State Gazette. (Austin, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 20, Ed. 1, Saturday, December 25, 1858 Page: 2 of 4
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i iy 'n hi ni iIm- mum pew war)
frl" thi 'I ! J . H r . I' witlllUll 1 '. U 1 1 I II :
ii to be if in--'. iii .1 in pn i i cho or sit'
nf any .articular ih-eripti. n I'u-
it. i the pre li n tin1 i'M nil1 to the
i ;uni"iii ..'i iiiy inorcaaod by reiittlf-
iiilliit the IBAil shall be carried in such
III i! M Mill .ii i immiiiilil" pMMOgen
'I'Ii'm will be done without nay from the 1 -part
men .ii Ml roads linn (lit travel
ii!l remunerate tin- oontraoton.
'I'll.- !' '. lubjoot i.- ii r.ii-ilio railroad
Wbleh ii i ii in mi ll iuIm'i at d ns u rWl
ill i'. national ili'-ili' anil :i I...H.1 i.l nil
urn. lie la opposed to thi exercise of any
power bj tho tioderar Govern meat to oon-
-ini-t il...' rand II.' ttgOII thai it can bf
ualy dons il ..i.-v tl.i' ki en lye ami bj tin
; .i I i. i;.l i um rvisioo of lodli Ideal
.iinl private internal It ought therefore
. inii-.l tw eoniranica lucorporat- them by return matl poet paM
1 1 b . Ill Btati . .-i nihil in H i Whcei . ..
ln Strte (frwlft.
KMIN MARSHAL!. KotTon.
U'STIV . . SATURDAY DRCRMBRR 2ft 1868
Trim's-(jjtll per jear i. he. psiil on sub
I'lrase renew your iittcriptinn before Hie obi
Retail hj mail at uiirriik-
TIIK I..1WM or TEXAS
F03R X8Cr c 186B.
Foil Rami at run Omfi of thf
STATE GAJtKTfB I'rin i.
Our t 'ouii iititii'ii la now ready for delivery.
Send l l.'a' by Matt ami "ii will iin-iii
pecuniary interc i wetHd direetlj Involved;
III o -i-t ll.iill III tin' W.'ik
of l.iu.i or of pension or both
ninS-1 -oil conditions and restrictions a-
i re the transportation of troop! and
Munitions of war ii..- limn any charge and
it. t of the I ml. 1 State mall ut I lair and
'11..' n res a a. ..rata.' ol the
case Of thealave al liarlealoo und the
. ding of the reoaptored oegroea lo
i i a i.i compliance with the law which
5 tttathi .a mill i the charge of the I'reeldeot
Ho ootnmcndi the philanthropic aid re-
ceived from the Colonisation Society in
OUl iLI in ; and asks tin
iipii ipri . d ft .i ' n ii defray tho
III n. '. .: ludci Willi rn ninni. lid-
i hk tin' IMiirtol ol Columbia to ihe prott t
iogosrool Congrow I thanking theni
ii.i (ho i oriUoi :. i with which ihej
completed t!;cir busmen al the laat season
Mid M't liim bills in SKc time tlmt lie wa.i
nblc to examine r- . .-. atlfi. lively I. dole
..' .ii. r no ii! !. i io bopea the practice
. ill i .; 'a into lot the foirjre.
il: U lUAMtltS li;l'.liri hmhiTexa.s.
Sax As . 'Mo Nov. 'jn 1838
J .nil I have the
hmi . n rt:cle whi Ii
:j in klfc National Lutelligeneer of
Oct ! i -i.iT-'i. nil nlwtho following
; igraph ; d from the Now York Week-
ly Tioieaol ti : i -i " r 1 1 1 . 1858 and which
I unded on Ihia letter viz :
in tan Department is much cue
burr;: $; i in !' im'a attack upon the
frieDdly '"AtV'' w'" vr- reported as
Lriugii in ... Ageota of Department
1 1. " I L . rith ei ti d oopii - ol
letters i' so - the Uomuanding
OiBcer ol b'orl Arbuckle both before and
nfti'i Muj in Dorn'a engagement whioh
. fc; ire theatatemeouwl
tht I ident to Ai'i relattPt i Hi.'7i-
. . i ' Should nv furtelir c idjt oi
to tlo efli 1" desired it may be fonod
iii! : lis Jl.ue.h ney l.iovenior
llniiiii'- i . 1 1 I. In : . V:li winch withmj
action in I lie case was forwarded Uclobei
HUth giving an account ol the luuider on
: ji ol ilnii ui uotli by tho Indiana of
tin Jack ..ii family ai L'ecaaBayon.
Whilal ii :...-... of the article above
ided u pcrfw tly apparent touijf It
.i.l tbi people of Texas the malicious
it' -t il m iI.m oad to accomplish will
have Undoubtedly been produced. )ly
ohjcol in writing ii to requeat that if joe-
Ribloit ii y be ascertained who is tho dirty
author .i thh malignant publication and
t' . i lo- may be at once ejected 'rum the
i mployi - nt "i ll I oiled t-tates. Ila
has committed tl msacal possible outrage
hi- d at Commandei of the Wichi-
. ti Kxpediiiun at t upon all who were per-
taitted I i share with hioi tBe honora aohiOT-
ad in the fight of October 1-t upon the
Indian Department and upon the people
of Ten by j mooring the publication
in the S itloual Intelligencer of bia slan-
. i .. :. r of thi -.1 ultimo.
V'ii.iu the past two year.-- the troops of
tl.w Department have bad about twenty
oongewi nts with ihe Comanchea in each
of Whiob some Were killed or wounded to
(Bj nothitij ol there being many more oaaea
5r Which large parties of thorn have been
punned hundreda of miles without being
overtaken and it i- to all thooe engaged in
this Comaoehe polii . annoying in the ex-
ti. me to find that after all their liardMliipc
; vaiion.' and wounds the "Jntlian tl--jMirtmeut
it n teh t r ratted ' by their
operation:. tin.: tl murdcroua nvagea
ai. "ti !fj i.li' ' ugaintt" aud "
i -... ' would be emineolly paaocable.
ll negOtiaUODi are tn be entered into Willi
these Uwlcaj creature L have roapeotfnlly
t i inU -I thai the annual iasue to ilieiu
by the (ioverntnent of thonaaoda of toma-
I . i. !.s and scalping knives be Brat suapend-
-d and h t them be treated with by peisnn"
respecting the intercaUof Texas ao that
i Ley nay be made to feol that it la
with Texas as well ai the balance of the
I nitad Btat is tl.. j are to be at cace.
I am sir very respectfully vourobt -fr-
(aign ii. D. K. TWIG;?
livt. Maj. (Jen. I'. B. A.
J.i' nt. Cul I . TtlOJl - .-v Adjt. ilen.
(lead Quarters of the Aiiny N. Vork.
" Boy' M.id nn i'1 tempered old Mlow
tn a lion y lad " what are you liollerio' for
when I am . oing by I
Humph !" returned the boy "what
are you going by for when I am liol-
UI II AU I'lllMIMI. ITBSIti
Itg- I'he Matriel Attorney A. D. Mo-
(iiinii i in Ibis city ittnding the Iis-
triel ('..iirt at this eounty now in scsion
The orlminal docket is being disponed of.
Ha?- Thf Rl i JwM Saiui'l will preach
in Ibe ('iiinliefl.ind 1'rebyteriaii Cbureli in
thin eity on Sabbath next at 1 I o'clock
V M. and at 7 I' M
The Hon. V s. Oldham httt returned
to his hotflS in this luce lie bni been
ah I nt for some tithe alt. Muling distant
Artuiam Wkit.. Mr. Poteraoo who
took Mm eonlract to In.re :.n Aifesiiin Well
in ihe riar of the Capital for the porpo
of supplylog the public buildings with
Water lias bond some 320 feet. lie ma'-
rages about a loot and n half I day. He
I working with Steam lie sos a day and
m Him m vnir.
.a.. i!.-ii." ..r ii... i .1 f. .1
the I .i-l 1 1 :i i in 1 1 a n in. i be writb n without
In Mellt no hli.ll Of til" I ill thi pi i
Imbed and distinguished fltatesinim The
hi-tory of no omntiv can bt inol. i-t 1
without an acquaintance with the moral
and inlelleetuiil elinrni lev of tht men who
have given direction to be! political conn-
sell. The motives of Statesmen whether
generated bv p r-oanl spile or the ex ilted
nttlacta of patrlotltm whether firmly nn.l
aonsirtootly guided by deliberate wi Ion
or wai'tod Irregularly by Intemperance ot
filly eiiler deeply int.. the 1 Isl ition I I
lie count iv
l-'or many yi in Mr Hunt ill n
Chairman of the impurtanl Senate C immil
ten to whom were red m d the money bills
of the House. In this cip'iciiy ii became
bil duty lo ma' let the entire system of in-
direct luxation by which our IVdcrnl Gov-
ernineiit Is lUatained and pirptuii. I In
performiii" tho high ilntii belongini to
tba position he Ii.h displayed a cool and
aceurate judgment capalili nf estimating
with all poaaibln pofreotne i the probable
expenditures nf that ...... i nnonl through-
out all i rm numerona detail We believe
tliat (lie -ii i-i'--liil ih-elon -. ..I Mi ni
diiom du'i.- require the energetic u - nl
some of the most importar.l in eliectual
In v lodi ating ihe a lion of hi immil
tee be has exhibited tin rflectivi i
of the ready debator aj well as the vi
erudition laborious research and tho pro-
found mind of the phll phi equalities
rarely combined in tjje sain mnu. Ii i
rare indeed that n talent for numerical
a hall in naeli week in repairing his tools eal-ulation is united with the i -. exalted
I attributes of genius analysis abstraction
tiLNLHAi. Tmkii.s. We refer our read- La ppncralix:iti.n. I n these great faeul-
ers to the able and patriotic letter of lieu. I ios r Muotor excels we heliovi ;
Twiggi to the Aissistaut Adjutant Oeooral
Thomas in another columu. It lebukes
in itrong terms n communication in the N
V. News written at l'ort Arbuekle by a
government oflieer lor the purpose of pre-
venting any further expedition agaiiisf pic
t'oinanebe Indians. We direct the atten-
tion of our readers to this matter because
it refieots light upon the causes which have
prevented our Federal (ioverunient from
oiving us the protection t' which we are
entitled by the sacred provisions of the eon"
Fort Arbu.klc il a trading point where
il.e 1 'cited States agents distribute arus
and piovisiona to our savage enoc?iei.J
These iufamous officials make a lueraliv-li
trade out of these transactions. They are
willing that our people should be robbed
ami naaaaored provided they can ilcri.-e a
profit from our misfortunes. They purchase
at low rates from the Indians tlw horses
which aie stolea fr.m Texas These bands
collect st the h'ort openly displaying the
irnry iculp of our slaughtered countrymen
and aVUWlnc that tliev are al war with
Tetas but at peace with the I'nited Stat. s.
Our 1 edeial tiovernment li-t.-ninc to
her own ageute is deaf to the voice of the
sovereign people of Texas claiming pro
Tttr. FiiKa-l dent's MlMAOB. In this
number of the (lazctte we have deemed it
proper to dissent from the views of the
President relative to the impost question.
In other respects we regard this truly
able and patriotic State paper with unoua-
litied approbation. The lirinm-ss with which
be has vindicated the rights of slavery and
the jrencrous devotion with which he has
aaeri fined himself to his honest convictions
oiifht to make him dear to the South.
In tho next number of this paper we will
continue our review of the Meesage. Our
veneration for the President however
does not iclieve us of the duty of protest-
in;; against his tariff doctrines which we
regard as a departure from our time hon-
A SutaOLAH OTB. At 'he late election
in Massachusetts tho town of South
Danvera voti daa follows for flovernor:
bank . II. i loblican ; 'li Ueaob Demo
crat ; dl! Lawrence Amerionnj ll-'.
'lhat town wis very impartial in its
Favors and was determined that no party
bbould have eaUSO to tuplain of it.
EBMPVAIi "f I'ltl.t: Kbobobs. Mr.
Moose of Clarke has introduced iu the
Georgia House of Representatives a bill
uroviiliiij- lor the removal of all frcepcrtons
of color from tho BtatO after the 1st
day of January 184JO. It' they remain
aftel that lime a method la prescribed by
vlin.li they .shall be sold into bluvcy ; or if
they will .-elect musters iiud convey thein-
nlvea by deed formally executed and re-
corded they may continue iu the State as
LanoLOBO. " llr. I'.ditor I'll thank
jou to lay I keep the best table in the eity."
Jiililor " I'll iluiuk you to supply my
laiuiiy with board gratis." Landlord " "i
tlioujiht yen were glad t.. get somstbiug to
till up your paper. Kdiior ' I thougbl
you were glad to feed no n for nothing."
It's ii pi- i rule lhat wont work both ways
K..if landloi I in n rage threatened to Lure
nothing more to do with the office.
'Ihe. !' brings intelligence of the
proceeding! iu tho cao of odfinges lorttf
coiiimillcii on the DixOO liimily at lieroii.
The violator- III thi- oullii.e had been tried
und convicted and au older for their execu-
tion would be lujiu-d "! au-i probably granted
by tho Sultan. ;
BSx9Weuro indebted to the Hon. tluy
M l.rynn for public doeumeuts.
JiaS'A vote has been taken iu the House
on the Walrous ease and it appears Irom
the last despatch that it stood us follows :
1 1 1 against and 01 rorimpetohmentj there
being a majority of '1" votes agalnet the
impeach ineut. There are us well as we
recolluet more than liJH jneiubers why-
was not the total of the vote larger '
The vote above mentioned must be not
only unsatisfactory to the prosecutors hut
even more so to the Mettled ; for afler the
recommendation of the whole of the Judi-
ciary Committee of the 84th and the half
of the Committee of the lloth Congress
backed by a vote of 01 it. cannot be con-
tended ll.at the Judge like Ciesars wife
is not only virtuous 'hut above suspicion."
The vote above referred to was on the
memorial of Mr. Spencer of Texas and
Mr. Mi- in of Louisiana.
Wichita MOUNTAINS Major Marshall
hns received a letter from Capt. .lames
(Jakes l". S. A. commanding at Fort Belk-
nap from which we make tho following
extract: ' 1 have just returned from the
Wichita mountains nothing new from that
'laarttr." Captain (takes is said to boa
very efficient officer.
a"y We were pleased to meet with our
frieuds George W. Jones Ksq. of Bastrop
and Spencer Ford Esq. of Lockbart who
have been iu attendance on the Supreme
GOVOBUUONAIi OoMarjTTHS Guy M
Ilryari f Detu.) of Texas is placed on com-
mittee on Military Affairs.
1. J. M. Ila. k ii. of Mississippi on
We in' iudebtcd to tho Hon. Mat
Ward and to the lloo. John II Iteagan
lor public ih '.-111111 nls
tfK- Our frieud Ir J. M. Sicicer has
returned to Austin with his family.
jasV A. II. Chalmers Ksq. of George
town io uow iu Austin in attendance upou
other living man whose i II r we hat
.studied. In .puck perception and roaly
confidence be is deoidodly inrpasaed both
by Messrs. Toombs ami Douglas. Hut his
elaborate productions are inoomparnbly
superior to the beat ipeechea of iih.r.i
'tf9a ' '"" " ""''' ""' politicians. They are
brfWant polltieians who dassle the
Mr Hunter is the profound Bl it- -wan the
light of whose philosophy will illuminate
future generations Tbey arc political
empyrflk while Mr. Hunter is a p
Liko (jibb n
' Deep and slniv ash lusting. :l"a l
Ami hivinf wisdom with eaoa itudiu is jrear "
I'erliaps on more than One OCCU iou in
his life Mr. Iluuter like other philosophi-
cal minds has displayed more promptness
and decision iu Speculation than iu DC i"ii
Quicker but weaker men are aettiati i by
the peculiar cirenmatances of the
without looking behind or beyond it whil
be would refer ic to general principle! and
view it in its remote but Important relation!
with the past tl- present and the future
in these respects be resembles bul greatly
surpasses Mr. Seward who in accurate
knowledge of the tendenelea of hi nsti-
tuents and in steady and unrel nil
suit of his political ends i- the hi ... extra.
ordinary man of this ago That A
Kodin Indeed has never yel falti 1 ; i a
career which is plainly leading to the w r.t
scenes of treason civil war cam
Whih the upirati ma of Mr Hunter for
abstract n'uti- may rn it a epeoi
rsadioeas in bia eouduct bis
plicate. o to hi- atudiea way i (elude bint
from thai profound knowh i of men for
which Win. II. Beward Is unrivaled. The
former i- certainly a most fiaisbed and pro-
found -'liolar and itudei . and in tin i
ri'p'.'.'ts is the mi. -..-f.ii rival of Mr i ..
rett himself. At :.a i.u'r age he I
degree of A M- al Ihe In... i ily of 'ii-
giuia au honor which has 1 i
in a very lew ease lie hat lince been
offered by the board ol visitors of that in-
stitution t lie position ofprofi irol ancient
languages. He ba- ever I-' ii ii conatsnl
and laborious atndenl
Mr. Hunter is the able executor ! Ihe
great idvas of Jefferson and i h. .on
I hey had in the gn ttest degree invontion
the highest attribute of ;'ciiius in which
Mr. Hunter i- lacking. The latti r can
analyze and perfect the oonceptions ol hi
great maaten but ho will never originate
or create u system of lib own. lie i- thi
true representative of Virginia as she now
is. Oontent with the rich inheritance ol
the past .-be deVOtei all lo i eul rglei to the
work of Improving and perpotuating ii
The daring temper uf .lell-i .ii hi enter
prising fruitful and aelf-relying genitl
were adapted to the stormy acenea of the
revolution. Between Hunter and Madiaon
there are very many point- of resemblance
which however WO Will BOl pan-e berc ti
Mr. Hunter Ins lab.. ii J for years to atrip
our tariff of its protective features and to
reduce it from its preai nl oi uditioo ol ap-
proximatioti to a purely revenue system.
We trust he will prOSOrvo nil eoiisi-t.'ii.'
upon this poiut even if it leads to a differ
ence with Mr. BuolunM.
There is another grave quettioo which
this di.stiuguished Senator solved upou
true Democratic principles. We refer to
the relations between the Federal tiovern-
ment aud th territories lie shewed that
the States aud not the territories were
parties to the Federal compact and that
the latter could claim no resulting rights.
He shewed that the compact was the work
of the people in their separate cap icily a-
States aud not as an aggregate lie de-
duced the conclusion that whatever rights
in the territories were reserved belonged to
the several States and not to the people of
ihe territories lie concluded that it was
the duty of the Federal tiovernment both
itself to observo the constitutional rights
of tho States and to force the territorial
governments its creatures al.so to respect
those rights. In regard to slavery be .-aid
that the people of each State hi d reserved
to themselves Ihe right to emigrate will
ihe Supreme Court. He is a clever follow their property to the common territory of
and ia deservedly popular both with the bar the Union aud to hold the satno duiii - ila
and the people of hia county. rritorial vxistunoe withgut any iuterfcr
anee either on tin- psit nf the linneinl M
i' i ' i nl governments Tho Territorial
government he laid was Ihe mere crea-
ture of i h. 1 'everiiineiit ami
ihouhl be forced by it to respeel the Ma
reign rl hi 1 1 Ihe Mate.
The lentil is( ibe doctrine of squatter
-. ..'.. reign tj is derived li.nn Il.e old Federal
nn ni that the eoiistiliition was tin- work
..f the pi. .pi.- iu the aggregate nml not n'
tho Slate- and that sovereignty is reserved
to the lawleM squatter! in Ihe territories
ii li.'io pari of that aggregate Tl.i- idea
I 1 itm itivo ol the whole theory uf States
I md Ii 1 1 directly lo consolidation
If th rreignty stlala in the aggregate
pcopl ' the liiiii then a numerical ma-
I-. ni of thai aggn a l.ave the rlghl lo
modify (Iter or abolish our Federal Consti-
tute ii nd HI ii i.i. The doctrine should
tl ! ll no led bl i very g.io.l .biiin-
crat us a dangorotH heresy.
i in. rni us.
A fi a - it t ago the people of thi Booth
it. r. told that the pr. lectin- larilf lull
I. ai. I the death of the old Whig pert)
Km a ni . effort ii now bein made lo re-
- i -. tivt J ili v. We regret to
he lii.'.'.l to dissent from that portion ol
i I Indian in's tni tage w rtioh n lab to
lh . : -'i li. linn that able paper We
ubj .ni tin full in ni" ' streets :
" No stab iman would advise that we
should go on Iu rcasing tin national debt
: i in -1 the rdinary expenses nf the gov-
ernment This would be a most ruinous
policy In case ol war our creull must
ne our chid row uroo at least for the lirst
year and tliU Would be -.re.-.tly impaired
by having c infracted a large debt In time
of pel It is ..iir true jioliey to increase
..in ii . wi ro aa to equal our expenditures
It would bo ruinous to oootinoe to borrow.
Besides it may be proper tn observe that
-:- ini li nl I protection thus iffbrded by
a rove me tariff would at the present inn-
in.nl to some client increase the eonfl
doii.-e ii the manufacturing interests and
give a fresh impnlaa to our reviving bmi.
ocas. To this surely uo person will ob
in regard to the mole ..I a teseing and
oolicctiug dud - under a itriutly revenue
tariff I have long eutertained and often
ox pressed the opinion thai sound policy
rciiuin this sli .old be dune by specific
.. ni ii.-e- to Whiob these can be
properly applied. They ire well adapted
t oditiea whieh arc usually sola by
weight or by measure and whieh from
I heir nature me of nearly eiUal value.
.-'i h for example are the articles of irou
different el-iaaea law sugar unJ foreign
wiin - aud .-on us.
In ii- eb liberate judgment ipeoific
duties an the lust If not the only ineeui
i luring the revenue against taise aud
fraudulent iuvoicca and such has been the
practice I ! nl' -I tor this purpose by other
commercial nalioni Besides snccitic dn-
p. - would afford to the American inannfao-
iiif i tin- iuiiilcnt.il advantages to which be
; iiu'v entitled under revenue taritl.
i pn ient lystem t- a iliding scale to his
li on i.. I i'. I uder it when prices are
high end buaiueaa poi-perons the duiie.s
rise In amount wbc.i be least ieiuircs tbeir
aid On the contrary "heu prices fall
and be i- itruggliog against ndvtr.ity the
duties arc diminished in the .same propor-
li .ii. "re. tly to his injury.
Neither would there be danger that a
higher rate ol duty than that Intended by
Congres could be levied in the form ut
rJmii - It would be easy to ascer-
tain tb" average Value of any imported
arti '. for ai riea ol years; snd instead ot
tul ling il to au adval irem duty at a
certain rale per centum to substitute in
u- place au equivalent rpecifio duty.
i uoh ai arrangement the oonsunier
wouldn I be injured. It is true he might
. to pay a little more duty on a given
article in unoyearj but it so ha would
pa) a little leu in aootber and in a series
would counterbalance each
othor and amount to the same thing ao tar
as bis intire-t is concerned. This ioooo-
.. nil would I"' trilling when oontrasted
with tho additional lecurity thus afforded
frauds upon the revenue in which
. . : - msumi r is directly interested."
We do not intend to go into any extend-
ed argument at thii time exposing the
avil of i li-' protective system. Onr only
object is to poiut out and protest against
e i lain doctrines announced in the Messsge.
We protest agaioat hia rec immendatioo
i peeiOo duties. This ia the mode by
which the object of protection is act p-
lished Mr. Buohanan says ' Besidei
pi :ti- duties would allord to the Ameri-
in manufacturer tho incidental advanta-
ges to which lie is fairly entitled under a
revenue tariff." In other words ipeoific
ire Letter than advalorera -lulu's
: i the former will afford to the manu-
facturer more oomplete protection than the
latter. In our opinion thi- rea -m found-
ed in tho protective polioy justifies us in
preferring tho adralorom lyitoni
We regard protection to the manufaotu-
: i'ii! whieh should bo mitigated
and if possible eradicated. In order to
-ee it torn up by the roots we would like
to .-I.- tl.e federal Qovernment open onr
porb to in-trade and maintain Itself by
Mr Buchanan gives the following as a
r on for raising the taritl. U s--ys the
incidental piotectiou afforded by the icve-
uue tariff thus raised would increase Ihe
- mfid ince of the manufactures and give a
fresh impulse to our reviving interests
lie regards protection as a good result
from a revenue tariff. It follows of course
lhat if protection is a good result a high
protective tariff would bo expedient if not
oooititiltlonal We cannot see how the
IV. -i.l -nt can escape the position of Heu-
iv Clay. He has clearly abandoned the
dootrinea of Silas Wright and McDuffie.
Iu the laiiguago of the Washington
States the protective tariff in its effects
upon the' South is preguant with evil
oooaequenoea and ll the most fatal form
which the spirit ol antislavery can assume.
ProUollon means simply Ibis that Nor-
thern manufacturers relieved of foreign
Competition may sell to the South fabrics
at exhorbltant prices. Without meaning
any ili-respeel for those who advocate it
we regard it as a legalized system by
which the North is enabled to rob the
South. Liko the Washington States we
do not impute any design to the I'rosid-ut
to injure the South. We believe his gen-
eral mum limb j him to the respect aud
gratitude of every true Southern wan
It is Ihr iron interests in renusvlvsnii
which ii el miorin;' now most loudly I.i
protection. Tiny insist upon anjeying a
monopoly nf the sale of railroad iron
They demand that the F.nglish shall be
" nn si t ("I the eoinpletion of ihe North
Carolina llailn.il " and bj win h il wa
aiieui:' other Ihine provided that "the
S:il shall be entitled to sis pi r .enl p'l
annum payable semi annually lie icon out
.if imc iln-lil Is of Droits lloob bf said
driven from our markets s. that they mny eoinpiiiy before any ilivuleiuls -hull In
he enabled to sell to M railroad iron ll the I"'''1 '"' "1"'r "'"l; in ""' " ' .
Ill tile llVO lllsl aillliliil iiu-euiiLi- i.i no:
-i.iekbi.lilers iii the eouiiniii y it was iu-i-t-
highest rates. Texas i- deeply inleresled
in Ibis qtnetioa. She is about eouiinen.
eing nn extensive system of railroods. I
-he willing to givo a double price for iron
to the Pennsylvania manufacturers i1
The priueiple of proteetioo is a ilan-i-r-ous
one and may bo applied to every
fabric manufactured iu the .North A
general system of protection would impose
Intolerable burdens upou shivery and re
milt in the prostration ol every important
We lean that the r.icommendation of
peolfil imposts by the President immedi-
ately led to the introduction of a bill in
accordance with the demands of the pro
teotlonlatS. The Slates says the movement
was zealously seconded by Mr. F J.
Morris a K. N member from Pennsylvania
and by a few ambiguous Democrats co-
operating with the hulk of the oppmilion
It was sustained by :i decisive major ty of
thi House. Are we lo be again Saddled
with a hied' protective tariff?
a a. mi ci.A.
Wo have already ospresseil uir deter-
mination to copy everything which can
reflect light upon the motives of pro niueut
northern men pirticalarly Democratr. We
have seen tl.e sympathy eipressed by
Horace Greeley for Douglas We have also
seen Mi. Dopglai embrace the KlUAtter
At a late meeting of tho DoUglai de-
mocracy in odianopolll hell to rejoice
over the result of the late Illinois election
the Hon. John O. Devia a distinguished
mm declared that " no man who approv-
ed the doctrine that tho Constitution oar-
ried Slavery into the territories could carry
a siugle township in auv free State." He
no Uoulit expressed tlie view.
This then is iu;uler MVereiguly ac-
oording to that dojtriue the first territorial
Legislature representing a few thousand
quatten can exclude slavery from a terri-
tory where it has previously eii.-tcd. This
is bad inongh but it goes .still farther. It
declares that slavery is an inomoloui insti
tution cannot exist unless it is created by-
positive law and that the Federal Consti-
tution cannot cany it Into the common ter-
ritoriea of the Republlo We have very
little sympathy with such Douglas Ieuio-
crats. and nro not dispoaed to join in si out
of triumph raised by some of our Southern
exchanges over the election of Douglas.
We can easily see how the Donglai men
have triumphed in tho North while the
Democracy generally was defeated The
d bv Judge llnllin the Slate prol lint
olt of thi receipt" over nnd above the II
ponses of operating the road the State was
entitled to have n dividend mi her preferred
stock and that such receipts were not pro-
perly applicable lothe payment of tin- debts
of i be. Company contracted antecedent to
the pasngp of the Mid act or tn new work-
to be constructed Or If to the latter they
were only applicable to such as were imlis
peiisably necessary to operate the road
Whereas the rep irt- of the officers of the
company showed lb it these receipts were
sufficient to pay a dividend to the St a I In
eaeb of tb "So years but that they bad been
applied by the officers of the company lo
the discharge of other debts and to the
construction account. The officers and
stockholders of the company took u differ-
cut view of the matter ami insisted (hit
the fond bad ben properly and legally up
plieil and that the State had no jii-I claim
to have anv dividend under the circum-
stances. The proty Of the State reported
these fac's to me to the end that I might
take such nclioii in the pfimiaea as in my
opinion the interests of ihe Slate loighl
lenutrOi In the conflict of opinion I did
not deem it advisable to lake any steps to
assert the claim of the Slate but eonelu-li d
to submit the whole matter to the General
Aaaembly fur such directions If any as
they may think proper to give."
In conclusion and in illustration of our
remarks we might point to those :candahius
scenes of riot and debauchery which have
so often allocked the moral tcnae of this
Oommunily during the past sessions of the
Legislature. We have indeed seen the
agents of embryo companies plying with tin-
costliest wines the lips of venerable Sena-
tors and respectable representatives until
the streets rang with the ribald wit ind
blasphemous execrations of those who wen
sent here to jjuard ihe most important right!
of the people. It is lucky fof the people
of Texas lhat since the creation of thc.-e
! .schemes they have bad l.ovcniors with the
Brmneaa honesty ami vagaclty to veto le-
ghuation ooncetved lo aelfiahneea and apecu-
lation and brought forlh in intoxication
XVIvriilN TF.XA1 I I I'is.
up 1 ere n1oat for LirirpiKl Tlir
i.:i uut now berc and It (ialvoeton Is over
tlinii liv thousand bales.
A larger limn unnl amount of gfMMtel
I a- b. iu received during the week and
lie i an- itill coming on every boat.
A large lumber of hnnds are employed
on tin third section of the Central road
but the greet waul now felt on nil the
mads is for hands
'I lo- woik of Inline iron on the Brazo-
ria road which has boon impended for
torn weeks on account of raJu- wa re--uuo'd
The aspect of out market ia still bright
and business it as aotive aa at any time this
The Teh gnph sayi :
The Board of Trusloeaof Austin IVillego
nt lluutsville have been holding a meeting
iu tl -iseilv this week and have set lueauriv
on loot to pay ofl the debt of the institution
and re-eatebllah it OO a firm basis. They
elected l!ev. K. W. Itailey President and
he has accepted the office. The exercise
ol the College will be resumed on the lat
Monday in February.
Tie- eambar of emigrants pouring into
the Slate t.ow by this m.-nuo ia very largo
The b 'at- c on i rowded aud the hotel are
full to rl! ..wine'. Tbey are of the right
olaaa and tin: State WiH accommodate all
that can come.
The lluiilaville Item myi tl.e following
i the am. mill of uottoti reported shipped
Iron) tin- various Texas ports for the prca
. nt commercial year which will show tlmt
although ten venra ego aha only sent 66-
tl ei bales to market tbinRs are materially
changed since. a bad no idoa of Uie
immense amount of cotton our State rabms
ami this of coiir-c ihw- not iuclude the
supply absorbed by the I'etiitentUry which
employ! nearly l.'.O hatdl :
Ualveatoo 117o!H bales
lie. I Itiver 160000 "
Indianola 6W0 "
l'ort Lavaca (estimated) 10000 "
The 3. A. Lodger has
article on Tex a Iron. Clfl count aloti
contains on il'gh to build every railroad now
in contemplation iu the Slat". Iron ore i-
known to esi-t in several counties in Texas
and at i distance of about 25 miles weotward
of Sun Antonio there are mountain! which
are said to abound in irou ore of a remirk-
ably pure quality.
The Ledger anticipate! mueh benefit
trom the labors ot the Stat l.-.o-t in
ii. ... I.. I... ii li..:.. I i.:...ni- -i.i
moo -loiiu.i. i -..-.- anion uruisnea .1 i- i 1 i r .1
J. the discovery and developtnen of the mm
ui luu leinun. lie mii iio uuuol null
cral resources of I
cx.1-. New Orleans
a market for our
1. .-...I. ....1 1...1.. ..- :
IIIULO nuiu nun .1 nun- tirtufiu nn luai' r : .. :.!
' would furnish us will
uo man who approved the doctrine that cail!) uud .
the Constitution carried slavery into the AkIE(.t pUo fj ; 0j .;.
territories could carry a tingle town.-hip in . agsinst whom there were several warrants
any northern State." j on charges of horsestealing were arTMted
This doctrine would as effeotoaliv ex- yesterday at a short distance from the mil-.i...i-..t
.i ..:. ..:.. ' -iou L.-pada. i. .1. !. I
i.l. 1 V ( I . I I 1 1 111' ' 1 . e- . ( 1 . 1
soilistn and therefore suits the people of
Inreaelve Teaeleaelee 01 1 oriurniiorn.
The Vi'j.-o S)Utberorr has an able artii le
on corporations and iu that ooooeel iou pays
a just compliment to the ti rii.r
"There is nothing- in (iov. RnnneV
We have heretofore warned the Monll of adininis.iution whii-h we admire ao much as
Texas of the e- ds who h we showed to be
as inherent iu corporations as poi -on iu the
fangs of the serpent. Wo saw that their
appetite for Legieialivi indulgence wa
sharpened by its gratitieatioa that being
soulless they were restrained by no sense
of individual responsibility that they re-
sorted to the niosit corrupt and demoralising
mcaus to drive tl.eir favorit- measures
through Legislative bodies and that their
genius was inimical to the rights liberties
and general equality of the people. We
think it a great evil for the general doctrine
of republican equality to be broken by the
institution of monopolies ; for the State to
be plundered nf her lands and money and
for the people to be robbed of their means
by the various arts of extortion which the
agents of corporal ions know so Well how to
employ. Y"t we regard the general system
of bribery corruption (lattery Intimida-
tion and log-rolling with which tluy beseige
Kxeontlvw and Legislatures as the most
formidable of the abuses which tbey create.
If those schemes are permanently lUOCOSa-
ful not only will the highest officials he
corrupted but its domoraliilog influence
will eat its way to the very heart of society
and entail upon all elassts a general laxitv
In our last Issue we copiedextracls from
the message of the (iovernor of lleorgia
denouncing a gross aud impudent violation
of the law by the chartered hauks of lleor-
gia. We now append to this article an extract
from a late message of liovernor Bragg of
North Caioliua. It relates to the affairs of
the Iialeigh and Gaston liailroad Company.
The Sate of North Caroliua had invested
one million dollars in tho stocks of that
company. It will he seen that the com-
pany refused to pay the State the dividend
to which she was cutitlc notwithstanding
it had tho funds to do so. Thus bauklog
companies ore not the only corporations
which violate the law. We promise to con-
tinue our illustrations in lubseriucut num-
bers of this paper
We invito our reader! to peruse the ex-
tract lo whieh we havo referred :
" The liailroad sto:ks belonging to the
Ptate and not before appropriated to other
purposes constitute the chief purl of the
sinking fund. Tho receipts so far bte
been mainly if not entirely from duidend-
deelared on stock iu the iialeigh and lias-
ton liailroad Company. It was hoped and
I believe generally expected that after
your last session divideuds would be made
by the North Carolina liailroad Company
at least on the preferred stock held by the
State for her last Subscription of one mil-
lion of dollars In relatiou to this a qua-
ti 011 has ariseu of some importance to the
State as well as to the individual stock-
holders and to which 1 fLel it my duty to
call your attention.
Thin preferred stock was taken by virtue
of in act ob. 112 Lawa ll-'o entitled
this strici accountability to which be holds
corporations. So long as there 11 the ccr-1
tainly lieiore a company that III lime ter
the performance ot il on lit on i of its
charter will he extended there will be be-
fore them the almost irreeisuble temptation
t i stop the road or turn it aside fot the
purpose o! private speculation or to delay
it to suit the convenience of the Directory."
"No country ever olfe-e 1 Midi induce-
ments for persons to build her roads and
no country has ever been 10 abused bv the
failure of contracting parlies to comply
with the terms of their contract-.
We only commend the action of the
The above we trust will be snfficieut
apology for our error in figures which waa
nearly as bad as Houglaa' errors of ipeech
The Central Texan thus ipeaks of Mr.
We much fear however that his genius
great reputation and the itroug bold he
has upon th maaeea in his State has alouo
erved lo secure his re-election while iu
fact the si ntiments of his constituents arv
opposed to his own ; in olbcr words that a
majority of the people of lllioois are Black
The Houston Republic lays : We saw a
line ll ick "I hcep in town a few dayi ago.
brought from one uf the western counties
Theie Were 200 in the look in lile erdr.
F 11. Hell Fx-Covernor of Tttaa was
in town during this week. He iulends
leaving this State and locating ut least for
the present in NortbCerottna. Hid.
IV o learn from the. Retjublil that James
V '':'.. K-.. la'e Attmrney tienersl of Tot-
al i- now practicing h's profession in
whip with Col. Hogers of Washings
V .-- from the same pap r that a fine
bsli wai recently given by the Washington
Light ' I iirdl iu Hou'tou at the Ixoc Btar
all t i nr gallant friend Opt. Win.
We have lend nn interesting letter ...
The Tex:.- I'lcueer giving a brief history
of the ori.'in and progress of Springfield
It is aettlcd near Plriran Fortwbiohoo
the '"I. nf may 1880 was t-.ken by the 1b
diini about BOO in uuwber. It was occu
pied by 85 souls ouly five of whom could
bear .ruis. Their uauios were John lar-
ker Benj. Parker aud Samuel Frost who
w ire all killed.
Wounded Mr.-. Sarah I'arker wife of
.1 l.ii i':!i!:ir. Si 1'iisntier Biaakotk
Kellogg Mrs. Flummer fwire of L. T. M.
I'lummer one of our p.-ee-ul ciii.' ti and
nan two yt in old Hud John EVfkof mi
years old Cynthia I'arker nine years eld
The latt. r two bave never returned. Mrs
Kellogg was detained by the Iuduiiis about
four moutbl and Mrs. I'lummer aboat
thirteen mi iihs ; Oie son James Pratt
I'lummer was kepi -ix years as a prisoner
by the Comanche iodiaus and tlun r-st-.r"'l
;o his county. Those who esoapod
were in the wi! demon six days without
food or shelter. They were twenty-three
iu number. If those who were livintr here
liovernor which will bring about a now I at that time and aie still citizens. 1 aiav
order of things und secure the speedy cm- j name Beth II. Hates aged 7S yeurs ; Klishe
jmcuoii oi con roaus.
The Bouthernirthmipeakiof theohargei
against Maj. Neighbors:
" Why il is asked were not these (barges
made and su-lained before the Commiealon
er'. Simply beoause the men makioK them
were not awaie that the ( ouimi-si-.n was
sitting until it was on the eve of rising
and then there was not tiuie to have the
evidence before the Commissioner iu proper
The Southerner learns that the st.ee
horses took fright nt or mar Mr William
Jackson's on Cow Rayon and ran off with
the stage. The stage was turned over but
The S. A. Texan says Messrs. Vance
lirother of our city received 00 tons of
lead on yorlerday from the leal mines near
Santa Ilosa iu Mexico.
The Texan says till most extensive cop-
per mines iu the world arc some 'JOU miic.-
above F.I l'aso and owned by a Mexican
Watkiipowi n. The Texan says "we
do not know of a stream in the Suutli bet-
ter adapted for moving machinery than the
San Antonio river."
The same paper says "we learn that the
Secretary of War has approved of the se-
lection for tho Texas Arsenal of the
property owned by Ilou. 1'. II. Bill in
the southern portion of (his city."
A largo Manufacturing Company has
lately started in New Ilraunfels for Ihe
making of coarser fabrics. They arc al-
realy engaged iu the furtherance of the
In a letter lo the llalvestou News Col.
11. S. Jtandall says that his imprc-.-ious of
Texas as a wool growing country arc fa-
vorable. The Galveston News speaking of tin-
want of labor in Texas says Mr. liroinoiid
wants BOO bauds !" win in he will pay
gl 26 each. Laborers on (he western rail-
roads receive but 00 or 70 cents per day
The Hountou Telegraph says:
The sugar crops arc turning cut nswill
as has becu expected making about half
to two-thirds of a crop.
The umouiil of shipping tuw at QaJvoe-
ton is very largo aud is hoped will enable
our merchants to get the cotton now piled
Auglin ijl years; 1. 1. HI. i'lummer
Silas II. Hales Abraham Angliu Mrs.
Nancy 1'iill.cnberry and some others who
were then children llev. James W. Par-
ker w.i- living near l'arkei'i Fort at that
time but is now a citizen of Anderson
There ii l large unfailiDg spring near
I he town. Timber especially cedar is con-
venient and abundant. The town has bece
descried and has since been re-oocupie-1.
It has now Merchants Mecbauiea aud
I'rofoasional men und uffords a home mar-
ket to a portion of the surplus produce.
The Branham Rnquirer loams that about
one hundred hands are now at work on the
Washington county Hail lload and that
sixty more will be added iu a few days.
The Brenhao BaQaircf has seen Mi.
Qiddingt the contractor for carrying the
mail (overland) weekly from Ran Antonio
lo San DiegO- The eonlract goes into
effect "on the 1st of January next; and
Mr Q. informs us that the mail will be
carried by the Opclousas railroad and
thence by steamers to lialveaton; and he
expects to muko arrangements to caTy them
from this place by the O. II. 11 railroad
to Illusion and theuce by the Centra
railroad to Hempstead and from that plaoe
by stage to San Autouio wheueo it will
be taken by bis own ovcrtaod mule teams to
Tba Boquirer further says ; We apoak
merely of the arraugouieuts he uitllfl to
make from this city to San Antonio lo b-
giu with on l.-t of January next bul io
this be is dependent on the completion of
the O. II. A; H. railroad from Virginia
I'oint to Houston by that time which
when completed he supposes will carry the
mail some three or four hours aoooer than
it could be aarried by the steamers. Iu his
contract ivory hour saved ia an abjcot ol
the utmost importance We uuderytood
him to say that his contract given him bul
twenty live days between New Orleans aud
San DiogO and the only difficulty oil the
whole route li.-s bctweci'Ncw Orlcaus and
Ban Antonio a distance oficime flOO miles
whieh distance be liopen lo mike iu two and
a half or at most time duv
The Hant-tillo Item says ihe time for
tin 'ne. liag ol iio ll.-. Stale I i
critic Convention i-. drawing uear though
it is uot yet Christmas. Iu May it meets
and the couiiiici ahould be holding their
primary meetings io as to be prepared (or
the election of delegates.
I... . " ..
The Hem Ihui ineaksof Donglai I
New York Tiibuaeliaa had tin- i
lo indirectly nd Ikuiftlas la the late li I
eoiiUwl ll is now out rith an ap.) .
! Jin-'In and his frieads The New Orli
lie' iiul the New York Tribune
bs-iiutiinlly to their iiipp-ol of i.
Too name motive actuated both. IL
uitogoaislio to tb liloiiui-n
wis th ntcirnl of their iJuiialhT '
ilothc Kouihern friejnds it DeWglta i
of tje H.-IW now wn mean s-nilheru i i
crallo frieoits F The Benal.r baa had the
symiiiiB of Reward Forney Qrn ly i n
otters f thai ilk ; and yet there are men
(ailiagtWuseJvM dsuuocraU iD the loath
aye aod pressm ton who try to an
Ixdieve HmyUei is atill "lOlod mi il;
goum '." Such blini infatuation i-
The ViMuTia Advo..'at.- ;a Maj Bit
1) I Itf-t ei. Ill pii lie hi
The H. A K-ilger ir inthoriaed lo -UmU
Maj Scurry will not b.- a nod
Tie S. A I.'d.-or ipejkinof the ilia -.
of Maj. ll.e-'jUip-o- iu.
The pro tern in UUulf of Maj Marshall
who U still very liok IWpreoiatei the syiu.
palliiew of the lodger aud of many ol!.. i
papers of both parlim.
The Is.dger.iays the panic iboul the bli .
toogae aaumi to be lubsiding.
Tho Ledger loarm that three Itoaroeri
fram Now Oiloaai reached Indian.!: rt
ly on oae day and ihue MOOUntl for tl e
I irregularity of the nmils
The Ben Autoniu Ledger OOOtaini a 1.
ter from (Jen. Teiggs deuouni:
aolhorof a letter written at l'ort Arl I
lo tlie N. Y. Tie.o itnling that the In-
dian Department had been mueh i
barrnssed by Van IXirn'a attack upon I
friendly Indians. We will remark I
Fort Arbucklo is a siut at which iron u
proviaioas ore diet ributod by the agent
the OevernajcKit to the northern Coman-
ohe who aay they are ot peace with tht
I 'sited States but at war with Teen
The Ledger gays :
" VVo obnervod tho arriial in town ye
tcrday of a large iuautity of silver bull d
from the mine ( Santa IWa iu Cbihu
hua. The silver is worth here about - 1 J
per oonr-a aod was purchased by Messrs
Vanoc 4 Brother of our city. It is : .
to ooutain uiuc handrtid aod ninety-eu' I
one thousandths of pure silver.
The Wads Democrat axyi that Messr-
Smitb & RossH ur' building th lit brich
hot- 1. a lau.-uitae-'ht building
1ToTeia Pioneer of Dec. 10 tb
daiois of cold weather. It n ite- s i
her of emigrants lojtudeog home i
slave holJocs. paeing tai ui Fair .
The iUo- ciop of Tcx4 i- e i u I
at r(HlrrHJ tal-
The 1'ioneer says on Friday nighl I
store of J. C- Yarbro k Co at Bftl
wae rubbed nf two bolls of g's ll I
were resMivei-ied but the thict ni I
The llooees any- of the Spring e
" Corn fitjds a dall nle io tbi- i
at Too; Meal CI; Hoarc'l; Potetoea I '
Fork &; lievf i-'i'd; le; Motion - CI
eua lOfailo-ci Dutu-r 1 .v. 20c; Eggs Id
The fioozalcs Co lin.-- sjvs .
l.'si.'uSi- We notice tl.e arrivi
several taai lies ia our county will ii tl.
Urt wee ortwo. They are all of the nr
clan liui farmers aud bring; with thel
a ftAj a umber of ugrof tlie viy i .
of property we bke to see flowing ia
TkiojT of the ndl of his oountV.'&a
loquiwr say it is nnsurpai-s.-o in the j- '
dttosiou of short staple and i-lan-1 i
too Com wheat segar millett an 1
gisias. All uiauner of gardtm vi
do well; vood aod water inffioienl I
kli notMWiry poj-poees and good rai
Mtlle homes boga sheep etc. ii '
He eay the society is god aod tl
He says soveral samll lots ofootton
hipp-d hasi week at i Ho und 1 . i ;
hundred. This ahows the looonvenii
and expense of wagon transportation.
He has heard it repotted in the atr s
lhat Murphy and Barton two garni. -well
kaowa io Western Texas have Lately
met with violent deaths.
He aays " Feotas are still being br.'U.-' '
Into market ia ooosidorabie iiinntitic-:
The prije now pid L 7". cente perbu-
"Some two liaadrw-l 'i ad of hog- we-
driven Uiroagh tils place .ast Saturday '
the BttteiW portion of the county win ;
the ma.-t is aLaada.ni."
" We bent of several lotn of pork i ..
gagod this woek at 4 and I J es.'ats "
He advoculoa Hasurancoa on cotton
A god idoa.
Tho True Lue noties the sale of t
lots of ooro in I.. Grange lately at I i I
SS .-. nt. per rtwhtl.
The 8. A Iiedgor aaya
We regret much to laara that ili-
posed that Mr. Jaekion of tho firm
Jachsoo A Shiirpe of this citv h;us I
murdered. Mr. Jacksen left here -
time sine with a quantity of gooda for tb
ap country. He wns at F.rt MoKavott
tbo Sth iast. in. I left the poit about si
down for his camp on the oppoi: si 1
the Suu Sba rivev. About eleven o'cl
theramc night he loft tho camp and h 1 1
not since been heard of.
The Houston Telegraph says :
" We regret to learn that tho brig H
Poole is a rocked off San Lui- IVs- I t
end of Calvbil-in Island. She ha 1
bars of irou about u mile and some t
or throe huudred laisks of spikes for ' 9
brsaoria rood ; also some earn for tbi
II II. rad. N'essel and cargo I
lo. The iron aud inlkoi were in
The Telegraph trays :
A friend who has during tbi la-1 -;
and summer travelled slowly an 1 obierv-
autly tblough ToMf Arkansas M
ludiana Illinois Ohio Ki says thai i
wheat eajrioiis nf the other States an i
ibwi to bo o-jmparcd with those of Tel
The Teh-graph advises the nUbllahmi : -el
a sugar ivtinery at Houston ainl isyi
A correspondent of the Telegraph ri-
ling Inmi Huulsvillc says :
Among the pleasing evidences of pub!.:
piriliu this thriving town are thj publiu
lobools Austin College aud Andrew 1 -ru&iv
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Marshall, John. State Gazette. (Austin, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 20, Ed. 1, Saturday, December 25, 1858, newspaper, December 25, 1858; Austin, Texas. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth81371/m1/2/?rotate=270: accessed October 16, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History.