an arrrsjigetwenf t-
the Huropetiu powers interrrhd tn tl. m
jcet; and tho ittniilter w which her jr..r-1
tiou wits iveeivcd wntranuttg Iter ! mio
that n satisfactory rrmiviuvt with th
oollld Mwui 1k eoneluded she wad lrn
upHal to this tioverniitoitt for leuqorsr. n
pension of definite nelson oil lis pt. tn i'i
sidcnition of theetnlrniwinont whuh mt.-i
result to her lhiroponunegoiUtioiitiiy in 1
mediate adjustment of the question wuh the
Unilod States. Thi reqiwt b h-pti it.
coded lo upon lh condition that th u
collected after the DUh of dune ivt. ?. . -until
the DUh of dune next from vc U u .
ottrgoes behiiigiiijt tu our nwrelwttt are t '
considered ptdd under pnte't nd .-.tl
to future adjustment. There is rcwMn t '
liove that un arrangement between !":' -
nnd the maritime towera of Knrope -u '
subject will -n be concluded. ed th t f
ponding negotiation with the l mtel m.
niav then be rowiincd ami terniti -l 1 s.
sntiofiiotoiy manner.
With Spain no new difUcnkieii h' m -nor
1ms much progress been md in th.-
juttmctil of pouditMt ones.
Negotiations entered into flr the purj -of
lelieving our oomwereiel intereonr-' w
the island of Culm of some of it hn'-l-
nnd providing for the pedT v
moot oflowd dispuloH-'rewinffoiiiot thi?
tcrootir. e. have not yet been numd.-.! w
any result.
Soon alter the eonimcnceme of th.- '.
war in KtiroK this ttowrnment Wstiutf
to the consideration f nil mtritino niti-
tw principle for the wnritv ..t n. 1. .
commerce ; one thai the neutnl fN.: !. .
cover enemies' good except artnl. '
bund of war ; and the other tnat n. v
properly on hoard inerrhant epeb t'U .
gerent" houid he exempt fruttindmrt'U;!
with tho cxee4Km "J t-ontrfttoMM .u:
I heso were not presctiicl nt-w rt
teruational law ; haiir Been t-nemlh
.r
'2
oil by neutrals though net atwey -i
by belligerents. One ef the ptvrtu '
war Russia 1 !! us evtnl
powers pmniptlv a.-eeded Us tfce j
tions ; and the tw. other jsrinrijwd I
cuts (treat Britain and France Bftn
Stiiitid to ubeerve thrnt for the prer!.
ioti a favorable opportunity ve-m- t
presicuti-tt lor obtaining a general r- '
of them both in Kifope ami Aex-ri-i
But Great Britain and France in i
with mot oftta Stutct of Ktti.ro-.
forbearing to reject did not ffirtwtt.-
upon the overtures of the United "'!"
While the question was in thi: ;
the representatives of Hnst-ia. Fran-
Britain. Aha tria Prussia. Sardinia
key. aseniblei at Pans tolt into
ration the subject of maritime tv -put
forth a declaration eotninissjr u
principfes which this jeov. foment ha..
nutted nearly two year? before zotti'.
nm'inTi .r iarmiif. rttiWefV. Sntl r
thereto the following' pnp?itins : " l'r-
tecring is and remain abol'i!hei." i
" blockade in order to be bimling. mu-- '
effective that is to ay. maintained by f ' j
sufficient reallv Ut prevent a.--- t the -!
of the enemv."' and t the A-rhrati-r f -.wT
rA' four point" two t whu u .
-lrcilv Im. niotweed by the
1 . I I... !.... I bttfaoaf -
this .'overnnieHt has be-n invited to 1 " -
by all the powers represented at Par.-.x
cent Great Britain aad Turkey. To th- ?a-t
of the two additional propositions tt.at t--relation
to blockades there can certainly I
no objection. It is merely the dcfin:-;v;n cT
what shall constitute the effectual invc-ta:r
of a blockaded place a definition for wl -.
this government has always contended .a.-
ing indemnity for lo553 where a pra.-i.-s.
violation of the rule thu? deiineil ha? L-c.
injurious to our cominerw. As to the r?
maining article of the declaratioa of the
vU -
ference of Paris that prtTateenng a a
remains abolished I eertaiaij cenn-t
(CONCLUDID OX rGURTH I'AOX
as-
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Oldham, W. S. & Marshall, John. State Gazette. (Austin, Tex.), Vol. 8, No. 18, Ed. 1, Saturday, December 20, 1856, newspaper, December 20, 1856; Austin, Texas. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth81276/m1/1/ocr/: accessed June 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.

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