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Eleanor MacDonald Oral History Interview, May 19, 2000

Description: Eleanor MacDonald talks with Louis Marchifava about her early life and education in New England; her early career in the Cancer Division in the American College of Surgeons; her recruitment and subsequent work at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute; her work in developing the biostatistics coding in the early years of the institution; and her relationship with various physicians and luminaries of the Texas Medical Center.
Date: May 19, 2000
Creator: MacDonald, Eleanor & Marchiafava, Louis
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Marion Wall Lowrey Oral History Interview 1, May 5, 2001

Description: Marion Wall Lowrey talks with Lesley Brunet about her career, especially her role at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. She talks about her relationship with Dr. R. Lee Clark and his wife Dr. Bert Davis Clark. She also talks about the time when the institution was housed at the Baker Estate and segregation in the early years of the institution.
Date: May 5, 2001
Creator: Lowrey, Marion Wall & Brunet, Lesley Williams
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Peter Almond Oral History Interview 1, June 4, 2004

Description: Dr. Peter Almond talks with Dr. James S. Olson and Lesley W. Brunet about the history radiation therapy. He outlines the various treatments including the x-ray, cobolt-60, betatron, magnetron, klystron and cyclotron. He also talks about the emerging field of proton therapy. He also describes the early history of radiotherapy at MD Anderson especially under the direction of Drs. Gilbert Fletcher and Leonard Grimmet.
Date: June 4, 2006
Creator: Almond, Peter; Brunet, Lesley Williams & Olson, James Stuart
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Ornell H. Balzer Oral History Interview 1, September 4, 2003

Description: This interview with Ornell Balzer begins with the evolution of her career at M.D. Anderson. She recounts how she moved to Houston after graduating from nursing school and her return to M.D. Anderson. Ms. Balzer then details her memories of time spent working at Baker Estate and her interactions with colleagues and patients.
Date: September 4, 2003
Creator: Balzer, Ornell H. & Brunet, Lesley Williams
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Charles A. LeMaistre Oral History Interview 1, May 6, 2004

Description: Dr. Charles A. LeMaistre’s interview begins with the story about how he met his wife, Joyce Trapp LeMaistre. This story intermingles with his early career that lead him to his role as Chancellor at the University of Texas in Austin. Dr. LeMaistre offers insight into the effect desegregation had on the University of Texas campus and M. D. Anderson’s faculty diversity. He recounts how he was offered the presidential position at M. D. Anderson, the transition in administrative procedures, and growth of the institution. Dr. LeMaistre shares his wife’s personal fight with cancer and uses it as an example of how effective the institution’s policies and procedures. Dr. LeMaistre’s modesty in his administrative accomplishments shine a light on the high regard he had for his team and institutional family. The interview concludes with Dr. LeMaistre crediting members of the University Cancer Foundation Board of Visitors and donors.
Date: May 4, 2004
Creator: LeMaistre, Charles A.; Olson, James Stuart & Brunet, Lesley Williams
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

T.C. Hsu Oral History Interview 1, April 11, 2001

Description: The interview with Dr. Tao-Chiuh Hsu begins with the doctor recounting his early career in the United States as a graduate student at the University of Texas in Austin and the University of Texas, Medical Branch in Galveston. He shares his story about how he stumbled upon the hypotonic solution to separate chromosomes for deeper analysis of genes. Dr. Hsu explains his reasons for leaving the Medical Branch and joining M. D. Anderson for better laboratory and teaching opportunities. He shares an anecdote about the original main building of the institution. The interview explores Dr. Hsu’s promotions and positions held within the institution and touches on his relationships and collaborative work with Drs. R. Lee Clark, Charles M. Pomerat, Felix Haas, and Daniel Billen. Dr. Hsu shares his cultural experiences in terms of language barriers, naturalization and family immigration process. The interview concludes with Dr. Hsu answering questions about colleagues who worked with him in his lab over the years.
Date: May 11, 2001
Creator: Hsu, T. C. (Tao-Chiuh)
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Renilda Hilkemeyer Oral History Interview 1, May 23, 2000

Description: The interview with Ms. Renilda Hilkemeyer begins with her early education and career. She explains how her career led to working in the field of oncology nursing. In this section of the interview, she highlights the development of training nurses, the stigmatism around cancer, and the value of hands-on experience. Ms. Hilkemeyer explains how she came to M. D. Anderson and the challenges she faced in developing the department of nursing, including staffing, interdepartmental collaboration, and institutional bureaucracy. The interview highlights the social issues of the time especially racial segregation and women in the work place. Ms. Hilkemeyer discusses the creation of a rehabilitation center at M. D. Anderson. She talks about her education programs to improve the care of patients. These broke role barriers and increased nursing qualifications. Ms. Hilkemeyer draws attention to her ground breaking education program for nurses in intravenous and chemotherapy procedures. This section also highlights her involvement in creating master and doctoral programs in nursing. Ms. Hilkemeyer discusses her awards and continued role in institutional committees since retirement. She concludes the interview in discussing the motivations and challenges in creating a child care center in 1963 and the honor of having it named after her in 1981.
Date: May 23, 2000
Creator: Hilkemeyer, Renilda & Marchiafava, Louis
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Thomas S. Matney Oral History Interview 1, September 27, 2007,

Description: Dr. Thomas S. Matney talks with Lesley W. Brunet discuss his youth, family, education, and career at MD Anderson. He begins the interview by talking about growing up in Texas and attending Trinity University of his bachelor's and master's degrees. He discusses his early career at MD Anderson and his research into bacteria and genetics.
Date: September 26, 2007
Creator: Matney, Thomas S. & Brunet, Lesley Williams
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Thomas Dunaway Anderson Oral History Interview 1, May 04, 2000,

Description: The interview begins with Thomas Dunaway Anderson’s recollections of his uncle, Monroe Dunaway Anderson, the founder of the M.D. Anderson foundation and namesake of the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The interview continues with a description of the establishment and purpose of the M.D. Anderson Foundation and the growth and development of several recipients of M.D. Anderson’s philanthropy, including the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and the Texas Medical Center. Thomas Anderson’s memories and interactions regarding Dr. Randolph Lee Clark, the first full-time president of what is known today as the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, are recounted as well. A discussion concerning Thomas Anderson’s family contributions associated with the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and the Texas Medical Center ends the interview.
Date: May 4, 2000
Creator: Anderson, Thomas Dunaway & Marchiafava, Louis J.
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

James M. Bowen Oral History Interview 1, March 27, 2000

Description: This interview with Dr. Bowen begins with the origins of his interest in science. He discusses influential educational experiences and then chronicles the evolution of M. D. Anderson during the presidencies of Dr. R. Lee Clark and Dr. Charles LeMaistre. Dr. Bowen fondly compares the leadership styles of Dr. Clark and Dr. LeMaistre and how both men facilitated his own professional growth.
Date: March 27, 2000
Creator: Bowen, James M. & Marchiafava, Louis J.
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

T.C. Hsu Oral History Interview 2, May 10, 2001

Description: Dr. Tao-Chiuh Hsu continues his reflections with Lesley Brunet regarding his career at M.D. Anderson. The interview begins with a discussion of Dr. Felix Haas and the evolution of the department of biology. William R. Brinkley’s contributions and interactions with the department are recounted as well. Several of Dr. Hsu’s major accomplishments to science are highlighted including the development of chromosomal banding techniques, biological specimen banks, and cell preservation. The interview continues with a discussion of his sentiments regarding the re-organization of cell biology and his laboratory location within the Hermann Professional Building. A discussion regarding the collection of tissue samples from cats ends the interview. Several humorous stories regarding his personal life and work are also shared.
Date: May 10, 2001
Creator: Hsu, T. C. (Tao-Chiuh), 1917- & Brunet, Lesley Williams
Partner: University of Texas MD Anderson Center

Oral History Interview with Dora Geneva Clement

Description: Interview with Dora Geneva (Clement) Talkington (1886-1976) discussing how her family came to Texas and about growing up on her parents' farm, as well as other events including Theodore Roosevelt's visit to Waco when he was campaigning to be president.
Date: 1974~
Creator: McAmis, Odessa True Talkington & Talkington, Dora Geneva Clement
Partner: Talkington Clement Family Archives

Oral History Interview with Albert Bouley, June 27, 2001

Description: Interview with Albert Bouley, a U. S. Marine during World War II. He discusses his enlistment in the Marines just after Pearl Harbor; his assignment to the 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Division; the battle of Guadalcanal; malaria and dysentery; the battle of Cape Gloucester; the use of Pavuvu as a base; the battle of Peleliu; his return to the United States; guard duty at the Brooklyn Naval Yard and his service as an instructor in a heavy weapons school before the end of the war. He joined the Air Force 2 1/2 years later to be able to fly and work on planes, then retire to become a teacher in California, and finally settled in Texas.
Date: June 27, 2001
Creator: Cox, Floyd & Bouley, Albert
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Garvin Kowalke, January 23, 2001

Description: Interview with Garvin Kowalke, a pilot during World War II. He discusses joining the Army Air Corps, going to Air Cadet training to become a pilot, and training on various aircraft (AT-17, UC-78, P-36, P-33, T-6, BT-13, B-17, B-29) before becoming a B-29 pilot; he shipped out to Guam and flew standard and fire bombing runs over Japan. He discusses having to ditch the plane on the way back to Guam once when the engines failed, seeing another B-29 crew have to bail out over Toyko Bay and get picked up by a U.S. submarine that was in the Bay, getting pulled down to the fires when they were trying to hide in the smoke to avoid Japanese fighter planes, and getting caught in a storm by Mount Fujiyama, as well as collecting data such wind direction, speed, and temperature over Hiroshima for future bombing runs, which turned out to be for the bombers who dropped the atomic bomb. He also talks about flying over Hiroshima two days after the bombing and gauging how high the radiation levels were at different altitudes. He also talks about being in the Korean and Vietnam Wars, becoming a B-57 pilot, and adopting a baby boy from Germany after the war, then a little girl while he was stationed in Hawaii after the Korean War.
Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Cox, Floyd & Kowalke, Garvin
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Joseph B. Brown, March 24, 2001

Description: Interview with Joseph Brown, who was in the Marine Corps during World War II. He discusses going to Guadalcanal, various guns and artillery he used, the battle of Tarawa and getting malaria just before it, then going to Hawaii for more training before returning to the South Pacific and fighting on Saipan and Tinian. He also discusses being wounded on Saipan, having a bayonet run through his forearm and keeping the bayonet as a souvenir after the war, and he talks about some of his experiences and travels after the war.
Date: March 24, 2001
Creator: Cox, William G. & Brown, Joseph B.
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with David Straus, September 17, 2001

Description: Interview with David Straus of San Antonio, Texas, a veteran from the United States Marine Corps during World War Two in the Pacific Theater as well as the Korean War. The interview includes some of Straus' background before the war and his personal experiences while in the Marines, including memories of Okinawa, various weapons, what happened at the end of World War Two, and his assignment in Korea.
Date: September 17, 2001
Creator: Cox, Floyd & Straus, David
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with William F. Graham, March 24, 2001

Description: Interview with Bill Graham, a Marine during World War II. He begins by discussing joining the Navy and becoming a corpsman, then being transferred to the 2nd Marine Division after the Pearl Harbor attack. He also talks being in the first wave on Guadalcanal and various things that happened during the six months there, as well as contracting a severe strain of malaria, getting shipped back to the States and stationed near his home in Fort Worth, then returning to training in Virginia to prepare for an invasion of Japan.
Date: March 24, 2001
Creator: Smith, Ned A. & Graham, William F.
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Norman Apelt, September 23, 2001

Description: Interview with with Norman Apelt, an airplane mechanic during World War II. He discusses his service in the US Army Air Corps as an airplane mechanic in Pampa, Texas. After the war ended, Apelt was assigned duty in occupied Japan.
Date: September 23, 2001
Creator: Bryk, Clarence & Apelt, Norman
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Willie Higgs, September 21, 2001

Description: Interview with Willie Higgs, a U. S. Marine during World War II. He joined the Marines in 1944 and trained at Camp Pendleton before being assigned to the 4th Marine Division. Higgs discusses arriving at Iwo Jima, making a grenade attack on a cave there, and subsequently breaking his leg. He then spent time aboard the hospital ship, USS Solace (AH-5). Upon returning home, Higgs finished his degree at Southwest Texas State in San Marcos, where he majored in music.
Date: September 21, 2001
Creator: Pickard, Kevin & Higgs, Willie
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Mary Steele Leon, April 15, 1997

Description: Interview with Mary Steele Leon, a secretary for the U. S. Navy during and after World War II. She joined the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) and was trained as a secretary. Her first assignment was in the office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II. The CNO at the time was Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King. After the war, she served as personal secretary for Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz while he was CNO. She was discharged in 1946.
Date: April 15, 1997
Creator: Alexander, Bill & Leon, Mary Steele
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Al Flocke, October 22, 2000

Description: Interview with Al Flocke, a radio operator during World War II. He discusses his flight training and being the radio operator on a B-24 bomber which did raids on Guam, Turk, Iwo Jima and other islands. He also relates anecdotes about food, rations, and living conditions on the islands.
Date: October 22, 2000
Creator: Nichols, Chuck & Flocke, Al
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Glenn E. McDuffie, January 21, 2008

Description: Interview with Glenn E. McDuffie, an Armed Guard in the U. S. Navy during World War II. He discusses lying about his age in order to join the navy at 15 and his experience in boot camp. He served as an Armed Guard on merchant ships that transported supplies across the Atlantic and remembers being in London while German bombers flew overhead. He transported German prisoners out of Marseilles and Naples shortly after the liberation of those cities. He remembers going to Times Square upon hearing that the Japanese had surrendered. He claims to have been the sailor in the iconic photo of the sailor kissing the nurse in Times Square on V-J Day. He describes how he proved he was the sailor in the photo, what he did after the war, and how he learned that his brother survived the Bataan Death March.
Date: January 21, 2008
Creator: Misenhimer, Richard & McDuffie, Glenn E.
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with J. Glen Cleckler, November 24, 2006

Description: Interview with J. Glen Cleckler, a U. S. Marine during World War II. He discusses his background, including the day he and seven of his friends skipped school to see a movie. In order to provide a believable excuse for their absence to their principal, they went to a recruiting office to get informational forms. The principal then gave them permission to graduate early to join the Marines. He discusses his experiences in boot camp and other training programs and the Battle of Iwo Jima, including hygiene during the battle and the famous flag-raising there. He shares some stories about one of the flag-raisers, Harlan Block, who had been part of the group that enlisted in the Marines with him. He also recalls returning to the United States on a ship full of Section-8 soldiers (PTSD victims), meeting German prisoners of war, and living with Jim Crow laws.
Date: November 24, 2006
Creator: Misenhimer, Richard & Cleckler, J. Glen
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation

Oral History Interview with Cleatus A. LeBow, May 2, 2006

Description: Interview with Cleatus A. LeBow, a serviceman in the U. S. Navy during World War II. LeBow joined the navy in 1943 and went from Lubbock, Texas to San Diego for recruit training. He shipped out to Pearl Harbor aboard an LST from San Francisco. At Pearl Harbor, he was assigned to a work detail aboard the USS Oklahoma, which had just been righted. Shortly thereafter, he boarded the USS Indianapolis to serve as a range finder operator on one of the gun turrets. Upon leaving Hawaii, the Indianapolis went to Tarawa and then the Marshall Islands. LeBow witnessed Japanese civilian suicides on Saipan. He also witnessed the flag-raising on Iwo Jima from his range finder position aboard the ship. LeBow describes being hit by a kamikaze off Okinawa. He also discusses delivering atomic bomb components to Tinian and being torpedoed on the way to the Philippines. He describes abandoning the ship and spending five days in the water, including his faith in God, hallucinations, rescue, and his recovery.
Date: May 2, 2006
Creator: Misenhimer, Richard & Lebow, Cleatus A.
Partner: National Museum of the Pacific War/Admiral Nimitz Foundation