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[Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church, Marshall]
Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church is a historic African-American congregation. It is located at 801 W. Grand Ave (Hwy 80) in Marshall. The church was established in 1867, making it one of the oldest surviving congregations in Harrison County. It was founded by Rev. A. E. Clemmons, pastor of the white First Baptist Church, and Rev. William Massey, a black religious leader who led 450 persons to form the congregation. Throughout its history, Bethesda's membership has included pastors and members notable not only in Marshall but far beyond. Among the founders was David Abner, who was Harrison County treasurer, state legislator, and delegate to the 1875 Constitutional Convention. Another was Andrew Gross, father of Frederick Gross who became president of Houston College. The congregation also had a leading role in the founding of Bishop College, which was an African-American Baptist institution located in Marshall from 1881-1961. In its beginning the congregation was known simply as "Colored Baptist Church," the name on the deed. When the name was changed, the members chose "Bethesda" to identify with the healing pool of Biblical Jerusalem. During the 1980's, the word "Missionary" was added to reflect denominational affiliation. Bethesda's first dedicated church building was a one-story wooden structure constructed at the present location. A picture of it can be seen in the portal. During 1897-1901, the wooden building was razed for construction of a larger Gothic-style brick building. That one burned in 1953 and was replaced by the nearly identical structure shown in the picture at left. However the original wood facade was retained within the brick facades of both later buildings, creating a physical link with the past. Another link with the past was renewed during the 1980's, when Bethesda began to join with First Baptist Church for occasional worship services and fellowships. Recently the church was added to the "Buard History Trail," which recognizes sites significant to the city's African-American heritage. In the picture at left, the south-facing entrance presents a prominent outline against the blue sky, while a passing auto affirms the historic church's connection to the modern community. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17993/
[Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church, Marshall]
Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church is located at 801 W. Grand Ave. (Hwy 80) in Marshall. Bethesda is a traditionally African-American congregation with roots to 1867, that period after Emancipation when African-Americans were establishing their own churches. A pastor of the white First Baptist Church, Rev. A. E. Clemmons, and a black preacher, Rev. William Massey, worked together to found the original congregation of 450 persons that met in Massey's home. Originally the congregation was known simply as "Colored Baptist Church," the name on the deed. When the members elected to change the name, they identified with the pool of Bethesda in Biblical Jerusalem. It means "a source of healing and comfort, a pool or spring of healing water." The word "Missionary" was added to the name in the mid-1980's to reflect denominational affiliation. Throughout its history, Bethesda has included notable citizens who made contributions both locally and far beyond Marshall. One of the founders was David Abner, who was Harrison County treasurer, a member of the state legislature, and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1875. Abner and the Bethesda congregation helped to found Bishop College, the black Baptist institution which was located in Marshall 1881-1961. Bethesda's first dedicated church building was a one-story wooden structure raised on the current site. A picture of it may be seen in the Texas History Portal. During 1897-1901, that structure was razed; and then an enlarged Gothic-style brick edifice was constructed on the same site. This one burned in 1953 and was replaced by the nearly identical building shown. Views in the picture are the south and east facades on a late fall afternoon. Three youths are on the lawn and the front steps. In 2008 this historic church was listed on the "Buard History Trail" which recognizes local sites significant to the city's African-American heritage. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17977/
[Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church, Marshall]
Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church, located at 801 W. Grand Ave. in Marshall, is one of the oldest African-American congregations in the county. It was established in 1867 during the Reconstruction period when so many newly-emancipated blacks left white churches to establish their own. Originally the name was simply the "Colored Baptist Church," which was the name on the deed. When the members elected to change the name, they identified it with the healing pool of Bethesda in Biblical Jerusalem. The word "Missionary" was added to its name in the mid-1980's to reflect denominational affiliation. In 1987 Bethesda began to join with the First Baptist Church in occasional worship services and fellowship. The two churches are historically linked because Rev. A. E. Clemmons, a pastor of the white First Baptist Church, and Rev. William Massey, a black religious leader, jointly led 450 souls in the founding of Bethesda. Massey went on to pastor other churches in Waco and Austin but later returned. Other prominent founders were David Abner, who was Harrison County treasurer, a member of the Texas House of Representatives in the Fourteenth Legislature, and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1875; and Andrew Gross, whose son Frederick became a president of Houston College. Throughout its history, the congregation has included pastors and members of prominence not only in Marshall but far beyond. The congregation also had a historic role in the founding of Bishop College, the African-American Baptist institution that was located in Marshall 1881-1961. Bethesda's first dedicated church building was a one-story wooden structure located on the present site. It has an entry in the Texas History Portal. It was razed during 1897-1901 to be replaced by a larger brick edifice of Gothic style. That building burned in 1953 and was replaced by the nearly identical structure shown in this picture. The view shows the south and east facades. Two young men lounge on the lawn, foreground. In 2008 Bethesda was listed on the "Buard History Trail," which was created to recognize Marshall's historic African-American sites. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18121/
[Bicentennial Library Exhibit About Native Americans]
During the United States' Bicentennial, an exhibit at Marshall Public Library about Native Americans was called "Alien In His Own Land." It featured some 120 rare portraits, biographies, document reproductions, watercolor paintings, a map, and movie posters . Some pictures were of notables such as Pocahontas, and others featured Native American costume, manners, and customs. In 1976, it was still politically acceptable to call Native Americans "Indians," a term which the article and photo caption favors. The woman in the slide photo is Mrs. Dorothy Morrison, library director. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17500/
[Bill Moyers Address]
Bill Moyers, broadcast journalist and former aide to President Lyndon B. Johnson, addresses a gathering in the Gold Auditorium at Marshall Public Library, date unknown. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17847/
[Bill Moyers and Fan]
Bill Moyers, national journalist and Marshall favorite son, visits with a fan after his speech. He returned to Marshall, Texas, during the nation's Bicentennial celebration in 1976 to speak on the value of libraries in a community. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18765/
[Bill Moyers, Journalist]
Bill Moyers, journalist, speaks at a benefit for the Marshall Public Library during the 1976 bicentennial. Moyers was raised in Marshall, Texas. He occasionally returns to speak and support various issues or events that are significant to him. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17580/
[Bill Moyers Promotes Libraries]
Bill Moyers, national journalist, was raised in Marshall. During the 1976 Bicentennial celebrations, he returned to Marshall to speak about the value of libraries. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17585/
[Bill Moyers, Young Journalist]
A young Billy Don Moyers smiles from the pages of a yearbook. Starting as a teenage newspaper reporter in his home town of Marshall, Texas, Moyers rose to national prominence as a high-level aide in Lyndon B. Johnson's administration. He later changed from print to television journalism, broadcasting news commentary and creating special subject documentaries. Now he is known simply as Bill Moyers; but he has never forgotten his roots. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17494/
[Birmingham Department Store, Marshall]
Birmingham Department Store in Marshall was located at 205-207 and 213 N. Wellington Street from 1967 or 1968 to 2001 or 2002, according to city directories. The picture is from the 1970's. Other businesses are located there now. The store was owned by Samuel A. (Sam) Birmingham and his wife Jean, a school teacher and administrator. Both Birminghams were also civic leaders. Sam Birmingham was Marshall's first African-American mayor. Mrs. Birmingham served on the city commission after her retirement. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18131/
[Bishop College 1926 Yearbook Page]
A page from the 1926 yearbook of Bishop College shows an unidentified man and woman. At that time, Bishop College was located in Marshall. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17762/
[Bishop College 1926 Yearbook Page]
A page from the 1926 Bishop College yearbook pictures a young female student in the Academic Department. That department taught grades lower than college to younger students. Bishop College was located in Marshall at that time. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17752/
[Bishop College Chapel Interior]
This old photograph shows the interior of the chapel at Bishop College in Marshall. Bishop College was founded in 1881 and chartered in 1885. It was owned and operated by the American Baptist Home Mission Society of New York City. Named after Nathan Bishop, corresponding secretary of the Society, the college's purpose was to train African-American teachers and preachers for the development of Christian leadership. The institution originally included a grammar school, a high school, college preparatory courses, an industrial school, and a four-year standard college course leading to the Bachelor degree. Later the college phased out the lower grades. In 1961 the campus moved to Dallas. After financial difficulties, the college closed in 1988. None of the original buildings in Marshall remain. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18098/
[Bishop College Chapel, Marshall]
This building was erected to be a temporary chapel for Bishop College when the campus was located in Marshall. Bishop was a historic Baptist college for African-American students that was established in 1881. In 1961 the campus relocated to Dallas. Falling upon hard times, Bishop closed in 1988. None of the original Marshall campus remains. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18100/
[Bishop College Classroom Building, Marshall]
This was a temporary classroom building in the early years of Bishop College in Marshall. The college was established as a Baptist institution for African-Americans in 1881. The campus relocated to Dallas in 1961. Bishop closed in 1988. None of the original Marshall campus remains. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18095/
[Bishop College Dormitory, Marshall]
Marston Hall, located on the historic Bishop College campus in Marshall, was a dormitory for college men. It was built between 1909 and 1915 on the site of an older dormitory, also called Marston Hall. The campus buildings no longer exist. Bishop was established in 1881 as a Baptist college for African-Americans. In 1961 the campus relocated to Dallas. Eventually Bishop fell upon hard times and closed in 1988. The large building at right shows the entrance toward the campus. A reservoir surrounded by planting beds is at center. To the left is a small bell tower. In the distance is a small frame building used as a schoolroom. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18031/
[Bishop College Dormitory, Marshall]
Bishop Hall was a women's dormitory at Bishop College in Marshall. A historic Black college that was established in 1881, it relocated to Dallas in 1961, eventually fell upon hard times, and closed in 1988. During the institution's life, Bishop educated men and women who became citizens of note in the professions of education, religion, law, and medicine. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18105/
[Bishop College Dormitory, Marshall]
Rockefeller Hall was a women's dormitory at Bishop College when it was located in Marshall. Bishop College was a Baptist school for Black students that was established in 1881. In 1961 it relocated to Dallas, eventually fell upon hard times and closed in 1988; but during its time in Marshall, the college educated many men and women who became citizens of note in the professions of education, religion, law, and medicine. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18116/
[Bishop College School Song]
This is a partial copy of the lyrics for "Bishop Blue," the Bishop College school song. Bishop College was founded in Marshall in 1881. It educated many African-American students before relocating to Dallas in 1961. In 1988 the school closed. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18109/
[Bishop College Student]
The unidentified young lady in the Bishop College 1926 yearbook was in the Academic Department. That department educated the lower grades below college level. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17748/
[Bishop College Teachers' Cottage, Marshall]
A bungalow at Bishop College, Marshall, provided housing for instructors in the early years of the school's history. A historic Baptist college for African-Americans, Bishop was established in 1881. In 1961 it was relocated to Dallas. Falling upon hard times, the college closed in 1988. None of the original buildings of the Marshall campus remain. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18094/
[Bishop College Yearbook Page]
A page from the 1926 Bishop College yearbook shows a female student in the Academic Department, which taught grades below college level. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17760/
[BishopCollege Dormitory, Marshall]
Marston Hall, located on the historic Bishop College campus in Marshall, was a dormitory for college men. It was built between 1909 and 1915 on the site of an older dormitory, also called Marston Hall. The campus no longer exists. It was a Baptist college for African-Americans. In the picture, a reservoir is in the foreground. To the left of the building is a small bell tower. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17730/
[Board Room at Marshall Public Library]
The board room at Marshall Public Library is used for the Board of Library Trustees meeting and other small group meetings. A plaque on the wall honors library benefactors. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17551/
[Booker T. Washington School in Marshall]
Booker T. Washington Elementary School in Marshall is located at 1202 Evans St in the northwest part of the city. When it opened on Jan. 26, 1959, it was to serve African-American children in grades one through seven who would be transferred from four county schools. In the very next academic year, the school was reorganized to house grades one through three. Another merger occurred two years later when a small school in the community of Woodlawn sent its students. During the late 1960s, Washington was a kindergarten and special education center. From 1978 to 1989, it housed an alternative school, the district health and food services, and other special programs. In 1989 four rooms were added for the school's reorganization as Washington Early Childhood Education Center for prekindergarten and kindergarten children. A 1992 expansion included a multi-purpose room. In 1999, WECC became a Head Start campus, although it retained all district prekindergarten students. In 2002 another expansion added eight classrooms and a library. Now the school houses all of the district's Head Start students while continuing services to all prekindergarten children. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18096/
[Bookmobile]
The new bookmobile at Marshall Public Library, c. 1978, is readied for use by two helpers (unidentified). texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17538/
[Bookmobile for Marshall Public Library]
In 1978 the Marshall Public Library received a 28-foot mobile home to be refurbished as a bookmobile. Library Director Dorothy Morrison is shown discussing the project with Mike Wood, left, Friends of a Public Library president, and Fenn Lewis, Friends fund drive chairman. The Friends organisation gave the bookmobile as a service to both the city and Harrison County. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17682/
[Books for Pre-Readers at the Library]
One half of the children's area at Marshall Public Library features picture books and colorful characters on low shelves that the smallest patron can browse. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17646/
[Boston A. Russell, Marshall Educator]
The Pemberton High School yearbook photograph of band director Boston A. Russell. The yearbook date may be from 1950-53 or 1964. No information is available about Mr. Russell. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18042/
[Boy Races at the Games Day]
An unidentified young boy races across the grass at a picnic and games day which concluded the summer reading program at Marshall Public Library, c1976. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17607/
[Buard's Phillips 66 Service Station in Marshall]
Buard's Phillips 66 Service Station in Marshall was located at 1301 University where it intersects with Sanford Street. Therefore it was located within the historic "New Town Neighborhood," which is an African-American community of homes, businesses, professional offices, schools, and churches grouped around the Wiley College campus. The owner of the station, Polete Buard, was a self-made businessman. He was born and educated in Marshall. In 1929 he married Rebecca Drayden, whose biography is in the Texas History Portal. Buard first worked for the Texas and Pacific Railroad in the freight office. After retiring in 1970, he began operation of this service station, which he had purchased earlier. He was also active in his church and the Masonic Lodge. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18110/
[Building in Marshall]
An unidentified brick building in Marshall. There are three exterior doors on the ground floor with large windows on either side. Three windows on the upper floor align with the doors. Larger windows are on each end. The building sits alone on a low rise, with steps leading through a lawn to the front entrance. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17885/
[Building in Marshall]
Unidentified building in Marshall. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17758/
[Building in Marshall]
An unidentified building in Marshall may be a church building. The picture does not show the whole structure. There is an awning over double front doors. A shed extension is at one side. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17804/
[Bungalow in Marshall]
An unidentified bungalow in Marshall. A three-story brick building is at the left of the picture. Steps lead from the sidewalk up a small rise. The wrought iron columns at the front porch may be a change from the original style and period of the house. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17884/
[Bungalow in Marshall]
This unidentified bungalow in Marshall has the Craftsman architecture, with the decorative brackets and exposed rafter ends under the eaves, and the trio of small windows in the front-facing gable which covers a porch supported by square half-columns set on brick piers. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18126/
[Bungalow in Marshall]
An unidentified bungalow in Marshall. The architecture is craftsman, with the front-facing gable, simple brackets, and columns set on brick piers. The house was occupied, clearly by someone who enjoyed plants. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18141/
[Business in Marshall]
The Record Hut is the sign on this business in Marshall. The address is 512 1/2 S. Carter St. The location is within the New Town Neighborhood, which is a historic African-American community in west Marshall. The building is a small flat-roofed concrete block structure with grilles over the doors and an ice machine outside. The sign also has the words, "Tapes" and "Head Shop." A name on the sign is almost obscured by glare, but appears to be J. W. Fry. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17876/
[Business in Marshall]
The "End Zone" was a business in Marshall, location unknown. It was a small one-story building that stood alone on the lot. It had two entrance doors and large windows. On a boarded window are the words, "Private for Members Only Guests Welcome." A picture is attached to another boarded window. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17889/
[Business in Marshall]
A barber shop in Marshall is in a one-story brick building with large windows, a side-gable roof, and a gable over the front steps. Moon's Laundry and Cleaners is visible at the right edge of the picture. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17787/
[C. F. Adams, School Superintendent]
Chesley Francis Adams was both city and county superintendent of schools in Marshall and Harrison County. He was born July 24, 1856 to Chesley M. Adams, a lawyer who came originally from North Carolina, and Martha Stephens Adams. Adams' early education was in Marshall. He received Bachelor degrees from Emory and Henry College in Virginia. Returning to Marshall, he read law and was admitted to the bar. Before entering practice, he taught school for two years. Elected to the office of school superintendent in 1890, he dedicated the rest of his career to city and county schools. Most of the schools at the turn of the century were built during his administration. He is known to have appointed H. B. Pemberton to the position of principal at the new Central School, which was the first public African-American school in the city. In 1891, Adams married Alice C. Stuart, daughter of the president of the Marshall Masonic Female Institute. Mrs. Stuart was a teacher there. Chesley and Alice had three children. The Adams are buried in the old Marshall City Cemetery. He died in 1940. This Marshall News Messenger newspaper photo shows him standing in front of a frame building. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17765/
[C. H. and Mrs. Maxon, Bishop College, Marshall]
C. H. Maxon was the fifth president of Bishop College in Marshall during the early years of the twentieth century. He is pictured with Mrs. Maxon. He was appointed by the American Baptist Home Missionary Society that founded the college. As all of the first presidents, he was a white man administering a school for African-American students. Bishop College received its first African-American president in 1929 with the appointment of Dr. J. J. Rhoads. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17969/
[Capitol Hotel, Marshall]
The Capitol Hotel in Marshall existed from 1857 to 1971 at the corner of Houston and Bolivar Streets in Marshall. It was predated by the Adkins House and was succeeded by the Hotel Marshall, which still stands. The Capitol was financed by George A. Adkins and built by two slaves, Dick Land and Green Hill. The hotel had a colorful history due to the momentous times of the Civil War and visits by noted Texans. After the Hotel Marshall was built next door, owner Sam Perkins bought the Capitol and made it an annex of the larger hotel. The Capitol was razed in 1971. A historical marker on the lawn west of the Hotel Marshall records the hotel's history. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17759/
[Capitol Hotel, Marshall]
The Capitol Hotel stood from 1857 to 1971 at the corner of Houston and Bolivar Streets in Marshall. It was predated by the Adkins House and was succeeded by the Hotel Marshall, which still stands. It was financed by George Adkins and built by two slaves, Dick Land and Green Hill. These expert masons made the bricks that went into the 12-inch walls of the five-story structure. The hotel had a colorful history. It was the scene of important Confederate meetings during the Civil War. Noted Texans, actors, and other VIPS visited there - including the notorious. After the Hotel Marshall was built, owner Sam Perkins bought the Capitol and made it an annex of the larger hotel. The Capitol was razed in 1971. A historical marker on the lawn west of the Hotel Marshall notes the hotel's history. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17776/
[Carmina Fuller, Marshall Educator]
Miss Carmina Fuller taught English in Marshall. Facts about her life and career are unknown. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18027/
[Carnegie Library at Wiley College, Marshall]
The Carnegie Library in Marshall was located at Wiley College. It was built with a $15,000 grant obtained in 1907 by Dr. M. W. Dogan, a president of the college. In 1967 it was replaced by a more modern library. An interior view shows the reading area and stacks. The building has been preserved and is now the Wiley College Administration building. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17818/
[Carnegie Library at Wiley College, Marshall]
This Carnegie Library was located at Wiley College in Marshall. It was built with a $15,000 grant obtained in 1907 by Dr. M. W. Dogan, a president of the college. In 1967 it was replaced by a more modern library. An interior view shows the reading area and stacks. The building has been preserved and is now the Wiley College Administration building. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17809/
[Carrie B. Reid Thompson, Marshall Educator]
Mrs. Carrie B. Reid Thompson taught language arts courses at Pemberton High School in Marshall. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17835/
[Celebrants at Reception for Library Opening]
Festivities at the grand opening of the new Marshall Public Library in October, 1973 included a dinner for all of those who worked on the project. The only persons identified here are Mrs. George Olincy, second from left; Mrs. Bernice Gold Kranson, center; and Mr. George Olincy, fourth from left. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18752/
[Celebrants at the Dedication of the New Marshall Public Library]
Audry D. Kariel, Library Building Project Coordinator, with friend Janice Levy and Rabbi Richard Zionst at the dedication of the new Marshall Public Library building on October 21, 1973. Rabbi Zionst gave the invocation at the dedication ceremony, a choice which reflected the amount of financial support and hard work invested by the Marshall Jewish community in the new building. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17677/