The north area of the Marshall downtown square from the perspective of the E. Houston-Bolivar street intersection. The stores to the right of the image front on Austin street, which runs east-west. Behind the commercial bank sign is a parking lot also known as the McPhail block. The old courhouse is out of view to the left.
Looking east along W. Houston St. toward the center of Marshall. In the middle distance, the red brick structure is Trinity Episcopal Church. The many round-arched windows of the new Harrison County Courthouse are in the far distance. The dome of the old county courthouse can be seen on the top right between the fork of a tree.
The north facade of Marshall High School viewed from W. Houston Avenue. The building housed the high school grades from 1939 -1988. Then it became Marshall Junior High School. The southeast part of this acreage is the former site of Marshall University, now designated with a Texas historical marker.
Mr. Fred Douglas Roland was County Agriculture Agent of Harrison County from 1926-1957. He established several innovative programs like the Sabine Farm Project. He was active in civic organisations such as the Cancer Board and Red Cross. He was also a trustee of Galilee Baptist Church of Marshall. He died in March, 1969.
View of the north facade of Marshall High School, which became Marshall Junior High School in 1988. On the left side of W. Houston St., which passes in front of the school, are several old residences which are common to the area. The red brick of Trinity Episcopal Church is visible in the far distance. The white spire of First Baptist Church is also visible in the left center of the image.
Dorothy Vance Montgomery, musician and educator in Marshall, Texas. Born and reared in Marshall, she received several undergraduate and graduate degrees from Wiley College and the University of Southern California. She taught music in the Marshall Public Schools, 1930-1976. She also taught piano for 44 years at her private studio; was minister of music for 17 years at New Bethel Baptist Church; and was adjunct teacher for 2 years at Wiley College. The image shows her receiving one of several local awards for her long contribution to education.
Valerie Hurd's Barber and Beauty School, located at 304 Noland St. in Marshall, Texas, was a long-time business, c1955-c2001. It was first located on Park School St. and relocated to this address c1959. The building burned about 2001. This picture may date from early 1960's.
West Houston Street, looking west from the downtown square. On the left is a partial view of the new county courthouse. Beyond it is the Arnot House, on both the federal and Texas registers of historic places. In the distance on the right can be seen the red brick bell tower of Trinity Episcopal Church.
The New Town neighborhood in Marshall, Texas was a self-sufficient African-American community containing schools, stores, churches, a college, and many bungalows and cottages. This cottage is typical of the neighborhood. New Town has been selected as a model for preservation under Marshall's Historic Preservation Action Plan.
The home of Mack C. and Frankie Joseph was located at 1403 Grafton St. in Marshall. Joseph began a floral business in the home about 1949. By 1951 he had moved the business next door to number 1405. The city directory of 1966 lists only Frankie Joseph as the resident of the home, while 1405 is still the floral shop. The 1968 directory has a new resident; and number 1405 is vacant. In the 2000 directory, neither address is listed; but a street has been cut through. These buildings were located within the "New Town Neighborhood," which is a historic area of African-American homes, businesses, professional offices, hospital, and schools that were established around Wiley College. Although overlaid with faux masonry siding at the time of the picture (1967-1975), this house shows its architectural origins in the roof design, porch with columns, and exposed rafters.
This building is the old Harrison County Courthouse, the fourth one to serve as the seat of county government and the centerpiece of Marshall. Designed by architect J. Riely Gordon, it was erected in 1900. It has a cruciform plan with an embellished rotunda. Exterior embellishments include pedimented porticoes, pilasters with capitals, and a dramatic dome with eagles and a statue of Lady Justice. In 1926, an addition was constructed. A 21st century renovation has restored the building to its 1926 condition. It will continue its existence as the seat of county government and a museum.
An old photograph, date unknown but likely prior to 1897, depicts Bethesda Baptist Church of Marshall. Originally known as "Colored Baptist Church," the members renamed it about 1887 and then added the word "Missionary" during the 1980's to make the official name "Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church." Bethesda is one of the oldest African-American congregations in Harrison County, being founded in 1867 by 450 souls led by Rev. William Massey with the assistance of Rev. A. E. Clemmons, the pastor of the white First Baptist Church. The members met in Rev. Massey's home at 601 Massey St. until the construction of this one-story wooden structure, probably between 1867 and 1875. The plan included a veranda leading to the vestibule, three aisles, and colored glass in the arched Gothic windows. There was an organ, the first in Marshall, and a belfry. Outside facilities included a baptistry and a well. During 1897-1901, this structure was razed and replaced by a larger brick structure of Gothic style which later burned and was itself replaced. However the front facade of the wooden structure was incorporated into the new buildings as a link with the past. The site at 801 W. Grand (Hwy 80) has been owned continuously by this congregation since the deed was acquired in 1867. It is now listed on the "Buard History Trail" as a site significant to Marshall's African-American heritage.
An old tombstone in a Harrison County cemetery, unidentified, has the following inscription: "E. B. --------- Born January 7, 1831 Deceased May 5, 1858" The stone lies where it fell amid the vegetation.
Dr. Everett H. Leach, African-American physician, was born in Marshall in 1879 or 1881 (tombstone date). He entered Bishop College at age twelve. He received his medical degree from Flynt Medical College in New Orleans. Later he studied at Illinois Post-Graduate School in Chicago. He settled in the rural Leigh community east of Marshall, where he built a practice, erected a drug store and office, and owned two farms. Later he moved to Marshall and commuted to Leigh by automobile. According to his tombstone, he died March 31, 1946. He was buried in the Powder Mill Cemetery on FM 1997 in north Marshall.
Dr. Everett H. Leach, African-American physician, was born in Marshall in 1879 or 1881 (tombstone date). He entered Bishop College at age twelve. He received his medical degree from Flynt Medical College in New Orleans. Later he studied at Illinois Post-Graduate School in Chicago. He settled in the rural Leigh community east of Marshall, where he built a practice, erected a drug store and office, and owned two farms. Later he moved to Marshall and commuted to Leigh by automobile. According to his tombstone, he died March 31, 1946. He was interred in the Powder Mill Cemetery on FM 1997 in north Marshall.
Dr. Theopolus Caviness prepares to give an address during a visit to Marshall. The event and date are unknown. He is wearing the traditional doctor's academic robes. A microphone dangles in front of his tie. Dr. Caviness is married to Jimmie Pitts Caviness, singer and vocal teacher, who also has an entry in the Texas History Portal. The Caviness couple lived in Cleveland, Ohio at the time of this picture, c1970-1984.
Photograph of a group of African-American children play a jump rope game. Five girls and two boys are in the group, while a man and two women watch. One girl holds the rope, while another runs to jump into the game. The person at the other end of the rope is not visible.
Singleton's Cafe in Marshall dates at least from the 1940's to 1975. It was owned by African-American businessman A. J. Singleton. There were two cafes during the early years: one located on N. Wellington in the downtown area, and this building located at 1203 W. Grand (Hwy 80). By 1957, there was only the W. Grand cafe pictured here. The building is a one-story structure either built of concrete block or faced with composite siding. Lettering on the window at right appears to be "CAFE." Other windows have printed matter in them. A wing extends from the left side. Both facades are shaded with metal awnings. The building appears as though unoccupied at the time of this picture.
Photo of the tombstone of Thomas Brooks in Nichol Cemetery, Marshall. This cemetery is at the north end of Merrill Street inside the city limits. The street is two blocks long, proceeding north from US 80 E. The cemetery is African-American.
Mrs. Izoria Malone was listed as 113 years old on records at the Harrison County Nursing Home when she was admitted there on January 29, 1974. She was possibly the second oldest resident in a United States nursing home at that time, and was certainly the oldest in the county. She died June, 1976 at the of 115. Article from The Marshall News Messenger newspaper, no date, reprinted in book, The Black Citizen and Democracy: Black Culture in Harrison County, Past, Present, and Future. Marshall Public Library, 1976, p. 86.
An unidentified bungalow in Marshall. The architecture is craftsman, with the front-facing gable, simple brackets, and columns set on brick piers. The house was occupied, clearly by someone who enjoyed plants.
The 200 block of N. Wellington Street, Marshall, Texas, included two taxi services during the period 1975-1982. They were Hurd's Taxi at #203 and Safeway Taxi at #205 N. Wellington. Hurd's Taxi is still in existence.
Peoples Funeral Home is located at 1301 W. Grand Ave. in Marshall, Texas. Owned by three generations of the Williams family, it has served the African-American community since 1927 (as listed in the city directories). It is still in operation. It was established by Milton Williams, Sr. Born and reared in Harrison County, he became a mortician. He married Josie P. Campbell and they established six funeral homes in East Texas. He also started the Peoples Funeral Service Insurance Company. He died in 1966, and is buried with his wife in the Powder Mill Cemetery of Marshall. Milton Williams, Jr. continued in the family business. He graduated from Bishop College of Marshall and the Texas School of Mortuary Science in Ft. Worth. He was also a certified insurance underwriter. Active in professional, church, and civic matters, he was the first Negro to run for public office in Marshall. He is deceased. His widow, Rubye Adams Williams, is still active. They produced two children: a daughter, Dr. Rubye Jo Williams Jones (see Texas History Portal entry) and Milton Herschell Williams, III. This son has also continued in the family business. Educated at Wiley College of Marshall and the University of North Texas, he served in the U. S. Air Force before entering banking. He later entered the Dallas Institute of Mortuary Science before returning to Marshall. He is married to Julia Ann Frilot, occupational therapist. They are parents of two adult daughters who have entered professional careers.
A modern ranch house in Marshall, from the 1950-1970 era. The house is brick, with a low brick wall at the front of the yard. The house has a hipped roof on the visible portion, a one-car garage, and a "picture" window near the entrance, which is shaded by a shed porch attachment. A Ford Mercury automobile sits in front of the garage. A lamp post and some other decorative objects are in the yard and around the entrance. Some bare tree suggest the winter season.
The Sutton bungalow in Marshall has been adorned with wrought iron columns and railings. It is located at 704 W. Grand. The house was first the home of Charles H. and Eva Patterson. He owned the Palace Pharmacy on the Marshall Square. By 1949 both the house and the pharmacy were owned by A. S. and Addie L. Jackson. From 1957 to the current year, the home's owners have been listed as Walter L. Sr. and Sammie Sutton, teachers in the public schools.
The newer Harrison County Courthouse in Marshall, Texas. The four-story modern structure was built at the intersection of W. Houston and S. Wellington streets in 1964. It stands across the street from the old Harrison County Courthouse built in 1900. The old and the new, close together.
Birmingham Department Store in Marshall was located at 205-207 and 213 N. Wellington Street from 1967 or 1968 to 2001 or 2002, according to city directories. The picture is from the 1970's. Other businesses are located there now. The store was owned by Samuel A. (Sam) Birmingham and his wife Jean, a school teacher and administrator. Both Birminghams were also civic leaders. Sam Birmingham was Marshall's first African-American mayor. Mrs. Birmingham served on the city commission after her retirement.
Marshall 's W. Grand Avenue (Hwy 80) at intersection with Grove St. The highway has been widened from two lanes to six since the early days. At one time, stately Victorian homes lined the avenue; only a few remain, and now it is primarily commercial. Turning right on Grove will put the driver on FM 1997 north, as the sign indicates.
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