The Lampasas Daily Leader (Lampasas, Tex.), Vol. 30, No. 257, Ed. 1 Thursday, January 4, 1934 Page: 2 of 4
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TFIE LAMPASAS LEADED
Adm. A.W. Greelq and
First Oil Well in U.S., 1859
Y, YALE I
By ELMO SCOTT WATSON
HE beginning of a new year Is a
time for looking forward and
planning how to make the best
use of the 12 months, the 52
weeks, the 365 days which will
be ours during the coming year.
It is also a time for looking back-
ward over the past year and the
other years that have gone be-
fore to take stock of our accom-
plishments and to benefit by our
One evidence of our pride in the American
- tradition is the custom of observing in one way
or another the anniversaries of certain events
which proved to be significant in our national
development. Taking the century, 100 years, as
the unit of time which indicates antiquity and
a corresponding reverence for those things
“which must be good because they are old” we
have fallen into the custom of pausing in the
midst of the busy present and our plans for the
future to hark back to the past and recall its
We do this not only on the one hundredth
anniversary, which we call the centennial, but
also upon the anniversary of multiples and frac-
1 tlor.e of that period of time. Thus we frequently
-.- celebrate the twenty-fifth, the fiftieth and the
seventy-fifth anniversary of events rather than
wait for the one hundredth anniversary and we
: jure even more pleased in our feeling of honoring
antiquity when we can celebrate the sesqui-cen-
vfennial. (one hundred fiftieth), the bi-centennial
(two hundredth) or the tri-centennial- (three
hundredth) of. some event in American history.
As the year 1934 opens, an examination of
American history will show that we will have
occasion for a number of these celebrations if
we choose. The only quad-centennial (four hun-
dredth) anniversary of any importance is that of
the voyage of Jacques Cartier, the Frenchman,
who in 1534 passed Newfoundland and discov-
ered the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Two events of 1634 afford an opportunity for
tri-centennial celebrations and plans are already
under way for them. From Michigan comes the
word that the Mackinac Island State Park com-
mission is preparing a tercentenary celebration
• on that island next summer of the voyage of a
Frenchman, Jean Nicolet, upon whom the mantle
of Samuel de Champlain, as explorer toward the
west, had fallen. On July 1, 1634, Nicolet, ac-
companied by seven Huron Indians, set out from
Three Rivers on the St. Lawrence, ascended the
Ottawa river, went across to Georgian bay, pad-
died his canoe along the north shore of Lake
Huron to Sault Ste. Marie, passed through the
Straits of Mackinac and was the first white man
to gaze upon Lake Michigan, known then and
for many years afterwards as the Lake of the
Continuing down the western shore of Lake
Michigan, Nicolet and his companions entered
Green Bay and landed, there to be greeted by
a party of Winnebago Indians with whom he
made an agreement that they should take their
furs to the French posts on the St. Lawrence to
trade. He pushed on to visit other tribes, as-
cended the Fox river to the central part of Wis-
consin and spent the winter there, returning to
Quebec in 1635 to report to Champlain.
The other tercentenary celebration which is
already under way but which will reach its cli-
max during tV coming year is that of the found-
ing of the colony of Maryland from which grew
the state of that name.
In 1632 King Charles I of England granted to
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, a large tract of
land lying north of the Potomac river and south
of the Plymouth colony’s boundaries. Calvert’s
motive in Seeking this grant was a desire to
open in the New world a refuge for men of his
own faith, the Roman Catholics, who were then
suffering persecution in England. Under the
charter granted to Calvert he had larger powers
than had yet been granted to any colony settling
In America and thus there was introduced here
a new form of government, known as the pro-
But Calvert died before the signing of the char-
ter and his son, Cecil Calvert, the second Lord
Baltimore, received the grant. Opposition from
Virginia made it advisable for him to remain in
England to protect his rights, so he appointed his
brother, Leonard Calvert, as lieutenant-general
of the colony which had been given the name
of Maryland, in honor of King Charles’ Catholic
queen, Henrietta Maria.
On November 22, 1633, two ships, the Ark and
the Dove, left Cowes bearing Lord Baltimore’s
two brothers, Leonard and George Calvert, “with
very nearly twenty gentlemen of very good fash-
ion,” most of whom were Catholics, arid “about
three hundred laboring men well provided in all
things,” the majority of whom were Protestants.
On March 25, 1634, the colonists landed on an
island at the Junction of the Potomac river and
Chesapeake bay to which they gave the name of
St. Clement’s island, where for the first time in
history a party of English Catholics celebrated
Finding this island too small for, the site of a
settlement, a little later the colonists sailed
down the river until they came to the mouth of
a stream to which they gave the name River St.
George. Ascending this a little way they came
to an.Indian village and purchased from them
for some axes, _ hatchets and “several yards
of cloth” the site of the first permanent settle-
ment in Maryland, to which was given the name
of St. Mary’s.
Although March 25 is the important date in
Maryland history, the principal celebration of
the Maryland tercentenary in 1934 will be held
on June 20, since it was on June 20, 1632, that
Lord Baltimore was granted his charter by King
Charles and more favorable weather for the cele-
bration can be expected in June than in March.
The year 1734 had no outstanding events such
as these two in 1634, to provide the occasion
for bi-centennial celebrations of an elaborate na-
ture although the following are noteworthy
dates in that year:
January 20—Robert Morris, Philadelphia mer-
chant, banker and “Financier of the Revolu-
tion” was born in Lancashire, England.
March 19—Thomas McKean, member of the
First Continental congress, signer of the Dec-
laration of Independence and president of the
Eighth Continental congress, was born in Ches-
ter county, Pennsylvania.
November 17—John Peter Zecger, Colonial
printer and editor of the New York Weekly
Journal, arrested for “false, scandalous, mali-
cious and seditious libels” against the royal gov-
ernor of New York. Out of this arrest came the
trial and acquittal of Zenger which marked an
important step In establishing the principle of
the freedom of the press in America.
December 17—William Floyd, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence, and a member of
every Continental congress from 1775 to 1782,
was born in Brookhaven, N. Y.
Events of 1784 which have sesqui-centennial
June 2—Legislature of North Carolina ceded
to the congress of the United States the title
which that state possessed to lands west of the
Alleghanies, leading to the holding of a conven-
tion (August 23) at Jonesborough where the
westerners decided to organize a separate gov-
ernment and a second convention at Jonesbor-
ough (December 17) at which a temporary con-
stitution was adopted and the new state of
“Franklin” was launched upon Its stormy career.
September 24—Zachary Taylor, officer in the
War of 1812, the Black Hawk war and the
Seminole war, the “Old Rough and Ready” of
the Mexican war and twelfth President of the
United States, was-born in Orange county, Vir-
ginia. A commission has been appointed by the
present governor of Virginia to arrange for a
sesqui-centennial celebration of this event in
October 29—Robert Hoe, first of a line of
printing press inventors, who revolutionized the
newspaper business, was born at Hoes in Lei-
December 30—Stephen H. Long, American
a*rmy engineer and explorer, discoverer of Long’s
peak in Colorado, was born in Hopkinton, N. H.
Events of 1809 which recall that “125 years
January 19—Edgar Allan Poe, great American
poet and story-writer, was born in Boston.
February 12—Abraham Lincoln was born In
February 15—Cyrus McCormick, Inventor of
the reaper, was born in Walnut Grove, Va.
September 11—Sterling Price, officer in the
Mexican war, governor of Missouri and general
in the Confederate army, was born in Prince
Edward county, Virginia.
December 24—Kit Carson, famous trapper,
guide and scout, was born in Madison county,
During the coming year will occur the cen-
tennial of these events:
March 20—Charles W. Elliott, educator, presi-
dent of Harvard university and famous for his
“Five-Foot Shelf of Books,” was born in Boston.
March 24r—John Wesley Powell, geologist, sol-
dier, explorer of the Grand canyon, director of the
United States Geological survey, founder and
first director of the Bureau of American Eth-
nology, was born at Mount Morris, N. Y.
April 26—Charles F. Browne, famous writer
under the name of “Artemus Ward,” was born
in Waterford, Maine.
May 5—A party of emigrants under the lead-
ership of Nathaniel J. Wyeth left Liberty, Mo.,
for the West, later built Fort Hall, Idaho, where
the American flag was first flown over that part
of the country, and established a colony near the
present site of Portland, Ore.
May 20—Lafayette, the great Frenchman who
helped establish American independence, died
During the coming year will occur the seventy-
fifth anniversary of these events which occurred
August 26—Col. E. L. Drake sank the first
oil well in the United States near Titusville, Pa.,
starting this giant industry in this country.
September 6—Irving Baclieller, famous author,
was born in Pierrepont, N. Y. In 1884 (50 years
ago) be'established one of the first newspaper
syndicates in the country.
October 16—John Brown took possession of
the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, was later cap-
tured, tried for treason and executed on Decem-
ber 2, giving to the embattled anti-slavery forces
an immortal song “John Brown’s Body Lies
A-Moldering In The Grave.”
The year 1934 will mark the fiftieth anniver-
sary of these events of 1884:
June 22—Rescue of seven survivors of 25 mem-
bers of the Lady Franklin Bay polar expedition,
including its commander, A. W. Greely (now an
admiral), Sergt. D. L. Brainard (now a general)
the rescue party being led by Capt. Winfield S.
Schley, later famous in the Spanlsh-American
November 4—Grover Cleveland was elected
President of the United States, the first Demo-
cratic President in 28 years.
© by Western Newspaper Union.
Winter Good Time
to Make Repairs
Farm Machinery Protection
Important; Will Save
Time in Spring.
By D. S. Weaver, Agricultural Engineer,
North Carolina State College.
Repairs made to farm machinery
When there is plenty of time and when
the work may be done systematically
will be more satisfactory than when
attempted during the hurry and rush
of spring work.
With all field work over, farmers
have the opportunity to check their
equipment and to make all necessary
repairs. Valuable hours next spring
may be saved this winter by replacing
broken rnr worn parts, by tightening
nuts, screws or clamps, or by painting
and greasing exposed metal to pre-
serve It from rust. Sometimes, re-
placement parts may not be secured
at the local store. If these parts are
ordered now, time will be saved in the
Old cylinder oil kept in a can and
applied with a brush makes a good
anti-rust coating for all bright metal
parts, such as plow bottoms, cultivator
shovels and the like.
Not only do plows need attention
but disk harrows may be put in shape.
The mowing machine is always neg-
lected until it is needed, and this ma-
chine should have a thorough over-
hauling this winter.
The farm wagon stands tremendous
abuses, and to prevent costly break-
downs, it should be examined for
weak and broken parts. A coat of
paint on the wheels as well as the gear
and box will be well worth while.
Most of these repair Jobs may be
done during the cold winter days;
A complete list should be made of
all repairs needed and parts to be or-
dered for each machine. - When all the
material is assembled the repair work
can be- started.
Snow Fences Will Hold
Moisture Through Winter
The lack of soil moisture very seri-
ously Injures the growth and reduces
the yield of garden and field crops in
many sections. The use of a tem-
porary snow fence or a permanent
hedge or tree planting to catch the
drifting snow and hold it on garden
patches will often greatly increase the
amount of water in the soil.
It Is a rather common sight in sum-
mer to see much better crops where
snow fences stood than on the rest of
the field from which the snow was
blown. Alfalfa, for instance, on the
leeward side of snow fences may yield
two or three times more than the rest
Df the field. The obvious explana-
tion fee this Is the extra amount of
water which accumulated from the
A good snow fence or hedge in the
course of the winter months will often
catch as much as five to six feet of
snow which is the equivalent of five
to six inches of rainfall. This is
enough moisture, if properly con-
served, to be of a very material ben-
efit to crops.—Successful Farming.
When to marketjeattle is a question
that puzzles beef feeders, according to
W. H. Peters, chief in animal husband-
ry, University farm, St. Paul, who says
the condition of the cattle is the best
guide. “Making the cattle fully fin-
ished and then selling them will prob-
ably be the most satisfactory plan,
Just as It has generally been. In the
past,” Mr. Peters says, “the feeder who
has either made the most money or
lost the least has been the man who
fed his cattle until they were fully fat
enough to fulfill the requirements of
the market and then sold them with-
out delay. With the present large sup-
ply of cattle of all kinds in the coun-
try and the large number being fat-
tened, it is doubtful if a sharp rise in
prices will be possible during the com-
ing early summer.”
. Good young trees should be given
every opportunity to grow.
* * *
It costs an average of 7 cents a mile
to operate farm trucks in Illinois.
* * *
Area planted to potatoes in Ohio in
recent years has averaged about 110,-
* * *
A cord of good seasoned hardwood
will give about as much heat as a ton
of good coal.
* * *
Thirty per cent of the income of
Ohio farmers burdened by mortgages
goes for interest.
* * *
A sweet potato, weighing four
pounds and one ounce, was raised On
a farm near Louisa, Va.
* * *
Ohio’s tcbaceo crop is estimated at
33,000,000 pounds, as compared to 55,-
000,000 pounds a year ago.
* * *
Wisconsin produces 61 per cent of
the nation’s cheese. Last year’s Wis-
consin production amounted to 295,-
* • *
The application of 50 to 60 pounds
of nitrogen per acre has doubled and
sometimes tripled the yield of grass
on Wisconsin pastures.
* * *
During the marketing season of
1931-32 there were S,200 carloads of
citrous fruits shipped out of Texas.
There are 112,342 acres in the state
*u citrous fruits.
SHIFT OF RATIONS
Poultry Flock Will Do Well
on Variety of Feed.
When grains are fed the poultry
flock without a supplement of one or
more of the protein concentrates, an
annual production of 60 to 80 eggs may
be expected. But if both grain and
protein supplement are fed, produc-
tion should attain a level of 140 to 160
eggs a year in the average flock.
These figures are those of A. R. Win-
ter, professor of poultry husbandry at
the Ohio State university, and are
based upon experiments conducted
over a period of years.
They emphasize, says Professor
Winter, the importance of a balanced
ration. Such a ration for laying hens
consists of about 90 per cent grains
and grain by-products and 10 per cent
protein concentrates, a free choice of
oyster shell or limestone grit, green
grass or legume hay and water, plus
a little sunshine.
When comparative prices of feed-
stuff change, the ration should change,
Mr. Winter holds. There Is no best
ration for all conditions; many kinds
of rations and systems of feeding give
In comparing grains and concen-
trates, he points out that a gallon of
liquid skiminilk is worth as much as
a pound of meat scrap, fish meal, or
soybean meal, for feeding purposes.
Five quarts of liquid milk have as
much feeding value as a pound of
dried milk. Liquid milk in the ration
costs only about 40 per cent as much
as dried milk. ..
A pound of soybean oil meal-is
worth not quite as much as a pound of
meat scraps and now costs as much.
Two pounds of wheat have about as
much feeding value as a pound of bran
plus a pound of flour middlings. When
prices are the same it is cheaper to
feed the wheat at home than to haul
the wheat to market and bring back
Proper Diet Important
to Welfare of Poultry
Birds should be free not only from
present diseases but also from hang-
over weaknesses resulting from pre-
vious chick ailments. Such troubles
as pullorum disease (white diarrhea)
coccidiosis, and typhoid are very like-
ly to recur. Chicks that survive an
attack of these diseases are usually
stunted and some of them are likely
to carry the infection in chronic form.
Consequently, though they do not suf-
fer themselves, they are a source of
danger to healthy birds which are
housed with them. For this reason ev-
ery effort should be made to avoid
housing healthy birds with others
which have passed through an attack
of the above-named diseases, says Suc-
A proper diet is important in keep-
ing the birds in good condition, so they
can withstand disease. The ration
should include good quality grains
such as corn, wheat, and oats. It
should also contain proper minerals
to satisfy the need for bones and egg
shells. A third requirement is the vi-
tamin-carrying animal and vegetable
Two kinds of minerals are essen-
tial. One is calcium, the chief sources
of which are lime and oyster shells.
The other is phosphorus, which is best
supplied in bonemeal. The animal pro-
teins most often used are tankage,
meatscrap and milk, and the most com-
mon vegetable protein is gi'ound al-
Rest for Hens
If yearling or older hens are used as
breeders, as will usually be the' case
where a definite selection and breed-
ing program is being followed, they
should be given a rest of four to six
weeks at the close of the laying year
preceding their use in the breeding
pen. During this time they should he
fed liberally on grain and the protein
supplement used In the mash may be
reduced in amount. This rest period
should be sufficient to put the flock
in good condition for the special feed-
ing that ordinarily will be started in
Barley for Poultry
Recent experimental work has
shown that barley is a very satisfac-
tory poultry feed. In an experiment
conducted at Manitoba university, it
has been demonstrated that 50 per
cent barley in the all-mash laying ra-
tion gave better results than an equal
amount of corn. In this experiment,
barley was fed in three forms; name-
ly, whole barley ground fine, barley
ground fine with hulls sifted out, and
hulled barley ground fine. The former
gave the best results.
Disposing of Old Hens
Poultrymen have come to see that
it often Is foolish economy to sell off
old birds every year and keep only
pullets In their laying houses, says the
Ohio Farmer. Often these yearling
hens wil pay nearly as much the sec-
ond year if they are closely culled and
only the best kept over. There is not
the expense of raising them (as with
pullets each year), and they lay more
eggs and large eggs In the fall and
earl) winter when prices are much
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The Lampasas Daily Leader (Lampasas, Tex.), Vol. 30, No. 257, Ed. 1 Thursday, January 4, 1934, newspaper, January 4, 1934; Lampasas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth897949/m1/2/: accessed December 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Lampasas Public Library.