The old Harrison County Courthouse is the fourth, erected in 1900 to replace the third one which burned in 1899. This view is of the north and east facades, during the 1960's or 1970's. Houston St., which circles the square on its east-west route, is in the foreground. Three parking lots adjoin the square on the north, east, and west sides of the courthouse, which accounts for the large number of automobiles. At the extreme left edge of the picture, the corner of the seven-story Hotel Marshall can be seen.
The P. D. Johnson bungalow in Marshall received some changes during the last half of the twentieth century, such as the modern windows in the sun porch and the wrought iron on the front porch. The origin of the house is unknown. It is noted as the long-time residence of Pinky D. Johnson, Marshall educator. She purchased the house with her husband, Charley Johnson. They are known to have lived there during the 1940's and 1950's. After his death, she married Dr. F. E. Williams, and continued to occupy the house until her death in 1963. The house has had several other occupants since that time.
This unidentified bungalow in Marshall has the Craftsman architecture, with the decorative brackets and exposed rafter ends under the eaves, and the trio of small windows in the front-facing gable which covers a porch supported by square half-columns set on brick piers.
Principal G. A. Rosborough, bottom, and Mrs. Lola S. Harrold, Registrar, are pictured in a Pemberton Senior High School Yearbook, date unknown. Mr. Rosborough was the second principal of PHS until 1972. His tenure was marked by increases in the school plant, staff, and curriculum. During integration, Pemberton became a ninth grade campus, which eventually merged with Marshall High School in 1988. The school plant was sold to Wiley College at that time.
The Wigfall House in Marshall, Texas has a Texas Medallion designating it as a Texas Historic Landmark. It is located at 510 West Burleson Street. It was constructed between 1854 and 1856 by Mr. and Mrs. J. N. Jordan. During the Civil War it was owned by Louis T. Wigfall, a colorful lawyer and politician whose name endures with the house. It originally had the symmetrical, single-level plan of four rooms and a central hall that is typical of the early East Texas house. Subsequent owners have transformed it into a one-and-one-half story Victorian cottage.
This ranch house in Marshall was the home of Dorothy Vance Montgomery, music teacher. Mrs. Montgomery's career spanned 46 years. It included teaching in the Marshall public schools, 1930-1976, maintaining a private studio, teaching adjunct classes at Wiley College, and music ministry at her church. Her house is located at 1501 Grafton Street within the "New Town Neighborhood," which is an area significant to local African-American history.
This view of the year 1900 Harrison County Courthouse in Marshall is of the east facade as seen from East Houston Street. The picture has been reversed; objects described are actually on the opposite side. The courthouse stands in a square which is still considered the center of Marshall. To the left can be seen the modern First National Bank. To the right is a portico fronting Hotel Marshall. Houston Street runs on an east-west axis to bisect the original town plan.
The Fry-Barry house in Marshall has a Texas Medallion designating it as a Texas Historic Landmark. Built between 1853 and 1861 by Fidel Bercher, it is located at 314 West Austin Street very near the courthouse square. Architect W. R. D. Ward designed the raised-cottage plan. The main rooms are on the second level; but the lower level is enclosed with rooms also. Bricks were hand-made by local slaves. In 1872 the house was purchased by E. J. Fry, a member of the English Frye family that was associated with the family of Thomas Jefferson. E. J. Fry was in the Civil War before coming to Marshall where he was a successful businessman. A daughter married W. L. Barry and lived in the home until 1961; hence the name Fry-Barry. The house remained in the family for more than 110 years, and is still well maintained.
Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church, located at 801 W. Grand Ave. in Marshall, is one of the oldest African-American congregations in the county. It was established in 1867 during the Reconstruction period when so many newly-emancipated blacks left white churches to establish their own. Originally the name was simply the "Colored Baptist Church," which was the name on the deed. When the members elected to change the name, they identified it with the healing pool of Bethesda in Biblical Jerusalem. The word "Missionary" was added to its name in the mid-1980's to reflect denominational affiliation. In 1987 Bethesda began to join with the First Baptist Church in occasional worship services and fellowship. The two churches are historically linked because Rev. A. E. Clemmons, a pastor of the white First Baptist Church, and Rev. William Massey, a black religious leader, jointly led 450 souls in the founding of Bethesda. Massey went on to pastor other churches in Waco and Austin but later returned. Other prominent founders were David Abner, who was Harrison County treasurer, a member of the Texas House of Representatives in the Fourteenth Legislature, and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1875; and Andrew Gross, whose son Frederick became a president of Houston College. Throughout its history, the congregation has included pastors and members of prominence not only in Marshall but far beyond. The congregation also had a historic role in the founding of Bishop College, the African-American Baptist institution that was located in Marshall 1881-1961. Bethesda's first dedicated church building was a one-story wooden structure located on the present site. It has an entry in the Texas History Portal. It was razed during 1897-1901 to be replaced by a larger brick edifice of Gothic style. That building burned in 1953 and was replaced by the nearly identical structure ...
The grave of Jessie E. Copeland is located in the old Powder Mill Cemetery on FM 1997 in Marshall. The cemetery has gravesites associated with the early African-American history of Harrison County. A more recent grave, Jessie E. Copeland's stone relates his service during World War II as a private in 1999 QM Truck Co. His vital dates are March 18, 1900 to April 14, 1961.
A view of N. Washington Street (center) at the intersections with E. Houston (foreground) and W. Austin (left center) streets in Marshall during the mid-1960s. At the time of the picture, N. Washington was the commercial center or "main street" of the city. Together with W. Austin street, they form the northeast corner of the square where the historic county courthouse is located. The First National Bank is shown at the extreme right in the picture; it fronts on E. Houston. Across N. Washington where it intersects with W. Austin, Pelz Jewelry has a corner entrance. Continuing to the left on W. Austin are Security Finance Corp., Bert Jackson Jeweler, and Sharkey Tailoring. Looking down the west side of N. Washington past Pelz Jewelry are Matthewson Drug Co., McLellan Store, and the historic J. Weisman & Co. department store. Other stores are too distant to be identified.
At the time of this picture, the old Ginocchio railroad hotel (at left) in Marshall contained the "All Things Good Restaurant." At right is the brick ticket office which contains the tunnel under the tracks to the historic depot, out of sight behind the office. In the center is a freight train rolling through.
Marshall's N. Wellington Street intersects with W. Houston in the foreground of this street scene. Proceeding to the right, it intersects with W. Austin, which is in the right background. Going right to left along W. Austin, the viewer sees Abraham's Food Town, the historic Belle Fry Gaines House (white house with double portico), and First Baptist Church in the distance. The street at center running parallel with N. Wellington is N. Franklin, where several small businesses (unidentified) were located during the 1960s.
This bungalow in Marshall is just one of the many bungalow styles to be found in the city. The location is 1401 Herndon Street at the intersection with Evans Street. Until 1952 it was the home of Dr. Oliver Wendell and Mayme Adams Phillips. Dr. Phillips was a dentist; Mrs. Phillips taught school. She died in 1952; Dr. Phillips died in 1955. The house was vacant for several years until O. W. Phillips Jr. moved there, occupying it until the late 1990's. The house has been unoccupied since then.
Rockefeller Hall was a women's dormitory at Bishop College when it was located in Marshall. Bishop College was a Baptist school for Black students that was established in 1881. In 1961 it relocated to Dallas, eventually fell upon hard times and closed in 1988; but during its time in Marshall, the college educated many men and women who became citizens of note in the professions of education, religion, law, and medicine.
First United Methodist Church of Marshall stands at 300 E. Houston Street one block from the downtown square. The congregation traces its roots to a circuit-riding preacher in 1839, although they were formally organized in 1845. The church building was finished in 1861, built slaves who hand-made brick and hand-hewed the beams. The bricks have been covered with stucco as a preservative. The Greek-Revival sanctuary is to the right with its steeple containing a working carillon. The portico with its four columns was once open. The central section was later enclosed and enhanced with a large stained-glass window. The wing at left contains a gymnasium. Between the two main structures is a landscaped courtyard enclosed by two arcaded walks. The large campus occupies most of a city block, and much of it cannot be seen in the picture. At the right edge of the picture, a portion of the Hotel Marshall is visible. The church building is a recorded Texas Historic Landmark and is also entered in the National Register of Historic Places.
Looking eastward along W. Houston Street toward downtown Marshall, the tower of Trinity Episcopal Church can be seen in the distance. At the right edge of the picture is the Marshall High School campus (Marshall Junior High School since 1980). On the north (left) side of the street are some of the many old victorian homes that are characteristic of old Marshall.
This view of the old Harrison County Courthouse, built in 1900, is of the east facade as seen from East Houston Street. A statue of a Confederate soldier (since removed) can be seen in front. At right is the portico in front of the Hotel Marshall. Trees stand in a lawn surrounding the courthouse. Houston Street continues around the courthouse to create a square and then proceeds westward. It bisects the original town on an east-west line. This picture has been reversed. Hotel Marshall is on the south side of Houston, and the one-way signs should point to the right.
Marshall's N. Wellington Street (center) intersects with Houston (foreground), then crosses W. Austin Street on its way north. Businesses shown on N. Wellington during the late 1960s included Tip Top Cleaners, Blair's TV Service, Marshall National Bank Motor Branch, Rives Seed Bin, McKay's Furniture Co., City Finance Co., and Denney Cleaners. From right to left on W. Austin, one can see Marshall Barber Shop, Mays Studio, Blue Bonnet Beauty Shop, Joe Woods Radio & TV Service and Stacy Shoe Repair Shop.
A Craftsman style bungalow in Marshall sits low on the ground and has a porch which wraps around the side. An early model automobile sits at the curb. The house is located at 1402 Grafton Street. Its origin is unknown; but the Women's Federation Club purchased it during the late 1940's for a meeting house. It is currently owned by St. James 0112 Masonic Lodge. Located in the New Town Neighborhood of Marshall, the house is a historic site for the African-American community.
Continental Trailways gave intercity bus service to Marshall from the mid-1950s until the late 1980s, when the franchise passed into the ownership of Greyhound Bus Lines. This depot, built during the mid-1960s, is located at 201 S. Bolivar Street in the downtown area. The picture likely dates from that time.
A view of the Texas and Pacific depot in Marshall. The lettering proclaims "Marshall Passenger Station." The tracks run on both sides of the building, so that passengers descend through a tunnel from the parking lot to reach the station. On the second floor balconies permit visitors to view both T&P freight and AMTRAK trains passing underneath. The depot was restored during the 1900s by Marshall citizens and now contains a museum. The depot is the centerpiece of the city's historic train district.
As the sign attests, N. Wellington Street runs one way to the south in Marshall. The street intersects with Houston (right foreground) after crossing W. Austin Street one block to the north. Businesses located along the section of N. Wellington shown in the picture would have included the Marshall National Bank motor branch, Birmingham Shopping Mart, Paxtons Appliances, Blairs TV Service, River's Seed Bin, McKay's Furniture Co., City Finance So., and Denney Cleaners. Along W. Austin Street right to left, were Marshall Barber Shop, Mays Studio, the Blalock Building, Joe Woods Radio & TV Service, Stacy Shoe Repair, Blue Bonnet Beauty Shop, Desota Imports-Exports, Austin Furniture Co., McGibbon Watch Repairing, Barkett Shoe Repairing, Parish Taxi Stand, and finally Marshall Public Library at the extreme left side of the picture. The picture likely dates from 1978 or later. The blue Oldsmobile vehicle on the left is a 1978 model.
Buard's Phillips 66 Service Station in Marshall was located at 1301 University where it intersects with Sanford Street. Therefore it was located within the historic "New Town Neighborhood," which is an African-American community of homes, businesses, professional offices, schools, and churches grouped around the Wiley College campus. The owner of the station, Polete Buard, was a self-made businessman. He was born and educated in Marshall. In 1929 he married Rebecca Drayden, whose biography is in the Texas History Portal. Buard first worked for the Texas and Pacific Railroad in the freight office. After retiring in 1970, he began operation of this service station, which he had purchased earlier. He was also active in his church and the Masonic Lodge.
This is a partial copy of the lyrics for "Bishop Blue," the Bishop College school song. Bishop College was founded in Marshall in 1881. It educated many African-American students before relocating to Dallas in 1961. In 1988 the school closed.
Native American totem poles stand in front of the old Harrison County Courthouse, Marshall, in this unidentified photo taken between 1960-1979. The poles were a brief feature, as they are not in other photos of the period.
This scene of downtown Marshall shows the intersection of N. Wellington Street and W. Austin Street, with businesses along N. Franklin Street in the distance. The businesses from left to right would have included Natural Gas Pipeline of America, Commonwealth Life Insurance Co., American General Life Insurance Co., Public Barber Shop, and Public Cafe-Hurd Taxi Co. The white frame house in the left distance is the historically-recognized Arnot House. The multi-story building at the extreme left edge of the picture is the Harrison County Courthouse, built in 1964.
Houston Street (foreground) in Marshall encloses the courthouse square on four sides. At the time of this picture (1970's), there was a parking lot on the north side of Houston. Here a sign advertises Marshall National Bank which is located nearby. Christmas decorations on the light poles reveal the season. During business hours, the empty parking lot would have been full of vehicles because the square was the downtown governmental and commercial hub of the city. In the distance at right center are businesses on W. Austin Street. In the center and left are businesses on N. Wellington Street.
This train depot served the Texas & Pacific passenger traffic in Marshall when the city was a center for east-west transportation through Texas as well as a large railroad yard. Now the several trains which pass daily through the city are either T&P freight or AMTRAK. The depot has been restored by Marshall citizens and contains a museum. It is the centerpiece of the historic train district. The picture gives a side view of the building before its restoration.
This bungalow in Marshall, possibly Craftsman in its original form, has several later additions. It is located at 606 Sanford Street in the "New Town Neighborhood," a historic African-American community that developed around Wiley College from 1910-1950. The home was the residence of Dr. George T. Coleman. The physician also had a structure across the street at 607 Sanford that he used as a hospital for his patients. Some of his patients went to the Sheppard-Watts Sanitarium on S. Carter Street. Dr. Coleman's office was located first on W. Houston and later on S. Wellington. According to Dr. Coleman's obituary, he was born in Ft. Worth to Mr. and Mrs. P. Coleman. He received his early education in El Paso. He completed his college and professional training in Illiinois. In 1910 he moved to Marshall and began a practice that lasted 53 years. He performed numerous professional, church and civic duties; but notable was his involvement in establishing the first tuberculosis hospital in Kerrville. His first wife, Edith, died in 1949. He later married Willia, a union which lasted until his passing on June 10, 1963. He is presumed to be buried in the Powder Mill Cemetery, in a plot with a Coleman family marker having no individual names or dates.
Bishop Hall was a women's dormitory at Bishop College in Marshall. A historic Black college that was established in 1881, it relocated to Dallas in 1961, eventually fell upon hard times, and closed in 1988. During the institution's life, Bishop educated men and women who became citizens of note in the professions of education, religion, law, and medicine.
The entrance to the old Greenwood Cemetery in Marshall is flanked by two stone columns with name plaques. The column on the right has a Texas Historical Marker next to it. The marker notes that the cemetery dates to 1840 and was originally a burial ground for the Van Zandt family. The Van Zandts were an East Texas founding family and Texas patriots. Later the cemetery passed into public ownership and has been used continuously. There are some gravestones of Civil War soldiers, and many others. Greenwood is located on Herndon Street, near East Texas Baptist University.
The intersection of Houston and N. Washington streets, Marshall, frames a parking lot on the north side of the downtown square. The Marshall National Bank sign announces the presence of the bank a block away. The commercial brick buildings in the center right line the 200 block of W. Austin Street. In the distance of the left center are visible the spire of the First Baptist Church and some historic homes which are numerous in Marshall. The picture probably dates from the late 1960s.
The Allen House in Marshall has a Texas Medallion. It is located at 610 N. Washington Ave. in the Marshall Historic District, which is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The residence was built in 1879 by the Rev. Walker Montecue Allen. Ordained by a Mississippi Presbytery in 1848, Rev. Allen and his wife moved to Marshall in 1876, where they served their faith until death. The home remained in the family estate until 1944, when it was sold. Eventually sub-divided into apartments, the house began a slow deterioration until it was rescued from demolition in 1972 by the Harrison County Historical Society, which saw to restoration. Its adjunct, the H. C. Conservation Society, has maintained the house to the present time. The house as pictured has a two-story frame structure with double galleries and a third-floor attic. Open to the public, it is always featured during the city's annual Christmas pilgrimage of homes.
Trinity Episcopal Church in Marshall stands on North Grove Street where it intersects with W. Houston. The front of the church faces west with its traditional Anglican facade incorporating a tower, a series of arches and a trefoil. Beginning with the entrance at right, one then sees the sanctuary at center and then a newer fellowship wing at left, connected by a covered walkway. The original rectory and education wings are behind the main buildings. The congregation organized in 1850; but the first church building was delayed until Reconstruction.
This building was erected to be a temporary chapel for Bishop College when the campus was located in Marshall. Bishop was a historic Baptist college for African-American students that was established in 1881. In 1961 the campus relocated to Dallas. Falling upon hard times, Bishop closed in 1988. None of the original Marshall campus remains.
Frances Blake Wallace was a noted African-American educator in Harrison and Panola Counties. Originally from Jefferson, she graduated from Bishop College in Marshall. Except for brief periods in Corsicana and Linden, she remained in the Marshall area, where she eventually became a supervisor, principal, and member of the Bishop faculty. She was also active in civic and professional organizations. She was listed in several Who's Who volumes about educators, southerners, and women.
This old photograph shows the interior of the chapel at Bishop College in Marshall. Bishop College was founded in 1881 and chartered in 1885. It was owned and operated by the American Baptist Home Mission Society of New York City. Named after Nathan Bishop, corresponding secretary of the Society, the college's purpose was to train African-American teachers and preachers for the development of Christian leadership. The institution originally included a grammar school, a high school, college preparatory courses, an industrial school, and a four-year standard college course leading to the Bachelor degree. Later the college phased out the lower grades. In 1961 the campus moved to Dallas. After financial difficulties, the college closed in 1988. None of the original buildings in Marshall remain.
The Weisman-Hirsch-Beil house is located at 313 South Washington Street in Marshall. Completed in 1901 by Joe and Lena Weisman to replace an earlier house that burned, the twelve-room Victorian plan is by architect C. G. Lancaster. Daughter Valrie Weisman married Joseph N. Hirsch and eventually inherited the property. Joe Hirsch died in 1966, and the house was maintained by a caretaker until it was bought by Dr. Greg and Gail Beil in 1972. The Beils continue to do restoration and maintenance on their home, as well as sharing it with Marshall in various events. The Weisman-Hirsch families are notable in East Texas history for longtime ownership of the Weisman Department Store, which at one time was the largest department store between Dallas and the Mississippi River. These families also contributed to local philanthropies, to civic affairs, and to the Jewish community. Dr. Beil is professor at East Texas Baptist University. Gail Beil is a writer/journalist, historian and participant in local restoration issues.
Booker T. Washington Elementary School in Marshall is located at 1202 Evans St in the northwest part of the city. When it opened on Jan. 26, 1959, it was to serve African-American children in grades one through seven who would be transferred from four county schools. In the very next academic year, the school was reorganized to house grades one through three. Another merger occurred two years later when a small school in the community of Woodlawn sent its students. During the late 1960s, Washington was a kindergarten and special education center. From 1978 to 1989, it housed an alternative school, the district health and food services, and other special programs. In 1989 four rooms were added for the school's reorganization as Washington Early Childhood Education Center for prekindergarten and kindergarten children. A 1992 expansion included a multi-purpose room. In 1999, WECC became a Head Start campus, although it retained all district prekindergarten students. In 2002 another expansion added eight classrooms and a library. Now the school houses all of the district's Head Start students while continuing services to all prekindergarten children.
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