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The Dilemma of the Illegal Alien: A Research Paper for English IV

Description: Research paper written by Carlton M. Godbold about the illegal immigration of Mexican citizens into the United States. It covers the ways immigrants enter the US as well as the motivating factors of the businesses who employ illegal immigrants. This paper was written for an English IV class at Marfa High School.
Date: unknown
Creator: Godbold, Carlton M.
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Outskirts of Marfa]

Description: Photograph of the town of Marfa taken from a distance. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Marfa's twenty-five hundred citizens are a blend of three ethnic groups" (p. 13).
Date: 1969
Creator: Edwards, Nancy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Big Bend landscape with mountains and trees]

Description: Photograph of a desert landscape in the Big Bend area, including trees and bushes with mountains in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The Big Bend really began to open up when in 1882 the Southern Pacific Railroad planned to lay rails through Ft. Davis on its way to the ocean. The city fathers didn't want the noise of the trains to disturb their beautiful, quiet town, and the plan was revised so the tracks would be laid twenty-five miles south" (p. 6).
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Craggy desert landscape in Big Bend]

Description: Photograph of a rocky desert landscape in Big Bend near Marfa, Texas. The landscape has sparse grasses and weeds; two hilltops are visible in the top right corner of the image. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "[John W.] Spencer tried horse and cattle raising, but because of Indians, failed" (p. 4).
Date: 1969
Creator: Edwards, Nancy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Additional ruins of Presidio structure]

Description: Photograph of Fort Leaton ruins in the Big Bend desert, near Presidio, Texas. Several wood support beams of varying lengths support the wall structure. A stone marker near the photograph's left quadrant describes the structure. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The mission was successful, and Christianized many of the tribes until the Padres were called back from this wilderness in the eighteenth century" (pp. 3-4).
Date: 1969
Creator: Edwards, Nancy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Ruins of Presidio structure]

Description: Photograph of intact ruins in the Presidio desert; the structure is a long rectangle with a square opening. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "El Apostol Santiago built, with Indian labor, a mission on the north side of the Rio Grande in 1684" (p. 3).
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[American and Texas flags]

Description: Photograph of a flagpole, viewed from the ground looking up with an American flag at the top and a Texas state flag below. A cloudy sky is visible above the pole. The image accompanied the conclusion of a written speech, with the caption: "To those who would protest the American life of challenge and accomplishment, I would remind them, our land has never been easy. [...] The land is rich, not only in landscape, but also in the heritage of those who have tried to tame it. This is My Land, My Heritage, My Hope" (p. 14)
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library

Adobes

Description: Research paper written by Sammy Cobos about the construction of adobe buildings. Several examples of adobe buildings from Marfa and Ruidosa are explained. This paper was written for an American History class at Marfa High School.
Date: December 2, 1968
Creator: Cobos, Sammy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Grassy Landscape at Big Bend]

Description: Photograph of bushes in the Big Bend landscape with a long line of mountains in the background. The image accompanied a written speech with the caption: "J. M. Dean, an attorney from El Paso, bought land around Marfa" (p. 6).
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Early railroad station in Marfa, Texas]

Description: Photograph of one of the first railway stations in the Big Bend area. It is a long, one-story wooden structure with a two-story section on the far left. A carriage is parked outside the building. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The chief engineer gave the honor of naming the newly-created water stop to his wife, who was reading a Russian novel. She named the stop, Marfa, after the book's heroine. In 1882, Presidio County also contained the present counties of Jeff Davis and Brewster as well as Presidio" (p. 6).
Date: unknown
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Big Bend landscape with unidentified mountain peak]

Description: Photograph of a desert landscape in the Big Bend area with a prominent mountain in the center. A dirt road is visible in the foreground as well as an unidentified building. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The city fathers didn't want the noise of the trains to disturb their beautiful, quiet town, and the plan was revised so the tracks would be laid twenty-five miles south" (p. 6).
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Ranch home in Big Bend]

Description: Photograph of the front of the Cibolo ranch home in Presidio, surrounded by desert trees and landscape. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The first Anglo-American rancher in the Big Bend was Don Milton Faver. He established three ranch headquarters when he came in 1857. His first cattle were Mexican longhorns which he branded with a 'lazy F' on the left hip " (pp. 5-6).
Date: 1969
Creator: Edwards, Nancy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Windmill and ruins in Big Bend]

Description: Photograph of a windmill on top of a small fort in Big Bend. Various sparse bushes surround it and a rocky hillside is to the right of the fort. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "The presence of a United States Army fort in the Big Bend encouraged more settlers to ranch" (p. 5).
Date: 1969
Creator: Edwards, Nancy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Mountainside at Big Bend]

Description: Photograph of a pathway on a rocky hillside in the Big Bend area. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "An exploratory group headed by John W. Spencer met in Chihuahua and came into the Big Bend. This was the first of the rush of settlers to come on the Chihuahua Trail" (p. 4).
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Mexican refugees fleeing from Pancho Villa]

Description: Photograph of Mexican refugees fleeing during Pancho Villa's attacks. Several groups of Mexican refugees are seated on the ground and mules are wandering around the camp; men in suits are visiting with the refugees. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "At one time ten thousand frightened Mexican refugees flooded into Marfa trying to escape Villa's depredations" (p. 9).
Date: unknown
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Ruins near Marfa]

Description: Photograph of stone ruins surrounded by desert brush near Marfa, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Because of the presence of the U.S. Army, and help provided by the Texas Rangers and Border Patrol, many raids were prevented. Still, ranchers and their families were slaughtered and their stock stolen" (pp. 8-9).
Date: unknown
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Fort Leaton ruins in Big Bend]

Description: Photograph of a stone or adobe building that is part of the ruins of Fort Leaton ("El Fortin"), near Rio Grande, Texas. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Ben Leaton sold guns and ammunition to the Indians to kill the immigrants on the wagon trains. He then gave aid and shelter to the same immigrants at 'El Fortin.' He was called the 'Noble Desperado'" (p. 4).
Date: 1968
Creator: Edwards, Nancy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Tree in Presidio landscape]

Description: Photograph of a tree and bushes in Presidio desert. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "El Apostol Santiago built, with Indian labor, a mission on the north side of the Rio Grande in 1684" (p. 3).
Date: 1969
Creator: Edwards, Nancy
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Several ruins in Presidio]

Description: Photograph of the remains of several stone buildings that are part of the remaining ruins of a Presidio ranch. The ruins are next to a road lined with small posts, visible in the lower-right corner, and desert mountains are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "These are the ruins of the ranch house of another West Texas settler whom the land defeated. Manuel Musquiz tried to homestead in the canyon near the present town of Ft. Davis in 1854. Continued Indian raids drove him back to the security of the East" (p. 4).
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library

[Ruins of a ranch in Presidio]

Description: Photograph of the ruins of a small stone fort that were part of a ranch in Presidio. The ruins are in a desert landscape and rocky mountains are visible in the background. The image accompanied a written speech, with the caption: "Besides farming, [John W. Spencer] ran several stores in Ojinaga and Presidio" (p. 4)
Date: 1969
Partner: Marfa Public Library