PRESIDENTS. OF THE UNITED STATES.
he was hailed with those public manifestations
of joy, regard and love which spring
spontaneously from the hearts of an affectionate
and grateful people. His reception
in New York was marked by a grandeur
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed
in that metropolis. The inauguration took
place April 30, in the presence of an immense
multitude which had assembled to witness
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath
of office was administered by Robert R.
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When
this sacred pledge was given, he retired
with the other officials into the Senate
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural
address to both houses of the newly constituted
Congress in joint assembly.
In the manifold details of his civil administration,
Washington proved himself
equal to the requirements of his position.
The greater portion of the first session of
the first Congress was occupied in passing
the necessary statutes for putting the new
organization into complete operation. In
the discussions brought up in the course of
this legislation the nature and character of
the new system came under general review.
On no one of them did any decided antagonism
of opinion arise. All held it to be a
limited government, clothed only with specific
powers conferred by delegation from
the States. There was no change in the
name of the legislative department; it still
remained "the Congress of the United
States of America." There was no change
in the original flag of the country, and none
in the seal, which still remains with the
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle,
with other emblems, under the great and
expressive motto, " E Pluribus UnOum."
The first division of parties arose upon
the manner of construing the powers delegated,
and they were first styled "strict
constructionists" and "latitudinarian constructionists."
The former were for confining
the action of the Government strictly
within its specific and limited sphere, while
the others were for enlarging its powers by
inference and implication. Hamilton and
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet.
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties
which have existed, under different names
from that day to this. Washington ras regarded
as holding a neutral position between
them, though, by mature deliberation, he
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in I790,
passed by the party headed by Hamilton,
which was based upon a principle constructively
leading to centralization or consolidation.
This was the first exercise of the
veto power under the present Constitution.
It created considerable excitement at the
time. Another bill was soon passed in pursuance
of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has
been adhered to in principle in every ap.
portionment act passed since.
At the second session of the new Congress,
Washington announced the gratifying
fact of " the accession of North Carolina"
to the Constitution of 1787, and June
i of the same year he announced by special
message the like " accession of the State of
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on
the happy event which " united under the
general Government" all the States which
were originally confederated.
In I792, at the second Presidential election,
Washington was desirous to retire;
but he yielded to the general wish of the
country, and was again chosen President
by the unanimous vote of every electoral
college. At the third election, 1796, he was
again most urgently entreated to consent to
remain in the executive chair. This he
positively refused. In September, before
the election, he gave to his countrymen his
memorable Farewell Address, which in language,
sentiment and patriotism was a fit
and crowning glory of his illustrious life.
After March 4, I797, he again retired to
Mount Vernon for peace, quiet and repose.
Lewis Publishing Company. Memorial and Biographical History of Dallas County, Texas.. Chicago, Illinois. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth20932/. Accessed March 31, 2015.